Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 74

Search results for: grape

74 The Effects of Different Level Cluster Tip Reduction and Foliar Boric Acid Applications on Yield and Yield Components of Italia Grape Cultivar

Authors: A. Akin

Abstract:

This study was carried out on Italia grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) in Konya province, Turkey in 2016. The cultivar is five years old and grown on 1103 Paulsen rootstock. It was determined the effects of applications of the Control (C), 1/3 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/3 CTR), 1/6 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/6 CTR), 1/9 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/9 CTR), 1/3 CTR+Boric Acid (BA), 1/6 CTR+BA, 1/9 CTR+BA, on yield and yield components of the Italia grape variety. The results were obtained as the highest fresh grape yield (4.74 g) with 1/9 CTR+BA application; the highest cluster weight (220.08 g) with 1/3 CTR application; the highest 100 berry weight (565.85 g) with 1/9 CTR+BA application; as the highest maturity index (49.28) with 1/9 CTR+BA application; as the highest must yield (685.33 ml/kg) with 1/3 CTR+BA and (685.33 ml/kg) with 1/9 CTR+BA applications. To increase the fresh grape yield, 100 berry weight and maturity index in the Italia grape variety, the 1/9 CTR+BA application can be recommended.

Keywords: boric acid, cluster tip reduction, Italia grape variety, yield, yield components

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
73 The Effects of Yield and Yield Components of Some Quality Increase Applications on Ismailoglu Grape Type in Turkey

Authors: Yaşar Önal, Aydın Akın

Abstract:

This study was conducted Ismailoglu grape type (Vitis vinifera L.) and its vine which was aged 15 was grown on its own root in a vegetation period of 2013 in Nevşehir province in Turkey. In this research, it was investigated whether the applications of Control (C), 1/3 cluster tip reduction (1/3 CTR), shoot tip reduction (STR), 1/3 CTR + STR, TKI-HUMAS (TKI-HM) (Soil) (S), TKI-HM (Foliar) (F), TKI-HM (S + F), 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S), 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (F), 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S+F), STR + TKI-HM (S), STR + TKI-HM (F), STR + TKI-HM (S + F), 1/3 CTR + STR+TKI-HM (S), 1/3 CTR + STR + TKI-HM (F), 1/3 CTR + STR + TKI-HM (S + F) on yield and yield components of Ismailoglu grape type. The results were obtained as the highest fresh grape yield (16.15 kg/vine) with TKI-HM (S), as the highest cluster weight (652.39 g) with 1/3 CTR + STR, as the highest 100 berry weight (419.07 g) with 1/3 CTR + STR + TKI-HM (F), as the highest maturity index (44.06) with 1/3 CTR, as the highest must yield (810.00 ml) with STR + TKI-HM (F), as the highest intensity of L* color (42.04) with TKI-HM (S + F), as the highest intensity of a* color (2.60) with 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S), as the highest intensity of b* color (7.16) with 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S) applications. To increase the fresh grape yield of Ismailoglu grape type can be recommended TKI-HM (S) application.

Keywords: 1/3 cluster tip reduction, shoot tip reduction, TKI-Humas application, yield and yield components

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
72 Assessing Digestive Enzymes Inhibitory Properties of Anthocyanins and Procyanidins from Apple, Red Grape, Cinnamon

Authors: Pinar Ercan, Sedef N. El

Abstract:

The goals of this study were to determine the total anthocyanin and procyanidin contents and their in vitro bioaccessibilities of apple, red grape and cinnamon by a static in vitro digestion method reported by the COST FA1005 Action INFOGEST, as well as in vitro inhibitory effects of these food samples on starch and lipid digestive enzymes. While the highest total anthocyanin content was found in red grape (164.76 ± 2.51 mg/100 g), the highest procyanidin content was found in cinnamon (6432.54±177.31 mg/100 g) among the selected food samples (p<0.05). The anthocyanin bioaccessibilities were found as 10.23±1 %, 8.23±0.64 %, and 8.73±0.70 % in apple, red grape, and cinnamon, respectively. The procyanidin bioaccessibilities of apple, red grape, and cinnamon were found as 17.57±0.71 %, 14.08±0.74 % and 18.75±1.49 %, respectively. The analyzed apple, red grape and cinnamon showed the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 544.27±21.94, 445.63±15.67, 1592±17.58 μg/mL, respectively), α-amylase (IC50 38.41±7.26, 56.12±3.60, 3.54±0.86 μg/mL, respectively), and lipase (IC50 52.65±2.05, 581.70±54.14, 49.63±2.72 μg/mL, respectively). Red grape sample showed the highest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase, cinnamon showed the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase and lipase according to IC50 (concentration of inhibitor required to produce a 50% inhibition of the initial rate of reaction) and Catechin equivalent inhibition capacity (CEIC50) values. This study reported that apple, grape and cinnamon samples can inhibit the activity of digestive enzymes in vitro. The consumption of these samples would be used in conjunction with a low-calorie diet for body weight management.

Keywords: anthocyanin, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase, procyanidin

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
71 The Protective Effect of Grape Seed Oil with Use of Ciprofloxacin Induced Germ Cell Toxicity in Male Albino Mice

Authors: Galawezh Obaid Othman

Abstract:

The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the germ cell toxicity induced by ciprofloxacin antibiotic and the Protective effect of grape seed oil, Ciproflaxin uses include treatment of genitor-urinary and some reproductive tract bacterial infections. One of the most attractive approaches to disease prevention involves the use of natural antioxidants to protect tissue against toxic injury, the possible protective effect of grape seed oil, against ciprofloxacin induced reproductive toxicity on mouse .the animals were randomly divided into four groups consisting of five mice. Group (1) was orally given distilled water (solvent of the used drugs) and kept as a control. Group (2) was administered 6ml/kg. b.w of grape seed oil orally 15 days .Group (3) was administered 206mg/kg. b.w of ciprofloxacin orally for 15 days.. Last group was treated orally with Grape seed oil (6mg/kg b.w. /day) prior to an orally administered ciprofloxacin (CPX) at a dose of 206 mg⁄kg. b.w. by three hours for fifteen days. Ciproflaxin have ability to induce various types of sperm abnormalities such as (Sperm without head, sperm without tail, defective head spearm,swollen head sperm ), The results explored that Grape seed oil possesses statistically significant (p<0.05) protective potential against Ciproflaxin by decreasing sperm abnormalities frequency in mouse.

