Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 715

Search results for: uncertainty

715 Mind Your Product-Market Strategy on Selecting Marketing Inputs: An Uncertainty Approach in Indian Context

Authors: Susmita Ghosh, Bhaskar Bhowmick


Market is an important factor for start-ups to look into during decision-making in product development and related areas. Emerging country markets are more uncertain in terms of information availability and institutional supports. The literature review of market uncertainty reveals the need for identifying factors representing the market uncertainty. This paper identifies factors for market uncertainty using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and confirms the number of factor retention using an alternative factor retention criterion, ‘Parallel Analysis’. 500 entrepreneurs, engaged in start-ups from all over India participated in the study. This paper concludes with the factor structure of ‘market uncertainty’ having dimensions of uncertainty in industry orientation, uncertainty in customer orientation and uncertainty in marketing orientation.

Keywords: uncertainty, market, orientation, competitor, demand

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714 Consideration of Uncertainty in Engineering

Authors: A. Mohammadi, M. Moghimi, S. Mohammadi


Engineers need computational methods which could provide solutions less sensitive to the environmental effects, so the techniques should be used which take the uncertainty to account to control and minimize the risk associated with design and operation. In order to consider uncertainty in engineering problem, the optimization problem should be solved for a suitable range of the each uncertain input variable instead of just one estimated point. Using deterministic optimization problem, a large computational burden is required to consider every possible and probable combination of uncertain input variables. Several methods have been reported in the literature to deal with problems under uncertainty. In this paper, different methods presented and analyzed.

Keywords: uncertainty, Monte Carlo simulated, stochastic programming, scenario method

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713 Donoho-Stark’s and Hardy’s Uncertainty Principles for the Short-Time Quaternion Offset Linear Canonical Transform

Authors: Mohammad Younus Bhat


The quaternion offset linear canonical transform (QOLCT), which isa time-shifted and frequency-modulated version of the quaternion linear canonical transform (QLCT), provides a more general framework of most existing signal processing tools. For the generalized QOLCT, the classical Heisenberg’s and Lieb’s uncertainty principles have been studied recently. In this paper, we first define the short-time quaternion offset linear canonical transform (ST-QOLCT) and drive its relationship with the quaternion Fourier transform (QFT). The crux of the paper lies in the generalization of several well-known uncertainty principles for the ST-QOLCT, including Donoho-Stark’s uncertainty principle, Hardy’s uncertainty principle, Beurling’s uncertainty principle, and the logarithmic uncertainty principle.

Keywords: Quaternion Fourier transform, Quaternion offset linear canonical transform, short-time quaternion offset linear canonical transform, uncertainty principle

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712 Inter Laboratory Comparison with Coordinate Measuring Machine and Uncertainty Analysis

Authors: Tugrul Torun, Ihsan A. Yuksel, Si̇nem On Aktan, Taha K. Vezi̇roglu


In the quality control processes in some industries, the usage of CMM has increased in recent years. Consequently, the CMMs play important roles in the acceptance or rejection of manufactured parts. For parts, it’s important to be able to make decisions by performing fast measurements. According to related technical drawing and its tolerances, measurement uncertainty should also be considered during assessment. Since uncertainty calculation is difficult and time-consuming, most companies ignore the uncertainty value in their routine inspection method. Although studies on measurement uncertainty have been carried out on CMM’s in recent years, there is still no applicable method for analyzing task-specific measurement uncertainty. There are some standard series for calculating measurement uncertainty (ISO-15530); it is not possible to use it in industrial measurement because it is not a practical method for standard measurement routine. In this study, the inter-laboratory comparison test has been carried out in the ROKETSAN A.Ş. with all dimensional inspection units. The reference part that we used is traceable to the national metrology institute TUBİTAK UME. Each unit has measured reference parts according to related technical drawings, and the task-specific measuring uncertainty has been calculated with related parameters. According to measurement results and uncertainty values, the En values have been calculated.

Keywords: coordinate measurement, CMM, comparison, uncertainty

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711 Statistical Classification, Downscaling and Uncertainty Assessment for Global Climate Model Outputs

Authors: Queen Suraajini Rajendran, Sai Hung Cheung


Statistical down scaling models are required to connect the global climate model outputs and the local weather variables for climate change impact prediction. For reliable climate change impact studies, the uncertainty associated with the model including natural variability, uncertainty in the climate model(s), down scaling model, model inadequacy and in the predicted results should be quantified appropriately. In this work, a new approach is developed by the authors for statistical classification, statistical down scaling and uncertainty assessment and is applied to Singapore rainfall. It is a robust Bayesian uncertainty analysis methodology and tools based on coupling dependent modeling error with classification and statistical down scaling models in a way that the dependency among modeling errors will impact the results of both classification and statistical down scaling model calibration and uncertainty analysis for future prediction. Singapore data are considered here and the uncertainty and prediction results are obtained. From the results obtained, directions of research for improvement are briefly presented.

