Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: non-Gaussian clutter

29 A Generalized Model for Performance Analysis of Airborne Radar in Clutter Scenario

Authors: Vinod Kumar Jaysaval, Prateek Agarwal

Abstract:

Performance prediction of airborne radar is a challenging and cumbersome task in clutter scenario for different types of targets. A generalized model requires to predict the performance of Radar for air targets as well as ground moving targets. In this paper, we propose a generalized model to bring out the performance of airborne radar for different Pulsed Repetition Frequency (PRF) as well as different type of targets. The model provides a platform to bring out different subsystem parameters for different applications and performance requirements under different types of clutter terrain.

Keywords: airborne radar, blind zone, clutter, probability of detection

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28 Adaptive Target Detection of High-Range-Resolution Radar in Non-Gaussian Clutter

Authors: Lina Pan

Abstract:

In non-Gaussian clutter of a spherically invariant random vector, in the cases that a certain estimated covariance matrix could become singular, the adaptive target detection of high-range-resolution radar is addressed. Firstly, the restricted maximum likelihood (RML) estimates of unknown covariance matrix and scatterer amplitudes are derived for non-Gaussian clutter. And then the RML estimate of texture is obtained. Finally, a novel detector is devised. It is showed that, without secondary data, the proposed detector outperforms the existing Kelly binary integrator.

Keywords: non-Gaussian clutter, covariance matrix estimation, target detection, maximum likelihood

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27 Adaptive CFAR Analysis for Non-Gaussian Distribution

Authors: Bouchemha Amel, Chachoui Takieddine, H. Maalem

Abstract:

Automatic detection of targets in a modern communication system RADAR is based primarily on the concept of adaptive CFAR detector. To have an effective detection, we must minimize the influence of disturbances due to the clutter. The detection algorithm adapts the CFAR detection threshold which is proportional to the average power of the clutter, maintaining a constant probability of false alarm. In this article, we analyze the performance of two variants of adaptive algorithms CA-CFAR and OS-CFAR and we compare the thresholds of these detectors in the marine environment (no-Gaussian) with a Weibull distribution.

Keywords: CFAR, threshold, clutter, distribution, Weibull, detection

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26 Space Time Adaptive Algorithm in Bi-Static Passive Radar Systems for Clutter Mitigation

Authors: D. Venu, N. V. Koteswara Rao

Abstract:

Space – time adaptive processing (STAP) is an effective tool for detecting a moving target in spaceborne or airborne radar systems. Since airborne passive radar systems utilize broadcast, navigation and excellent communication signals to perform various surveillance tasks and also has attracted significant interest from the distinct past, therefore the need of the hour is to have cost effective systems as compared to conventional active radar systems. Moreover, requirements of small number of secondary samples for effective clutter suppression in bi-static passive radar offer abundant illuminator resources for passive surveillance radar systems. This paper presents a framework for incorporating knowledge sources directly in the space-time beam former of airborne adaptive radars. STAP algorithm for clutter mitigation for passive bi-static radar has better quantitation of the reduction in sample size thereby amalgamating the earlier data bank with existing radar data sets. Also, we proposed a novel method to estimate the clutter matrix and perform STAP for efficient clutter suppression based on small sample size. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified using MATLAB simulations in order to validate STAP algorithm for passive bi-static radar. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance for various applications which augments traditional active radars using cost-effective measures.

Keywords: bistatic radar, clutter, covariance matrix passive radar, STAP

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25 Radar Signal Detection Using Neural Networks in Log-Normal Clutter for Multiple Targets Situations

Authors: Boudemagh Naime

Abstract:

Automatic radar detection requires some methods of adapting to variations in the background clutter in order to control their false alarm rate. The problem becomes more complicated in non-Gaussian environment. In fact, the conventional approach in real time applications requires a complex statistical modeling and much computational operations. To overcome these constraints, we propose another approach based on artificial neural network (ANN-CMLD-CFAR) using a Back Propagation (BP) training algorithm. The considered environment follows a log-normal distribution in the presence of multiple Rayleigh-targets. To evaluate the performances of the considered detector, several situations, such as scale parameter and the number of interferes targets, have been investigated. The simulation results show that the ANN-CMLD-CFAR processor outperforms the conventional statistical one.

Keywords: radat detection, ANN-CMLD-CFAR, log-normal clutter, statistical modelling

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24 Design and Realization of Double-Delay Line Canceller (DDLC) Using Fpga

Authors: A. E. El-Henawey, A. A. El-Kouny, M. M. Abd –El-Halim

Abstract:

Moving target indication (MTI) which is an anti-clutter technique that limits the display of clutter echoes. It uses the radar received information primarily to display moving targets only. The purpose of MTI is to discriminate moving targets from a background of clutter or slowly-moving chaff particles as shown in this paper. Processing system in these radars is so massive and complex; since it is supposed to perform a great amount of processing in very short time, in most radar applications the response of a single canceler is not acceptable since it does not have a wide notch in the stop-band. A double-delay canceler is an MTI delay-line canceler employing the two-delay-line configuration to improve the performance by widening the clutter-rejection notches, as compared with single-delay cancelers. This canceler is also called a double canceler, dual-delay canceler, or three-pulse canceler. In this paper, a double delay line canceler is chosen for study due to its simplicity in both concept and implementation. Discussing the implementation of a simple digital moving target indicator (DMTI) using FPGA which has distinct advantages compared to other application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for the purposes of this work. The FPGA provides flexibility and stability which are important factors in the radar application.