Keywords: antimutagen, ciprofloxacin, grape seed oil, germ cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
70 The Effects on Yield and Yield Components of Different Level Cluster Tip Reduction and Foliar Boric Acid Applications on Alphonse Lavallee Grape Cultivar

Authors: A. Akın, H. Çoban

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the effects of Control (C), 1/3 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/3 CTR), 1/6 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/6 CTR), 1/9 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/9 CTR), 1/3 CTR + Boric Acid (BA), 1/6 CTR + BA, 1/9 CTR + BA applications on yield and yield components of four years old Alphonse Lavallee grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) grown on grafted 110 Paulsen rootstock in Konya province in Turkey in the vegetation period in 2015. According to the results, the highest maturity index 21.46 with 1/9 CTR application; the highest grape juice yields 736.67 ml with 1/3 CTR + BA application; the highest L* color value 32.07 with 1/9 CTR application; the highest a* color value 1.74 with 1/9 CTR application; the highest b* color value 3.72 with 1/9 CTR application were obtained. The effects of applications on grape fresh yield, cluster weight and berry weight were not found statistically significant.

Keywords: alphonse lavallee grape cultivar, different cluster tip reduction (1/3, 1/6, 1/9), foliar boric acid application, yield, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
69 Quality Evaluation of Grape Seed Oils of the Ionian Islands Based on GC-MS and Other Spectroscopic Techniques

Authors: I. Oikonomou, I. Lappa, D. Daferera, C. Kanakis, L. Kiokakis, K. Skordilis, A. Avramouli, E. Kalli, C. Pappas, P. A. Tarantilis, E. Skotti

Abstract:

Grape seeds are waste products of wineries and often referred to as an important agricultural and industrial waste product with the potential to be used in pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic applications. In this study, grape seed oil from traditional Ionian varieties was examined for the determination of the quality and the characteristics of each variety. Initially, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, after transesterification. Furthermore, other quality parameters of the grape seed oils were determined by Spectroscopy techniques, UV-Vis and Raman included. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of the oil was measured by 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays and their antioxidant capacity expressed in Trolox equivalents. K and ΔΚ indices were measured in 232, 268, 270 nm, as an oil quality index. The results indicate that the air-dried grape seed total oil content ranged from 5.26 to 8.77% w/w, which is in accordance with the other grape seed varieties tested in similar studies. The composition of grape seed oil is predominated with linoleic and oleic fatty acids, with the linoleic fatty acid ranging from 53.68 to 69.95% and both the linoleic and oleic fatty acids totaling 78-82% of FAMEs, which is analogous to the fatty acid composition of safflower oil. The antioxidant assays ABTS and DPPH scored high, exhibiting that the oils have potential in the cosmetic and culinary businesses. Above that, our results demonstrate that Ionian grape seed oils have prospects that can go further than cosmetic or culinary use, into the pharmaceuticals industry. Finally, the reclamation of grape seeds from wineries waste stream is in accordance with the bio-economy strategic framework and contributes to environmental protection.

Keywords: antioxidant capacity, fatty acid methyl esters, grape seed oil, GC-MS

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
68 The Effect of Different Level Crop Load and Humic Substance Applications on Yield and Yield Components of Alphonse Lavallee Grape Cultivar

Authors: A. Sarıkaya, A. Akın

Abstract:

This study was carried out to investigate effects of Control (C), 18 bud/vine, 23 bud/vine, 28 bud/vine, 18 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil), 23 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil), 28 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil) applications on yield and yield components of Alphonse Lavallee grape cultivar. The results were obtained as the highest cluster weight (302.31 g) with 18 bud/vine application; the highest berry weight (6.31 g) with 23 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil) and (6.79 g) with 28 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil) applications; the highest maturity index (36.95) with 18 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil) application; the highest L* color intensity (33.99) with 18 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil); the highest a* color intensity (1.53) with 23 bud/vine + TKI-Humas (soil) application. The effects of applications on grape fresh yield, grape juice yield and b* color intensity values were not found statistically significant.

Keywords: Alphonse Lavallee grape cultivar, crop load, TKI-Humas substances (soil), yield, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
67 Effect of Good Agriculture Management Practices and Constraints on Grape Farming: A Case Study in Mirbachakot, Kalakan and Shakardara Districts Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Mohammad Mirwais Yusufi

Abstract:

Skillful management is one of the most important success factors for today’s farms. When a farm is well managed, it can generate funds for its sustainability. Grape is one of the most diffused fruits in the world and one of the most important cash crops with high potential of production in Afghanistan as well. While there are several organizations intervening for improvement of this cash crop, the quality and quantity are still not satisfactory for producers and external markets. The situation has not changed over the years. Therefore, a survey was conducted in 2017 with 60 grape growers, supported by questionnaires in Mirbachakot, Kalakan and Shakardara districts of Kabul province. The purpose was to get an understanding of the current socio-demographic characteristics of farmers, management methods, constraints, farm size, yield and contribution of grape farming to household income. Findings indicate that grape farming was predominant 83.3% male, 16.6% female and small-scale farmers were the main grape producers, 60% < 1 ha of land under grape production. Likewise, 50% had more than > 10 years and 33.3% between 1-5 years’ experience in grape farming. The high level of illiteracy and diseases had significant digit effect on growth, yield and quality of grapes. The results showed that vineyard management operations to protect grapes from mechanical damage are very poor or completely absent. Comparing developed countries, table grape is one of the fruits with the highest input of technology, while in developing countries the cost of labor is low but the purchase of the equipment is very high due to financial situation. Hence the low quality and quantity of grape are influenced by poor management methods, such as non-availability of experts and lack of technical guidance in the study site. Thereby, the study suggested that improved agricultural extension services and managerial skills could contribute to addressing the problems.