Keywords: statistical downscaling, global climate model, climate change, uncertainty

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710 Epistemic Uncertainty Analysis of Queue with Vacations

Authors: Baya Takhedmit, Karim Abbas, Sofiane Ouazine


The vacations queues are often employed to model many real situations such as computer systems, communication networks, manufacturing and production systems, transportation systems and so forth. These queueing models are solved at fixed parameters values. However, the parameter values themselves are determined from a finite number of observations and hence have uncertainty associated with them (epistemic uncertainty). In this paper, we consider the M/G/1/N queue with server vacation and exhaustive discipline where we assume that the vacation parameter values have uncertainty. We use the Taylor series expansions approach to estimate the expectation and variance of model output, due to epistemic uncertainties in the model input parameters.

Keywords: epistemic uncertainty, M/G/1/N queue with vacations, non-parametric sensitivity analysis, Taylor series expansion

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709 Uncertainty in Risk Modeling

Authors: Mueller Jann, Hoffmann Christian Hugo


Conventional quantitative risk management in banking is a risk factor of its own, because it rests on assumptions such as independence and availability of data which do not hold when rare events of extreme consequences are involved. There is a growing recognition of the need for alternative risk measures that do not make these assumptions. We propose a novel method for modeling the risk associated with investment products, in particular derivatives, by using a formal language for specifying financial contracts. Expressions in this language are interpreted in the category of values annotated with (a formal representation of) uncertainty. The choice of uncertainty formalism thus becomes a parameter of the model, so it can be adapted to the particular application and it is not constrained to classical probabilities. We demonstrate our approach using a simple logic-based uncertainty model and a case study in which we assess the risk of counter party default in a portfolio of collateralized loans.

Keywords: risk model, uncertainty monad, derivatives, contract algebra

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708 Estimation of Uncertainty of Thermal Conductivity Measurement with Single Laboratory Validation Approach

Authors: Saowaluck Ukrisdawithid


The thermal conductivity of thermal insulation materials are measured by Heat Flow Meter (HFM) apparatus. The components of uncertainty are complex and difficult on routine measurement by modelling approach. In this study, uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement was estimated by single laboratory validation approach. The within-laboratory reproducibility was 1.1%. The standard uncertainty of method and laboratory bias by using SRM1453 expanded polystyrene board was dominant at 1.4%. However, it was assessed that there was no significant bias. For sample measurement, the sources of uncertainty were repeatability, density of sample and thermal conductivity resolution of HFM. From this approach to sample measurements, the combined uncertainty was calculated. In summary, the thermal conductivity of sample, polystyrene foam, was reported as 0.03367 W/m·K ± 3.5% (k = 2) at mean temperature 23.5 °C. The single laboratory validation approach is simple key of routine testing laboratory for estimation uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement by using HFM, according to ISO/IEC 17025-2017 requirements. These are meaningful for laboratory competent improvement, quality control on products, and conformity assessment.

Keywords: single laboratory validation approach, within-laboratory reproducibility, method and laboratory bias, certified reference material

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707 Airport Investment Risk Assessment under Uncertainty

Authors: Elena M. Capitanul, Carlos A. Nunes Cosenza, Walid El Moudani, Felix Mora Camino


The construction of a new airport or the extension of an existing one requires massive investments and many times public private partnerships were considered in order to make feasible such projects. One characteristic of these projects is uncertainty with respect to financial and environmental impacts on the medium to long term. Another one is the multistage nature of these types of projects. While many airport development projects have been a success, some others have turned into a nightmare for their promoters. This communication puts forward a new approach for airport investment risk assessment. The approach takes explicitly into account the degree of uncertainty in activity levels prediction and proposes milestones for the different stages of the project for minimizing risk. Uncertainty is represented through fuzzy dual theory and risk management is performed using dynamic programming. An illustration of the proposed approach is provided.

Keywords: airports, fuzzy logic, risk, uncertainty

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706 Decision Making Approach through Generalized Fuzzy Entropy Measure

Authors: H. D. Arora, Anjali Dhiman


Uncertainty is found everywhere and its understanding is central to decision making. Uncertainty emerges as one has less information than the total information required describing a system and its environment. Uncertainty and information are so closely associated that the information provided by an experiment for example, is equal to the amount of uncertainty removed. It may be pertinent to point out that uncertainty manifests itself in several forms and various kinds of uncertainties may arise from random fluctuations, incomplete information, imprecise perception, vagueness etc. For instance, one encounters uncertainty due to vagueness in communication through natural language. Uncertainty in this sense is represented by fuzziness resulting from imprecision of meaning of a concept expressed by linguistic terms. Fuzzy set concept provides an appropriate mathematical framework for dealing with the vagueness. Both information theory, proposed by Shannon (1948) and fuzzy set theory given by Zadeh (1965) plays an important role in human intelligence and various practical problems such as image segmentation, medical diagnosis etc. Numerous approaches and theories dealing with inaccuracy and uncertainty have been proposed by different researcher. In the present communication, we generalize fuzzy entropy proposed by De Luca and Termini (1972) corresponding to Shannon entropy(1948). Further, some of the basic properties of the proposed measure were examined. We also applied the proposed measure to the real life decision making problem.

Keywords: entropy, fuzzy sets, fuzzy entropy, generalized fuzzy entropy, decision making

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705 Establishment of the Regression Uncertainty of the Critical Heat Flux Power Correlation for an Advanced Fuel Bundle

Authors: L. Q. Yuan, J. Yang, A. Siddiqui


A new regression uncertainty analysis methodology was applied to determine the uncertainties of the critical heat flux (CHF) power correlation for an advanced 43-element bundle design, which was developed by Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) to achieve improved economics, resource utilization and energy sustainability. The new methodology is considered more appropriate than the traditional methodology in the assessment of the experimental uncertainty associated with regressions. The methodology was first assessed using both the Monte Carlo Method (MCM) and the Taylor Series Method (TSM) for a simple linear regression model, and then extended successfully to a non-linear CHF power regression model (CHF power as a function of inlet temperature, outlet pressure and mass flow rate). The regression uncertainty assessed by MCM agrees well with that by TSM. An equation to evaluate the CHF power regression uncertainty was developed and expressed as a function of independent variables that determine the CHF power.

Keywords: CHF experiment, CHF correlation, regression uncertainty, Monte Carlo Method, Taylor Series Method

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704 Decision Making under Strict Uncertainty: Case Study in Sewer Network Planning

Authors: Zhen Wu, David Lupien St-Pierre, Georges Abdul-Nour


In decision making under strict uncertainty, decision makers have to choose a decision without any information about the states of nature. The classic criteria of Laplace, Wald, Savage, Hurwicz and Starr are introduced and compared in a case study of sewer network planning. Furthermore, results from different criteria are discussed and analyzed. Moreover, this paper discusses the idea that decision making under strict uncertainty (DMUSU) can be viewed as a two-player game and thus be solved by a solution concept in game theory: Nash equilibrium.

Keywords: decision criteria, decision making, sewer network planning, decision making, strict uncertainty

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703 Uncertainty and Optimization Analysis Using PETREL RE

Authors: Ankur Sachan


The ability to make quick yet intelligent and value-added decisions to develop new fields has always been of great significance. In situations where the capital expenses and subsurface risk are high, carefully analyzing the inherent uncertainties in the reservoir and how they impact the predicted hydrocarbon accumulation and production becomes a daunting task. The problem is compounded in offshore environments, especially in the presence of heavy oils and disconnected sands where the margin for error is small. Uncertainty refers to the degree to which the data set may be in error or stray from the predicted values. To understand and quantify the uncertainties in reservoir model is important when estimating the reserves. Uncertainty parameters can be geophysical, geological, petrophysical etc. Identification of these parameters is necessary to carry out the uncertainty analysis. With so many uncertainties working at different scales, it becomes essential to have a consistent and efficient way of incorporating them into our analysis. Ranking the uncertainties based on their impact on reserves helps to prioritize/ guide future data gathering and uncertainty reduction efforts. Assigning probabilistic ranges to key uncertainties also enables the computation of probabilistic reserves. With this in mind, this paper, with the help the uncertainty and optimization process in petrel RE shows how the most influential uncertainties can be determined efficiently and how much impact so they have on the reservoir model thus helping in determining a cost effective and accurate model of the reservoir.