Keywords: constraints, effect, management, Kabul

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
66 The Effects of Yield and Yield Components of Some Quality Increase Applications on Razakı Grape Variety

Authors: Şehri Çınar, Aydın Akın

Abstract:

This study was conducted Razakı grape variety (Vitis vinifera L.) and its vine which was aged 19 was grown on 5 BB rootstock in a vegetation period of 2014 in Afyon province in Turkey. In this research, it was investigated whether the applications of Control (C), 1/3 Cluster Tip Reduction (1/3 CTR), Shoot Tip Reduction (STR), 1/3 CTR + STR, Boric Acid (BA), 1/3 CTR + BA, STR + BA, 1/3 CTR + STR + BA on yield and yield components of Razakı grape variety. The results were obtained as the highest fresh grape yield (7.74 kg/vine) with C application, as the highest cluster weight (244.62 g) with STR application, as the highest 100 berry weight (504.08 g) with C application, as the highest maturity index (36.89) with BA application, as the highest must yield (695.00 ml) with BA and (695.00 ml) with 1/3 CTR + STR + BA applications, as the highest intensity of L* color (46.93) with STR and (46.10) with 1/3 CTR + STR + BA applications, as the highest intensity of a* color (-5.37) with 1/3 CTR + STR and (-5.01) with STR, as the highest intensity of b* color (12.59) with STR application. The shoot tip reduction to increase cluster weight and boric acid application to increase maturity index of Razakı grape variety can be recommended.

Keywords: razakı, 1/3 cluster tip reduction, shoot tip reduction, boric acid, yield and yield components

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
65 In vitro Bioacessibility of Phenolic Compounds from Fruit Spray Dried and Lyophilized Powder

Authors: Carolina Beres, Laurine Da Silva, Danielle Pereira, Ana Ribeiro, Renata Tonon, Caroline Mellinger-Silva, Karina Dos Santos, Flavia Gomes, Lourdes Cabral

Abstract:

The health benefits of bioactive compounds such as phenolics are well known. The main source of these compounds are fruits and derivates. This study had the objective to study the bioacessibility of phenolic compounds from grape pomace and juçara dried extracts. For this purpose both characterized extracts were submitted to a simulated human digestion and the total phenolic content, total anthocyanins and antioxidant scavenging capacity was determinate in digestive fractions (oral, gastric, intestinal and colonic). Juçara had a higher anthocianins bioacessibility (17.16%) when compared to grape pomace (2.08%). The opposite result was found for total phenolic compound, where the higher bioacessibility was for grape (400%). The phenolic compound increase indicates a more accessible compound in the human gut. The lyophilized process had a beneficial impact in the final accessibility of the phenolic compounds being a more promising technique.

Keywords: bioacessibility, phenolic compounds, grape, juçara

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
64 Effects of Grape Seed Oil on Postharvest Life and Quality of Some Grape Cultivars

Authors: Zeki Kara, Kevser Yazar

Abstract:

Table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are an important crop worldwide. Postharvest problems like berry shattering, decay and stem dehydration are some of the important factors that limit the marketing of table grapes. Edible coatings are an alternative for increasing shelf-life of fruits, protecting fruits from humidity and oxygen effects, thus retarding their deterioration. This study aimed to compare different grape seed oil applications (GSO, 0.5 g L-1, 1 g L-1, 2 g L-1) and SO2 generating pads effects (SO2-1, SO2-2). Treated grapes with GSO and generating pads were packaged into polyethylene trays and stored at 0 ± 1°C and 85-95% moisture. Effects of the applications were investigated by some quality and sensory evaluations with intervals of 15 days. SO2 applications were determined the most effective treatments for minimizing weight loss and changes in TA, pH, color and appearance value. Grape seed oil applications were determined as a good alternative for grape preservation, improving weight losses and °Brix, TA, the color values and sensory analysis. Commercially, ‘Alphonse Lavallée’ clusters were stored for 75 days and ‘Antep Karası’ clusters for 60 days. The data obtained from GSO indicated that it had a similar quality result to SO2 for up to 40 days storage.

Keywords: postharvest, quality, sensory analyses, Vitis vinifera L.

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63 Grape Seed Extract and Zinc Containing Multivitamin-Mineral Nutritional Food Supplement Protects Heart against Myocardial Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury in Wistar Rats

Authors: S. M. Satyam, K. L. Bairy, R. Pirasanthan, R. L. Vaishnav

Abstract:

Zincovit tablets have been used as nutritional food supplement over a prolonged period of time. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardio-protective effect of combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg) using a Langendorff model of ischemia-reperfusion in Wistar rats. Following 21 days of pre-treatment, combined formulation of grape seed extract and Zincovit tablets significantly attenuated ischemia-reperfusion induced cardiac injury in terms of increased coronary flow rate (p < 0.01), decreased creatine kinase activity in coronary effluent (p < 0.05), decreased MDA (p < 0.001), 4-HNE (p < 0.001) and increased protein thiol content (p < 0.01) in comparison with the untreated (control) group. This study opens an avenue to clinical studies to demonstrate the validity of this paradigm as a nutritional food supplement, which could improve the clinical outcome of patients subjected to percutaneous angioplasty.

Keywords: grape seed extract, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, Zincovit tablets

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62 Effect of Xenobiotic Bioactive Compounds from Grape Waste on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pigs

Authors: Ionelia Taranu, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Mihai Alexandru Gras, Mihai Laurentiu Palade, Mariana Stancu, Veronica Sanda Chedea

Abstract:

In the last decade bioactive compounds from grape waste are investigated as new therapeutic agents for the inhibition of carcinogenesis and other diseases. The objective of this study was to characterize several bioactive compounds (polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids) of a dried grape pomace (GP) derived from a Romanian winery and further to evaluate their effect on inflammation and oxidative markers in liver of pig used as animal model. The total polyphenol concentration of pomace was 36.2g gallic acid equiv /100g. The pomace was rich in polyphenols from the flavonoids group, the main class being flavanols (epicatechins, catechin, epigallocatechin, procyanidins) and antocyanins (Malvidin 3-O-glucoside). The highest concentration was recorded for epicatechin (51.96g/100g) and procyanidin dimer (22.79g/100g). A high concentration of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) especially ω-6 fatty acids (59.82 g/100g fat) was found in grape pomace. 20 crossbred TOPIG hybrid fattening pigs were randomly assigned (n = 10) to two experimental treatments: a normal diet (control group) and a diet included 5% grape pomace (GP group) for 24 days. The GP diet lowered the gene expression and protein concentration of IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α and IFN-γ cytokines in liver suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect of GP diet. Concentration of hepatic TBARS also decreased, but the total antioxidant capacity (liver TEAC) and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) did not differ between the GP and control diet. The results showed that GP diet exerted an anti-inflammatory effect, but the 5% dietary inclusion modulated only partially the oxidative stress.