Keywords: uncertainty, reservoir model, parameters, optimization analysis

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702 A Comparative Study of Sampling-Based Uncertainty Propagation with First Order Error Analysis and Percentile-Based Optimization

Authors: M. Gulam Kibria, Shourav Ahmed, Kais Zaman


In system analysis, the information on the uncertain input variables cause uncertainty in the system responses. Different probabilistic approaches for uncertainty representation and propagation in such cases exist in the literature. Different uncertainty representation approaches result in different outputs. Some of the approaches might result in a better estimation of system response than the other approaches. The NASA Langley Multidisciplinary Uncertainty Quantification Challenge (MUQC) has posed challenges about uncertainty quantification. Subproblem A, the uncertainty characterization subproblem, of the challenge posed is addressed in this study. In this subproblem, the challenge is to gather knowledge about unknown model inputs which have inherent aleatory and epistemic uncertainties in them with responses (output) of the given computational model. We use two different methodologies to approach the problem. In the first methodology we use sampling-based uncertainty propagation with first order error analysis. In the other approach we place emphasis on the use of Percentile-Based Optimization (PBO). The NASA Langley MUQC’s subproblem A is developed in such a way that both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties need to be managed. The challenge problem classifies each uncertain parameter as belonging to one the following three types: (i) An aleatory uncertainty modeled as a random variable. It has a fixed functional form and known coefficients. This uncertainty cannot be reduced. (ii) An epistemic uncertainty modeled as a fixed but poorly known physical quantity that lies within a given interval. This uncertainty is reducible. (iii) A parameter might be aleatory but sufficient data might not be available to adequately model it as a single random variable. For example, the parameters of a normal variable, e.g., the mean and standard deviation, might not be precisely known but could be assumed to lie within some intervals. It results in a distributional p-box having the physical parameter with an aleatory uncertainty, but the parameters prescribing its mathematical model are subjected to epistemic uncertainties. Each of the parameters of the random variable is an unknown element of a known interval. This uncertainty is reducible. From the study, it is observed that due to practical limitations or computational expense, the sampling is not exhaustive in sampling-based methodology. That is why the sampling-based methodology has high probability of underestimating the output bounds. Therefore, an optimization-based strategy to convert uncertainty described by interval data into a probabilistic framework is necessary. This is achieved in this study by using PBO.

Keywords: aleatory uncertainty, epistemic uncertainty, first order error analysis, uncertainty quantification, percentile-based optimization

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701 Temporal Myopia in Sustainable Behavior under Uncertainty

Authors: Arianne Van Der Wal, Femke Van Horen, Amir Grinstein


Consumers in today’s world are confronted with the alarming consequences of unsustainable behavior such as pollution and resource degradation. In addition, they are facing an increase in uncertainty due to, for instance, economic instability and terror attacks. Although these two problems are central to consumers’ lives, occur on a global scale, and have significant impact on the world’s political, economic, environmental, and social landscapes, they have not been systematically studied in tandem before. Contributing to research on persuasion and pro-social behavior, this paper shows in five studies (three experimental studies and one field study) that the two problems are intertwined. We demonstrate that uncertainty leads to lower sustainable behavior in comparison to certainty (Studies 1 and 2) and that this is due to consumers displaying higher levels of temporal discounting (i.e., adopting a more immediate orientation; Study 2). Finally, providing valuable implications for policy makers and responsible marketers, we show that emphasizing the immediate benefits of sustainable behavior during uncertainty buffers the negative effect (Studies 3 and 4).

Keywords: sustainable behavior, uncertainty, temporal discounting, framing

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700 Parameter Estimation with Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for the SARS Outbreak in Hong Kong

Authors: Afia Naheed, Manmohan Singh, David Lucy


This work is based on a mathematical as well as statistical study of an SEIJTR deterministic model for the interpretation of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Based on the SARS epidemic in 2003, the parameters are estimated using Runge-Kutta (Dormand-Prince pairs) and least squares methods. Possible graphical and numerical techniques are used to validate the estimates. Then effect of the model parameters on the dynamics of the disease is examined using sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Sensitivity and uncertainty analytical techniques are used in order to analyze the affect of the uncertainty in the obtained parameter estimates and to determine which parameters have the largest impact on controlling the disease dynamics.