Keywords: animal model, inflammation, grape waste, immune organs

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
61 Management Prospects of Winery By-Products Based on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Grape Skins: The Case of Greek Ionian Islands

Authors: Marinos Xagoraris, Iliada K. Lappa, Charalambos Kanakis, Dimitra Daferera, Christina Papadopoulou, Georgios Sourounis, Charilaos Giotis, Pavlos Bouchagier, Christos S. Pappas, Petros A. Tarantilis, Efstathia Skotti

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to recover phenolic compounds from grape skins produced in Greek varieties of the Ionian Islands in order to form the basis of calculations for their further utilization in the context of the circular economy. Isolation and further utilization of phenolic compounds is an important issue in winery by-products. For this purpose, 37 samples were collected, extracted, and analyzed in an attempt to provide the appropriate basis for their sustainable exploitation. Extraction of the bioactive compounds was held using an eco-friendly, non-toxic, and highly effective water-glycerol solvent system. Then, extracts were analyzed using UV-Vis, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. Also, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were measured. LC-MS chromatography showed qualitative differences between different varieties. Peaks were attributed to monomeric 3-flavanols as well as monomeric, dimeric, and trimeric proanthocyanidins. The FT-IR and Raman spectra agreed with the chromatographic data and contributed to identifying phenolic compounds. Grape skins exhibited high total phenolic content (TPC), and it was proved that during vinification, a large number of polyphenols remained in the pomace. This study confirmed that grape skins from Ionian Islands are a promising source of bioactive compounds, suggesting their utilization under a bio-economic and environmental strategic framework.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, grape skin, phenolic compounds, waste recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
60 Status and Management of Grape Stem Borer, Celosterna scrabrator with Soil Application of Chlorantraniliprole 0.4 gr

Authors: D. N. Kambrekar, S. B. Jagginavar, J. Aruna

Abstract:

Grape stem borer, Celosterna scrabrator is an important production constraint in grapes in India. Hitherto this pest was a severe menace only on the aged and unmanaged fields but during the recent past it has also started damaging the newly established fields. In India, since Karnataka, Andra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra are the major grape production states, the incidence of stem borer is also restricted and severe in these states. The grubs of the beetle bore in to the main stem and even the branches, which affect the translocation of nutrients to the areal parts of the plant. Since, the grubs bore inside the stem, the chewed material along with its excreta is discharged outside the holes and the frass is found on the ground just below the bored holes. The portion of vines above the damaged part has a sticky appearance. The leaves become pale yellow which looks like a deficiency of micronutrients. The leaves ultimately dry and drop down. The status of the incidence of the grape stem borer in different grape growing districts of Northern Karnataka was carried out during three years. In each taluka five locations were surveyed for the incidence of grape stem borer. Further, the experiment on management of stem borer was carried out in the grape gardens of Vijayapur districts under farmers field during three years. Stem borer infested plants that show live holes were selected per treatments and it was replicated three times. Live and dead holes observed during pre-treatment were closely monitored and only plants with live holes were selected and tagged. Different doses of chlorantraniliprole 0.4% GR were incorporated into the soil around the vine basins near root zone surrounded to trunk region by removing soils up to 5-10 cm with a peripheral distance of 1 to 1.5 feet from the main trunk where feeder roots are present. Irrigation was followed after application of insecticide for proper incorporation of the test chemical. The results indicated that there was sever to moderate incidence of the stem borer in all the grape growing districts of northern Karnataka. Maximum incidence was recorded in Belagavi (11 holes per vine) and minimum was in Gadag district (8.5 holes per vine). The investigations carried out to study the efficacy of chlorantraniliprole on grape stem borer for successive three years under farmers field indicated that chlorantraniliprole @ 15g/vine applied just near the active root zone of the plant followed by irrigation has successfully managed the pest. The insecticide has translocated to all the parts of the plants and thereby stopped the activity of the pest which has resulted in to better growth of the plant and higher berry yield compared to other treatments under investigation. Thus, chlorantraniliprole 0.4 GR @ 15g/vine can be effective means in managing the stem borer.

Keywords: chlorantraniliprole, grape stem borer, Celosterna scrabrator, management

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59 Economics of Precision Mechanization in Wine and Table Grape Production

Authors: Dean A. McCorkle, Ed W. Hellman, Rebekka M. Dudensing, Dan D. Hanselka

Abstract:

The motivation for this study centers on the labor- and cost-intensive nature of wine and table grape production in the U.S., and the potential opportunities for precision mechanization using robotics to augment those production tasks that are labor-intensive. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the economic viability of grape production in five U.S. states under current operating conditions, identify common production challenges and tasks that could be augmented with new technology, and quantify a maximum price for new technology that growers would be able to pay. Wine and table grape production is primed for precision mechanization technology as it faces a variety of production and labor issues. Methodology: Using a grower panel process, this project includes the development of a representative wine grape vineyard in five states and a representative table grape vineyard in California. The panels provided production, budget, and financial-related information that are typical for vineyards in their area. Labor costs for various production tasks are of particular interest. Using the data from the representative budget, 10-year projected financial statements have been developed for the representative vineyard and evaluated using a stochastic simulation model approach. Labor costs for selected vineyard production tasks were evaluated for the potential of new precision mechanization technology being developed. These tasks were selected based on a variety of factors, including input from the panel members, and the extent to which the development of new technology was deemed to be feasible. The net present value (NPV) of the labor cost over seven years for each production task was derived. This allowed for the calculation of a maximum price for new technology whereby the NPV of labor costs would equal the NPV of purchasing, owning, and operating new technology. Expected Results: The results from the stochastic model will show the projected financial health of each representative vineyard over the 2015-2024 timeframe. Investigators have developed a preliminary list of production tasks that have the potential for precision mechanization. For each task, the labor requirements, labor costs, and the maximum price for new technology will be presented and discussed. Together, these results will allow technology developers to focus and prioritize their research and development efforts for wine and table grape vineyards, and suggest opportunities to strengthen vineyard profitability and long-term viability using precision mechanization.

Keywords: net present value, robotic technology, stochastic simulation, wine and table grapes

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
58 Understanding Health-Related Properties of Grapes by Pharmacokinetic Modelling of Intestinal Absorption

Authors: Sophie N. Selby-Pham, Yudie Wang, Louise Bennett

Abstract:

Consumption of grapes promotes health and reduces the risk of chronic diseases due to the action of grape phytochemicals in regulation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation (OSI). The bioefficacy of phytochemicals depends on their absorption in the human body. The time required for phytochemicals to achieve maximal plasma concentration (Tₘₐₓ) after oral intake reflects the time window of maximal bioefficacy of phytochemicals, with Tₘₐₓ dependent on physicochemical properties of phytochemicals. This research collated physicochemical properties of grape phytochemicals from white and red grapes to predict their Tₘₐₓ using pharmacokinetic modelling. The predicted values of Tₘₐₓ were then compared to the measured Tₘₐₓ collected from clinical studies to determine the accuracy of prediction. In both liquid and solid intake forms, white grapes exhibit a shorter Tₘₐₓ range (0.5-2.5 h) versus red grapes (1.5-5h). The prediction accuracy of Tₘₐₓ for grape phytochemicals was 33.3% total error of prediction compared to the mean, indicating high prediction accuracy. Pharmacokinetic modelling allows prediction of Tₘₐₓ without costly clinical trials, informing dosing frequency for sustained presence of phytochemicals in the body to optimize the health benefits of phytochemicals.

Keywords: absorption kinetics, phytochemical, phytochemical absorption prediction model, Vitis vinifera

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
57 The Modulation of Health and Inflammatory Status in Young Pigs by Grape Waste Enriched in Polyphenols

Authors: Gina Cecilia Pistol, Loredana Calin, Mariana Stancu, Veronica Chedea, Ionelia Taranu

Abstract:

Inflammatory-associated diseases have an increased trend in the past decades. The pharmacological strategies aimed to treat these inflammatory diseases are very expensive and with non-beneficial results. The current trend is to find alternative strategies to counteract or to control inflammatory component of diseases. The grape by-products either seeds or pomace are rich in bioactive compounds (e.g. polyphenols) which may be beneficial in prevention of inflammation associated with cancer progression and other pathologies with inflammatory component. The in vivo models are very useful for studying the immune and inflammatory status. The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) is related to human from anatomic and physiologic point of view, representing a feasible model for studying the human inflammatory pathologies. Starting from these data, we evaluated the effect of a diet containing 5% grape seed cakes (GS) on piglets blood biochemical parameters and immune pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1 beta, IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IFN-gamma, IL-10, IL-4) in spleen and lymph nodes. 12 weaned piglets were fed for 30 days with a control diet or an experimental diet containing 5% GS. At the end of trial, plasma and tissue samples (spleen and lymph nodes) were collected and the biochemical and inflammatory markers were analysed by using biochemistry analyser and ELISA techniques. Our results showed that diet included 5% GS did not influence the health status determined by plasma biochemical parameters. Only a tendency for a slight increase of the biochemical parameters associated with energetic profile (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides) was observed. Also, GS diet had no effect on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines content in spleen and lymph nodes tissue. Further experiments are needed in order to investigate other rate of dietary inclusion which could provide more evidence about the effect of grape bioactive compounds on pigs used as animal model.

Keywords: animal model, inflammation, grape seed by-product, immune organs

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56 Grape Seed Extract in Prevention and Treatment of Liver Toxic Cirrhosis in Rats

Authors: S. Buloyan, V. Mamikonyan, H. Hakobyan, H. Harutyunyan, H. Gasparyan

Abstract:

The liver is the strongest regenerating organ of the organism, and even with 2/3 surgically removed, it can regenerate completely. Hence, liver cirrhosis may only develop when the regenerating system is off. We present the results of a comparative study of structural and functional characteristics of rat liver tissue under the conditions of toxic liver cirrhosis development, induced by carbon tetrachloride, and its prevention/treatment by natural compounds with antioxidant and immune stimulating action. Studies were made on Wister rats, weighing 120~140 g. Grape seeds extracts, separately and in combination with well known anticirrhotic drug ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) have demonstrated effectiveness in prevention of liver cirrhosis development and its treatment.

Keywords: carbon tetrachloride, GSE, liver cirrhosis, prevention, treatment

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55 In vitro Assessment of Bioactive Properties and Dose-Dependent Antioxidant Activities of Commercial Grape Cultivars in Taiwan

Authors: Kandi Sridhar, Charles Albert Linton

Abstract:

Grapes are excellent sources of bioactive compounds, which have been suggested to be responsible for lowering the risk of chronic diseases. Fresh and freeze-dried extracts of Kyoho and Jubilee, commercial grape varieties available in Taiwan and attractive for their quality berries, were investigated for their total phenolics and total flavonoids contents and related dose-dependent antioxidants properties using various in vitro assays. The efficiency of the extraction yield ranged from 7.10 % to 25.53 % (w/w), depending on solvent used. Fresh samples of Kyoho and Jubilee exhibited total polyphenolic contents (351.56 ± 23.08 and 328.67 ± 16.54 µg GAE/mL, respectively), whereas Kyoho freeze-dried methanol: water extracts contains the good levels of total flavonoids (4767.82 ± 22.20 µg QE/mL). Kyoho and Jubilee freeze-dried extracts exhibited the highest total flavonoid contents. There was a weak correlation between total phenolic and flavonoid assays (r= -0.05, R2 = 0.02, p > 0.05). Kyoho fresh and freeze-dried samples showed the DPPH (11.51 – 77.82 %), superoxide scavenging activity (33.61 – 81.95 %), and total antioxidant inhibition (92.01 – 99.28 %), respectively. Total flavonoids were statistically correlated with EC50 DPPH scavenging radicals (r =0.91, p < 0.01), EC50 nitric oxide (r = 0.25, p > 0.05), and EC50 lipid peroxidation radicals (r = 0.38, p > 0.05). These results suggested that the two commercial grape cultivars in Taiwan could be used as a good source of natural antioxidants. Thus, consumption of grapes as a source antioxidant might lower the risk of chronic diseases. Moreover, future studies will investigate and develop phenolic acid profile for the cultivars in Taiwan.