Keywords: infectious disease, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analysis, Runge-Kutta methods, Levenberg-Marquardt method

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699 Asymmetries in Monetary Policy Response: The Role of Uncertainty in the Case of Nigeria

Authors: Elias Udeaja, Elijah Udoh


Exploring an extended SVAR model (SVAR-X), we use the case of Nigeria to hypothesize for the role of uncertainty as the underlying source of asymmetries in the response of monetary policy to output and inflation. Deciphered the empirical finding is the potential of monetary policy exhibiting greater sensitive to shocks due to output growth than they do to shocks due to inflation in recession periods, while the reverse appears to be the case for a contractionary monetary policy. We also find the asymmetric preference in the response of monetary policy to changes in output and inflation as relatively more pronounced when we control for uncertainty as the underlying source of asymmetries.

Keywords: asymmetry response, developing economies, monetary policy shocks, uncertainty

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698 Uncertainty Analysis of a Hardware in Loop Setup for Testing Products Related to Building Technology

Authors: Balasundaram Prasaant, Ploix Stephane, Delinchant Benoit, Muresan Cristian


Hardware in Loop (HIL) testing is done to test and validate a particular product especially in building technology. When it comes to building technology, it is more important to test the products for their efficiency. The test rig in the HIL simulator may contribute to some uncertainties on measured efficiency. The uncertainties include physical uncertainties and scenario-based uncertainties. In this paper, a simple uncertainty analysis framework for an HIL setup is shown considering only the physical uncertainties. The entire modeling of the HIL setup is done in Dymola. The uncertain sources are considered based on available knowledge of the components and also on expert knowledge. For the propagation of uncertainty, Monte Carlo Simulation is used since it is the most reliable and easy to use. In this article it is shown how an HIL setup can be modeled and how uncertainty propagation can be performed on it. Such an approach is not common in building energy analysis.

Keywords: energy in buildings, hardware in loop testing, modelica modelling, Monte Carlo simulation, uncertainty propagation

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697 Factor Associated with Uncertainty Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Authors: Sandra Adarve, Jhon Osorio


Uncertainty has been studied in patients with different types of cancer, except in patients with hematologic cancer and undergoing transplantation. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with uncertainty in adults patients with malignant hemato-oncology diseases who are scheduled to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation based on Merle Mishel´s Uncertainty theory. This was a cross-sectional study with an analytical purpose. The study sample included 50 patients with leukemia, myeloma, and lymphoma selected by non-probability sampling by convenience and intention. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were measured. Mishel´s Scale of Uncertainty in Illness was used for the measurement of uncertainty. A bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to explore the relationships and associations between the different variables and uncertainty level. For this analysis, the distribution of the uncertainty scale values was evaluated through the Shapiro-Wilk normality test to identify statistical tests to be used. A multivariate analysis was conducted through a logistic regression using step-by-step technique. Patients were 18-74 years old, with a mean age of 44.8. Over time, the disease course had a median of 9.5 months, an opportunity was found in the performance of the transplantation of < 20 days for 50% of the patients. Regarding the uncertainty scale, a mean score of 95.46 was identified. When the dimensions of the scale were analyzed, the mean score of the framework of stimuli was 25.6, of cognitive ability was 47.4 and structure providers was 22.8. Age was identified to correlate with the total uncertainty score (p=0.012). Additionally, a statistically significant difference was evidenced between different religious creeds and uncertainty score (p=0.023), education level (p=0.012), family history of cancer (p=0.001), the presence of comorbidities (p=0.023) and previous radiotherapy treatment (p=0.022). After performing logistic regression, previous radiotherapy treatment (OR=0.04 IC95% (0.004-0.48)) and family history of cancer (OR=30.7 IC95% (2.7-349)) were found to be factors associated with the high level of uncertainty. Uncertainty is present in high levels in patients who are going to be subjected to bone marrow transplantation, and it is the responsibility of the nurse to assess the levels of uncertainty and the presence of factors that may contribute to their presence. Once it has been valued, the uncertainty must be intervened from the identified associated factors, especially all those that have to do with the cognitive capacity. This implies the implementation and design of intervention strategies to improve the knowledge related to the disease and the therapeutic procedures to which the patients will be subjected. All interventions should favor the adaptation of these patients to their current experience and contribute to seeing uncertainty as an opportunity for growth and transcendence.

Keywords: hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, hematologic diseases, nursing, uncertainty

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696 Risk and Uncertainty in Aviation: A Thorough Analysis of System Vulnerabilities

Authors: C. V. Pietreanu, S. E. Zaharia, C. Dinu


Hazard assessment and risks quantification are key components for estimating the impact of existing regulations. But since regulatory compliance cannot cover all risks in aviation, the authors point out that by studying causal factors and eliminating uncertainty, an accurate analysis can be outlined. The research debuts by making delimitations on notions, as confusion on the terms over time has reflected in less rigorous analysis. Throughout this paper, it will be emphasized the fact that the variation in human performance and organizational factors represent the biggest threat from an operational perspective. Therefore, advanced risk assessment methods analyzed by the authors aim to understand vulnerabilities of the system given by a nonlinear behavior. Ultimately, the mathematical modeling of existing hazards and risks by eliminating uncertainty implies establishing an optimal solution (i.e. risk minimization).

Keywords: control, human factor, optimization, risk management, uncertainty

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695 A Robust Optimization for Multi-Period Lost-Sales Inventory Control Problem

Authors: Shunichi Ohmori, Sirawadee Arunyanart, Kazuho Yoshimoto


We consider a periodic review inventory control problem of minimizing production cost, inventory cost, and lost-sales under demand uncertainty, in which product demands are not specified exactly and it is only known to belong to a given uncertainty set, yet the constraints must hold for possible values of the data from the uncertainty set. We propose a robust optimization formulation for obtaining lowest cost possible and guaranteeing the feasibility with respect to range of order quantity and inventory level under demand uncertainty. Our formulation is based on the adaptive robust counterpart, which suppose order quantity is affine function of past demands. We derive certainty equivalent problem via second-order cone programming, which gives 'not too pessimistic' worst-case.

Keywords: robust optimization, inventory control, supply chain managment, second-order programming

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694 The Effect of Perceived Environmental Uncertainty on Corporate Entrepreneurship Performance: A Field Study in a Large Industrial Zone in Turkey

Authors: Adem Öğüt, M. Tahir Demirsel


Rapid changes and developments today, besides the opportunities and facilities they offer to the organization, may also be a source of danger and difficulties due to the uncertainty. In order to take advantage of opportunities and to take the necessary measures against possible uncertainties, organizations must always follow the changes and developments that occur in the business environment and develop flexible structures and strategies for the alternative cases. Perceived environmental uncertainty is an outcome of managers’ perceptions of the combined complexity, instability and unpredictability in the organizational environment. An environment that is perceived to be complex, changing rapidly, and difficult to predict creates high levels of uncertainty about the appropriate organizational responses to external circumstances. In an uncertain and complex environment, organizations experiencing cutthroat competition may be successful by developing their corporate entrepreneurial ability. Corporate entrepreneurship is a process that includes many elements such as innovation, creating new business, renewal, risk-taking and being predictive. Successful corporate entrepreneurship is a critical factor which has a significant contribution to gain a sustainable competitive advantage, to renew the organization and to adapt the environment. In this context, the objective of this study is to investigate the effect of perceived environmental uncertainty of managers on corporate entrepreneurship performance. The research was conducted on 222 business executives in one of the major industrial zones of Turkey, Konya Organized Industrial Zone (KOS). According to the results, it has been observed that there is a positive statistically significant relationship between perceived environmental uncertainty and corporate entrepreneurial activities.

Keywords: corporate entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship, industrial zone, perceived environmental uncertainty, uncertainty

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693 A Joint Possibilistic-Probabilistic Tool for Load Flow Uncertainty Assessment-Part I: Formulation

Authors: Morteza Aien, Masoud Rashidinejad, Mahmud Fotuhi-Firuzabad


As energetic and environmental issues are getting more and more attention all around the world, the penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) mainly those harvesting renewable energies (REs) ascends with an unprecedented rate. This matter causes more uncertainties to appear in the power system context; ergo, the uncertainty analysis of the system performance is an obligation. The uncertainties of any system can be represented probabilistically or possibilistically. Since sufficient historical data about all the system variables is not available, therefore, they do not have a probability density function (PDF) and must be represented possibilistiacally. When some of system uncertain variables are probabilistic and some are possibilistic, neither the conventional pure probabilistic nor pure possibilistic methods can be implemented. Hence, a combined solution is appealed. The first of this two-paper series formulates a new possibilistic-probabilistic tool for the load flow uncertainty assessment. The proposed methodology is based on the evidence theory and joint propagation of possibilistic and probabilistic uncertainties. This possibilistic- probabilistic formulation is solved in the second companion paper in an uncertain load flow (ULF) study problem.