Keywords: antioxidants, EC50 radical scavenging activity, grape cultivars, total phenolics

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54 Impact of Brassinosteroid with GA3, CPPU on Yield and Quality of Newly Introduced Grape cv. Italia

Authors: Senthilkumar S, Vijayakumar R M , Soorianathasundaram K, Durga Devi D

Abstract:

A study was conducted to assess the influence of brassinosteroid and other bioregulators as pre-harvest sprays on yield and quality of newly introduced Californian grape cv. Italia. The vines were exposed to standardized pruning level of pruning 50% of the canes to 5-6 bud level for fruiting and 50% of the canes to two bud level for vegetative growth. The influence of brassinosteroid was assessed using BR (1 ppm) alone and in combination with GA3 and CPPU, sprayed at three different stages over the control (water spray) were given as treatments. The results revealed that the bunches treated with Brassinosteroid (1 ppm) + GA3 (10 ppm) at pea stage i.e., 7-8 mm berry size, recorded the maximum values on yield characters like bunch weight (719.94 g), yield per vine (12.70 kg/vine) and yield per hectare (15.88 t). The berry characters and quality traits were also significantly influenced by the application of bioregulators. The maximum value for all those characters was registered under bunch sprays of Brassinosteroid (1 ppm) + GA3 (10 ppm) at pea stage. The economic feasibility indicated that the treatment combination Brassinosteroid (1 ppm) + GA3 (10 ppm) at pea stage (7-8 mm berry size) had registered the maximum benefit cost ratio of 3.13, as compared to 1.89 in control (water spray). Overall, it was observed that a combined bunch spray of Brassinosteroid (1 ppm) + GA3 (10 ppm) at pea stage (7-8 mm berry size) was adjudged as the best treatment for promoting the crop for better the bunch quality and yield.

Keywords: bioregulators, brassinosteroid, CPPU, GA3, Italia grape cultivar

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53 Production and Evaluation of Jam Made from Pineapple (Ananas comosus) and Grape (Vitis vinifera)

Authors: Z. O. Apotiola, J. F. Fashakin

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This project studied the production and evaluation of jam produced from pineapple and grape at different level of ratio (90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, and 100%). The proximate and sensory properties were determined using standard methods. The (GDZ) was the highest for protein, moisture, fat and ash, (KFJ) was the highest for carbohydrate. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in samples (PAB, GDZ, BEN) for moisture. Also, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in samples (PAB, BBL, GDZ, KFJ) for protein. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in samples (PAB, BBL, BEN) for carbohydrate. Also, there were significant differences (p<0.05) in samples (PAB, BBL, QCM, GDZ, BEN) for fat and there were significant differences (p<0.05) in samples (PAB, BBL, GDZ) for ash. (KFJ) was the highest for pH, (BBL and QCM) was the highest for Vitamin C; (GDZ) was the highest for titratable acidity. For sensory properties, for aroma, colour, flavour, and overall acceptability were tested using panellists; the result showed that (KFJ) had the highest for all samples. From the results of chemical and sensory characteristics sample BBL was the best combination.

Keywords: chemical, characteristic, combination, titratable, sensory, significant

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52 Valorization of Natural Vegetable Substances from Tunisia: Purification of Two Food Additives, Anthocyanins and Locust Bean Gum

Authors: N. Bouzouita, A. Snoussi , H. Ben Haj Koubaier, I. Essaidi, M. M. Chaabouni, S. Zgoulli, P. Thonart

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Color is one of the most important quality attributes for the food industry. Grape marc, a complex lignocellulosic material is one of the most abundant and worth less byproduct, generated after the pressing process. The development of the process of purification by micro filtration, ultra filtration, nano filtration and drying by atomization of the anthocyanins of Tunisian origin is the aim of this work. Locust bean gum is the ground endosperm of the seeds of carob fruit; owing to its remarkable water-binding properties, it is widely used to improve the texture of food and largely employed in food industry. The purification of LGB causes drastically reduced ash and proteins contents but important increase for galactomannan.

Keywords: Carob, food additives, grape pomace, locust bean gum, natural colorant, nano filtration, thickener, ultra filtration

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51 Recovery of Polyphenolic Phytochemicals From Greek Grape Pomace (Vitis Vinifera L.)

Authors: Christina Drosou, Konstantina E. Kyriakopoulou, Andreas Bimpilas, Dimitrios Tsimogiannis, Magdalini C. Krokida

Abstract:

Rationale: Agiorgitiko is one of the most widely-grown and commercially well-established red wine varieties in Greece. Each year viticulture industry produces a large amount of waste consisting of grape skins and seeds (pomace) during a short period. Grapes contain polyphenolic compounds which are partially transferred to wine during winemaking. Therefore, winery wastes could be an alternative cheap source for obtaining such compounds with important antioxidant activity. Specifically, red grape waste contains anthocyanins and flavonols which are characterized by multiple biological activities, including cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, antiviral and antibacterial properties attributed mainly to their antioxidant activity. Ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) is considered an effective way to recover phenolic compounds, since it combines the advantage of mechanical effect with low temperature. Moreover, green solvents can be used in order to recover extracts intended for used in the food and nutraceutical industry. Apart from the extraction, pre-treatment process like drying can play an important role on the preservation of the grape pomace and the enhancement of its antioxidant capacity. Objective: The aim of this study is to recover natural extracts from winery waste with high antioxidant capacity using green solvents so they can be exploited and utilized as enhancers in food or nutraceuticals. Methods: Agiorgitiko grape pomace was dehydrated by air drying (AD) and accelerated solar drying (ASD) in order to explore the effect of the pre-treatment on the recovery of bioactive compounds. UAE was applied in untreated and dried samples using water and water: ethanol (1:1) as solvents. The total antioxidant potential and phenolic content of the extracts was determined using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. Finally, the profile of anthocyanins and flavonols was specified using HPLC-DAD analysis. The efficiency of processes was determined in terms of extraction yield, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and the anthocyanins and flavovols profile. Results & Discussion: The experiments indicated that the pre-treatment was essential for the recovery of highly nutritious compounds from the pomace as long as the extracts samples showed higher phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Water: ethanol (1:1) was considered a more effective solvent on the recovery of phenolic compounds. Moreover, ASD grape pomace extracted with the solvent system exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (IC50=0.36±0.01mg/mL) and phenolic content (TPC=172.68±0.01mgGAE/g dry extract), followed by AD and untreated pomace. The major compounds recovered were malvidin3-O-glucoside and quercetin3-O-glucoside according to the HPLC analysis. Conclusions: Winery waste can be exploited for the recovery of nutritious compounds using green solvents such as water or ethanol. The pretreatment of the pomace can significantly affect the concentration of phenolic compounds, while UAE is considered a highly effective extraction process.