Keywords: probabilistic uncertainty modeling, possibilistic uncertainty modeling, uncertain load flow, wind turbine generator

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692 Multi-Criteria Based Robust Markowitz Model under Box Uncertainty

Authors: Pulak Swain, A. K. Ojha


Portfolio optimization is based on dealing with the problems of efficient asset allocation. Risk and Expected return are two conflicting criteria in such problems, where the investor prefers the return to be high and the risk to be low. Using multi-objective approach we can solve those type of problems. However the information which we have for the input parameters are generally ambiguous and the input values can fluctuate around some nominal values. We can not ignore the uncertainty in input values, as they can affect the asset allocation drastically. So we use Robust Optimization approach to the problems where the input parameters comes under box uncertainty. In this paper, we solve the multi criteria robust problem with the help of  E- constraint method.

Keywords: portfolio optimization, multi-objective optimization, ϵ - constraint method, box uncertainty, robust optimization

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691 A Robust Optimization Model for Multi-Objective Closed-Loop Supply Chain

Authors: Mohammad Y. Badiee, Saeed Golestani, Mir Saman Pishvaee


In recent years consumers and governments have been pushing companies to design their activities in such a way as to reduce negative environmental impacts by producing renewable product or threat free disposal policy more and more. It is therefore important to focus more accurate to the optimization of various aspect of total supply chain. Modeling a supply chain can be a challenging process due to the fact that there are a large number of factors that need to be considered in the model. The use of multi-objective optimization can lead to overcome those problems since more information is used when designing the model. Uncertainty is inevitable in real world. Considering uncertainty on parameters in addition to use multi-objectives are ways to give more flexibility to the decision making process since the process can take into account much more constraints and requirements. In this paper we demonstrate a stochastic scenario based robust model to cope with uncertainty in a closed-loop multi-objective supply chain. By applying the proposed model in a real world case, the power of proposed model in handling data uncertainty is shown.

Keywords: supply chain management, closed-loop supply chain, multi-objective optimization, goal programming, uncertainty, robust optimization

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690 Theoretical Appraisal of Satisfactory Decision: Uncertainty, Evolutionary Ideas and Beliefs, Satisfactory Time Use

Authors: Okay Gunes


Unsatisfactory experiences due to an information shortage regarding the future pay-offs of actual choices, yield satisficing decision-making. This research will examine, for the first time in the literature, the motivation behind suboptimal decisions due to uncertainty by subjecting Adam Smith’s and Jeremy Bentham’s assumptions about the nature of the actions that lead to satisficing behavior, in order to clarify the theoretical background of a “consumption-based satisfactory time” concept. The contribution of this paper with respect to the existing literature is threefold: Firstly, it is showed in this paper that Adam Smith’s uncertainty is related to the problem of the constancy of ideas and not related directly to beliefs. Secondly, possessions, as in Jeremy Bentham’s oeuvre, are assumed to be just as pleasing, as protecting and improving the actual or expected quality of life, so long as they reduce any displeasure due to the undesired outcomes of uncertainty. Finally, each consumption decision incurs its own satisfactory time period, owed to not feeling hungry, being healthy, not having transportation…etc. This reveals that the level of satisfaction is indeed a behavioral phenomenon where its value would depend on the simultaneous satisfaction derived from all activities.

Keywords: decision-making, idea and belief, satisficing, uncertainty

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689 Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of One Dimensional Shape Memory Alloy Constitutive Models

Authors: A. B. M. Rezaul Islam, Ernur Karadogan


Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are known for their shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity behavior. Their thermomechanical behaviors are modeled by numerous researchers using microscopic thermodynamic and macroscopic phenomenological point of view. Tanaka, Liang-Rogers and Ivshin-Pence models are some of the most popular SMA macroscopic phenomenological constitutive models. They describe SMA behavior in terms of stress, strain and temperature. These models involve material parameters and they have associated uncertainty present in them. At different operating temperatures, the uncertainty propagates to the output when the material is subjected to loading followed by unloading. The propagation of uncertainty while utilizing these models in real-life application can result in performance discrepancies or failure at extreme conditions. To resolve this, we used probabilistic approach to perform the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of Tanaka, Liang-Rogers, and Ivshin-Pence models. Sobol and extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Testing (eFAST) methods have been used to perform the sensitivity analysis for simulated isothermal loading/unloading at various operating temperatures. As per the results, it is evident that the models vary due to the change in operating temperature and loading condition. The average and stress-dependent sensitivity indices present the most significant parameters at several temperatures. This work highlights the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis results and shows comparison of them at different temperatures and loading conditions for all these models. The analysis presented will aid in designing engineering applications by eliminating the probability of model failure due to the uncertainty in the input parameters. Thus, it is recommended to have a proper understanding of sensitive parameters and the uncertainty propagation at several operating temperatures and loading conditions as per Tanaka, Liang-Rogers, and Ivshin-Pence model.

Keywords: constitutive models, FAST sensitivity analysis, sensitivity analysis, sobol, shape memory alloy, uncertainty analysis

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688 Wind Power Forecast Error Simulation Model

Authors: Josip Vasilj, Petar Sarajcev, Damir Jakus


One of the major difficulties introduced with wind power penetration is the inherent uncertainty in production originating from uncertain wind conditions. This uncertainty impacts many different aspects of power system operation, especially the balancing power requirements. For this reason, in power system development planing, it is necessary to evaluate the potential uncertainty in future wind power generation. For this purpose, simulation models are required, reproducing the performance of wind power forecasts. This paper presents a wind power forecast error simulation models which are based on the stochastic process simulation. Proposed models capture the most important statistical parameters recognized in wind power forecast error time series. Furthermore, two distinct models are presented based on data availability. First model uses wind speed measurements on potential or existing wind power plant locations, while the seconds model uses statistical distribution of wind speeds.

Keywords: wind power, uncertainty, stochastic process, Monte Carlo simulation

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687 Uncertainty in Building Energy Performance Analysis at Different Stages of the Building’s Lifecycle

Authors: Elham Delzendeh, Song Wu, Mustafa Al-Adhami, Rima Alaaeddine


Over the last 15 years, prediction of energy consumption has become a common practice and necessity at different stages of the building’s lifecycle, particularly, at the design and post-occupancy stages for planning and maintenance purposes. This is due to the ever-growing response of governments to address sustainability and reduction of CO₂ emission in the building sector. However, there is a level of uncertainty in the estimation of energy consumption in buildings. The accuracy of energy consumption predictions is directly related to the precision of the initial inputs used in the energy assessment process. In this study, multiple cases of large non-residential buildings at design, construction, and post-occupancy stages are investigated. The energy consumption process and inputs, and the actual and predicted energy consumption of the cases are analysed. The findings of this study have pointed out and evidenced various parameters that cause uncertainty in the prediction of energy consumption in buildings such as modelling, location data, and occupant behaviour. In addition, unavailability and insufficiency of energy-consumption-related inputs at different stages of the building’s lifecycle are classified and categorized. Understanding the roots of uncertainty in building energy analysis will help energy modellers and energy simulation software developers reach more accurate energy consumption predictions in buildings.

Keywords: building lifecycle, efficiency, energy analysis, energy performance, uncertainty

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686 Relationship among Teams' Information Processing Capacity and Performance in Information System Projects: The Effects of Uncertainty and Equivocality

Authors: Ouafa Sakka, Henri Barki, Louise Cote


Uncertainty and equivocality are defined in the information processing literature as two task characteristics that require different information processing responses from managers. As uncertainty often stems from a lack of information, addressing it is thought to require the collection of additional data. On the other hand, as equivocality stems from ambiguity and a lack of understanding of the task at hand, addressing it is thought to require rich communication between those involved. Past research has provided weak to moderate empirical support to these hypotheses. The present study contributes to this literature by defining uncertainty and equivocality at the project level and investigating their moderating effects on the association between several project information processing constructs and project performance. The information processing constructs considered are the amount of information collected by the project team, and the richness and frequency of formal communications among the team members to discuss the project’s follow-up reports. Data on 93 information system development (ISD) project managers was collected in a questionnaire survey and analyzed it via the Fisher Test for correlation differences. The results indicate that the highest project performance levels were observed in projects characterized by high uncertainty and low equivocality in which project managers were provided with detailed and updated information on project costs and schedules. In addition, our findings show that information about user needs and technical aspects of the project is less useful to managing projects where uncertainty and equivocality are high. Further, while the strongest positive effect of interactive use of follow-up reports on performance occurred in projects where both uncertainty and equivocality levels were high, its weakest effect occurred when both of these were low.

Keywords: uncertainty, equivocality, information processing model, management control systems, project control, interactive use, diagnostic use, information system development

Procedia PDF Downloads 177