Keywords: agiorgitico grape pomace, antioxidants, phenolic compounds, ultrasound assisted extraction

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50 Ecotoxicological Safety of Wastewater Treated with Lignocellulosic Adsorbents

Authors: Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, Artur Figueirinha, Isabel Brás, Bruno Esteves

Abstract:

Portugal is an important wine and olive oil producer, activities which generate a high quantity of residues commonly called grape stalks and olive cake, respectively. In this work grape stalks and olive cake were used as lignocellulosic adsorbents for wastewater containing lead treatment. To attain a better knowledge of the factors that could influence the quality of the treated wastewater, a chemical characterization of the materials used in the treatment was done. To access the ecotoxicological safety of the treated wastewater, several tests were performed. The results of the toxicity test show that the samples leachate has a mild effect on the living models tested. The tests performed in lemna and bacteria were the most sensible to toxicity effects of the samples. The results obtained in this work evidenced the importance of use of simple and fast toxicity tests to predict impacts in the environment.

Keywords: chemical composition, lignocellulosic residues, ecotoxicological safety, wastewater

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49 The Effects of Grape Waste Bioactive Compounds on the Immune Response and Oxidative Stress in Pig Kidney

Authors: Mihai Palade, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Mariana Stancu, Veronica Chedea, Ionelia Taranu

Abstract:

Nutrition is an important determinant of general health status, with especially focus on prevention and/or attenuation of the inflammatory-associated pathologies. People with chronic kidney disease can experience chronic inflammation that can lead to cardiovascular disease and even an increased rate of death. There are important links between chronic kidney diseases, inflammation and nutritional strategies that may prevent or protect against undesirable inflammation and oxidative stress. The grape by-products either seeds or pomace are rich in polyphenols which may be beneficial in prevention of inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial processes. As a model for studying the impact of grape seeds on renal inflammation and oxidative stress, we used in this study weaned piglets. After a feeding trial of 30 days with a control diet and an experimental diet containing 5% grape seed (GS), kidney samples were collected. In renal tissues were determined the expression and activity of important markers of immune respose and oxidative stress: pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-gamma), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10), anti-oxidant enzymes (catalase CAT, superoxide dismutase SOD, glutathione peroxidise GPx) and important mediators belonging to nuclear receptors (NF-kB1, Nrf-2 and PPAR-gamma). Gene expression was evaluated by qPCR, whereas protein concentration was determined using proteomic techniques (ELISA). The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes was determined using specific kits. Our results showed that GS enriched in polyphenols does not have effect on TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 beta gene expression and protein concentration in kidney. By contrast, the gene expression and protein level of IL-8 and IFN-gamma were decreased in GS kidney. Anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 gene levels were increased in kidneys collected from GS piglets in comparison with controls, with no modification of protein levels between the two groups. The activities of anti-oxidant enzymes CAT and GPx were increased in kidney by GS, whereas SOD activity was unmodified in comparison with control samples. Also, the GS diet was associated with no modulation of mRNAs for nuclear receptors NF-kB1, Nrf-2 and PPAR-gamma gene expressions in kidneys. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that GS enriched in bioactive compounds such polyphenols could modulate inflammation and oxidative stress markers in kidney tissues. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of action of GS compounds in case kidney inflammation associated with oxidative stress, and signalling molecules involved in these mechanisms.

Keywords: animal model, kidney inflammation, oxidative stress, grape seed

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48 Evaluation of Monoterpenes Induction in Ugni molinae Ecotypes Subjected to a Red Grape Caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) Herbivory

Authors: Manuel Chacon-Fuentes, Leonardo Bardehle, Marcelo Lizama, Claudio Reyes, Andres Quiroz

Abstract:

The insect-plant interaction is a complex process in which the plant is able to release chemical signaling that modifies the behavior of insects. Insect herbivory can trigger mechanisms that allow the increase in the production of secondary metabolites that allow coping against the herbivores. Monoterpenes are a kind of secondary metabolites involved in direct defense acting as repellents of herbivorous or even in indirect defense acting as attractants for insect predators. In addition, an increase of the monoterpenes concentration is an effect commonly associated with the herbivory. Hence, plants subjected to damage by herbivory increase the monoterpenes production in comparison to plants without herbivory. In this framework, co-evolutionary aspects play a fundamental role in the adaptation of the herbivorous to their host and in the counter-adaptive strategies of the plants to avoid the herbivorous. In this context, Ugni molinae 'murtilla' is a native shrub from Chile characterized by its antioxidant activity mainly related to the phenolic compounds presents in its fruits. The larval stage of the red grape caterpillar Chilesia rudis Butler (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) has been reported as an important defoliator of U. molinae. This insect is native from Chile and probably has been involved in a co-evolutionary process with murtilla. Therefore, we hypothesized that herbivory by the red grape caterpillar increases the emission of monoterpenes in Ugni molinae. Ecotypes 19-1 and 22-1 of murtilla were established and maintained at 25° C in the Laboratorio de Química Ecológica at Universidad de La Frontera. Red grape caterpillars of ⁓40 mm were collected near to Temuco (Chile) from grasses, and they were deprived of food for 24 h before performing the assays. Ten caterpillars were placed on the foliage of the ecotypes 19-1 and 22-1 and allowed to feed during 48 h. After this time, caterpillars were removed from the ecotypes and monoterpenes were collected. A glass chamber was used to enclose the ecotypes and a Porapak-Q column was used to trap the monoterpenes. After 24 h of capturing, columns were desorbed with hexane. Then, samples were injected in a gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer and monoterpenes were determined according to the NIST library. All the experiments were performed in triplicate. Results showed that α-pinene, β-phellandrene, limonene, and 1,8 cineole were the main monoterpenes released by murtilla ecotypes. For the ecotype 19-1, the abundance of α-pinene was significantly higher in plants subjected to herbivory (100%) in relation to control plants (54.58%). Moreover, β-phellandrene and 1,8 cineole were observed only in control plants. For ecotype 22-1, there was no significant difference in monoterpenes abundance. In conclusion, the results suggest a trade-off of β-phellandrene and 1,8 cineole in response to herbivory damage by red grape caterpillar generating an increase in α-pinene abundance.

Keywords: Chilesia rudis, gas chromatography, monoterpenes, Ugni molinae

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47 Small Farm Diversification Opportunities in Viticulture-Winemaking Sector of Georgia

Authors: E. Kharaishvili

Abstract:

The paper analyses the role of small farms in socio-economic development of agriculture in Georgia and evaluates modern concepts regarding the development of the farms of this size. The scale of farms in Georgia is studied and the major problems are revealed. Opportunities and directions of diversification are discussed from the point of increasing the share of Georgian grapes and wine both on domestic and international markets. It’s shown that the size of vineyard areas is directly reflected on the grape and wine production potential. Accordingly, vineyard area and grape production dynamics is discussed. Comparative analysis of small farms in Georgia and Italy is made and the major differences are identified. Diversification is evaluated based on cost-benefit analysis on the one hand and on the other hand, from the point of promoting economic activities, protecting nature and rural area development. The paper provides proofs for the outcomes of diversification. The key hindering factors for the development of small farms are identified and corresponding conclusions are made, based on which recommendations for diversification of the farms of this size are developed.

Keywords: small farms, scale of farms, diversification, Georgia

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46 Phytochemicals and Photosynthesis of Grape Berry Exocarp and Seed (Vitis vinifera, cv. Alvarinho): Effects of Foliar Kaolin and Irrigation

Authors: Andreia Garrido, Artur Conde, Ana Cunha, Ric De Vos

Abstract:

Climate changes predictions point to increases in abiotic stress for crop plants in Portugal, like pronounced temperature variation and decreased precipitation, which will have negative impact on grapevine physiology and consequently, on grape berry and wine quality. Short-term mitigation strategies have, therefore, been implemented to alleviate the impacts caused by adverse climatic periods. These strategies include foliar application of kaolin, an inert mineral, which has radiation reflection proprieties that decreases stress from excessive heat/radiation absorbed by its leaves, as well as smart irrigation strategies to avoid water stress. However, little is known about the influence of these mitigation measures on grape berries, neither on the photosynthetic activity nor on the photosynthesis-related metabolic profiles of its various tissues. Moreover, the role of fruit photosynthesis on berry quality is poorly understood. The main objective of our work was to assess the effects of kaolin and irrigation treatments on the photosynthetic activity of grape berry tissues (exocarp and seeds) and on their global metabolic profile, also investigating their possible relationship. We therefore collected berries of field-grown plants of the white grape variety Alvarinho from two distinct microclimates, i.e. from clusters exposed to high light (HL, 150 µmol photons m⁻² s⁻¹) and low light (LL, 50 µmol photons m⁻² s⁻¹), from both kaolin and non-kaolin (control) treated plants at three fruit developmental stages (green, véraison and mature). Plant irrigation was applied after harvesting the green berries, which also enabled comparison of véraison and mature berries from irrigated and non-irrigated growth conditions. Photosynthesis was assessed by pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence imaging analysis, and the metabolite profile of both tissues was assessed by complementary metabolomics approaches. Foliar kaolin application resulted in, for instance, an increased photosynthetic activity of the exocarp of LL-grown berries at green developmental stage, as compared to the control non-kaolin treatment, with a concomitant increase in the levels of several lipid-soluble isoprenoids (chlorophylls, carotenoids, and tocopherols). The exocarp of mature berries grown at HL microclimate on kaolin-sprayed non-irrigated plants had higher total sugar levels content than all other treatments, suggesting that foliar application of this mineral results in an increased accumulation of photoassimilates in mature berries. Unbiased liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based profiling of semi-polar compounds followed by ASCA (ANOVA simultaneous component analysis) and ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that kaolin had no or inconsistent effect on the flavonoid and phenylpropanoid composition in both seed and exocarp at any developmental stage; in contrast, both microclimate and irrigation influenced the level of several of these compounds depending on berry ripening stage. Overall, our study provides more insight into the effects of mitigation strategies on berry tissue photosynthesis and phytochemistry, under contrasting conditions of cluster light microclimate. We hope that this may contribute to develop sustainable management in vineyards and to maintain grape berries and wines with high quality even at increasing abiotic stress challenges.

Keywords: climate change, grape berry tissues, metabolomics, mitigation strategies

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45 Vine Growers' Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Hungary

Authors: Gabor Kiraly

Abstract:

Wine regions are based on equilibria between climate, soil, grape varieties, and farming expertise that define the special character and quality of local vine farming and wine production. Changes in climate conditions may increase risk of destabilizing this equilibrium. Adaptation decisions, including adjusting practices, processes and capitals in response to climate change stresses – may reduce this risk. However, farmers’ adaptive behavior are subject to a wide range of factors and forces such as links between climate change implications and production, farm - scale adaptive capacity and other external forces that might hinder them to make efficient response to climate change challenges. This paper will aim to study climate change adaptation practices and strategies of grape growers in a way of applying a complex and holistic approach involving theories, methods and tools both from environmental and social sciences. It will introduce the field of adaptation studies as an evidence - based discourse by presenting an overview of examples from wine regions where adaptation studies have already reached an advanced stage. This will serve as a theoretical background for a preliminary research with the aim to examine the feasibility and applicability of such a research approach in the Hungarian context.

Keywords: climate change, adaptation, viticulture, Hungary

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