Keywords: FPGA, MTI, double delay line canceler, Doppler Shift

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23 Cognitive SATP for Airborne Radar Based on Slow-Time Coding

Authors: Fanqiang Kong, Jindong Zhang, Daiyin Zhu

Abstract:

Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) techniques have been motivated as a key enabling technology for advanced airborne radar applications. In this paper, the notion of cognitive radar is extended to STAP technique, and cognitive STAP is discussed. The principle for improving signal-to-clutter ratio (SCNR) based on slow-time coding is given, and the corresponding optimization algorithm based on cyclic and power-like algorithms is presented. Numerical examples show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: space-time adaptive processing (STAP), airborne radar, signal-to-clutter ratio, slow-time coding

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22 Effective Nutrition Label Use on Smartphones

Authors: Vladimir Kulyukin, Tanwir Zaman, Sarat Kiran Andhavarapu

Abstract:

Research on nutrition label use identifies four factors that impede comprehension and retention of nutrition information by consumers: label’s location on the package, presentation of information within the label, label’s surface size, and surrounding visual clutter. In this paper, a system is presented that makes nutrition label use more effective for nutrition information comprehension and retention. The system’s front end is a smartphone application. The system’s back end is a four node Linux cluster for image recognition and data storage. Image frames captured on the smartphone are sent to the back end for skewed or aligned barcode recognition. When barcodes are recognized, corresponding nutrition labels are retrieved from a cloud database and presented to the user on the smartphone’s touchscreen. Each displayed nutrition label is positioned centrally on the touchscreen with no surrounding visual clutter. Wikipedia links to important nutrition terms are embedded to improve comprehension and retention of nutrition information. Standard touch gestures (e.g., zoom in/out) available on mainstream smartphones are used to manipulate the label’s surface size. The nutrition label database currently includes 200,000 nutrition labels compiled from public web sites by a custom crawler. Stress test experiments with the node cluster are presented. Implications for proactive nutrition management and food policy are discussed.

Keywords: mobile computing, cloud computing, nutrition label use, nutrition management, barcode scanning

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21 The Principle Probabilities of Space-Distance Resolution for a Monostatic Radar and Realization in Cylindrical Array

Authors: Anatoly D. Pluzhnikov, Elena N. Pribludova, Alexander G. Ryndyk

Abstract:

In conjunction with the problem of the target selection on a clutter background, the analysis of the scanning rate influence on the spatial-temporal signal structure, the generalized multivariate correlation function and the quality of the resolution with the increase pulse repetition frequency is made. The possibility of the object space-distance resolution, which is conditioned by the range-to-angle conversion with an increased scanning rate, is substantiated. The calculations for the real cylindrical array at high scanning rate are presented. The high scanning rate let to get the signal to noise improvement of the order of 10 dB for the space-time signal processing.

Keywords: antenna pattern, array, signal processing, spatial resolution

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20 Joint Path and Push Planning among Moveable Obstacles

Authors: Victor Emeli, Akansel Cosgun

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This paper explores the navigation among movable obstacles (NAMO) problem and proposes joint path and push planning: which path to take and in what direction the obstacles should be pushed at, given a start and goal position. We present a planning algorithm for selecting a path and the obstacles to be pushed, where a rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT)-based heuristic is employed to calculate a minimal collision path. When it is necessary to apply a pushing force to slide an obstacle out of the way, the planners leverage means-end analysis through a dynamic physics simulation to determine the sequence of linear pushes to clear the necessary space. Simulation experiments show that our approach finds solutions in higher clutter percentages (up to 49%) compared to the straight-line push planner (37%) and RRT without pushing (18%).

Keywords: motion planning, path planning, push planning, robot navigation

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19 Biologically Inspired Small Infrared Target Detection Using Local Contrast Mechanisms

Authors: Tian Xia, Yuan Yan Tang

Abstract:

In order to obtain higher small target detection accuracy, this paper presents an effective algorithm inspired by the local contrast mechanism. The proposed method can enhance target signal and suppress background clutter simultaneously. In the first stage, a enhanced image is obtained using the proposed Weighted Laplacian of Gaussian. In the second stage, an adaptive threshold is adopted to segment the target. Experimental results on two changeling image sequences show that the proposed method can detect the bright and dark targets simultaneously, and is not sensitive to sea-sky line of the infrared image. So it is fit for IR small infrared target detection.

Keywords: small target detection, local contrast, human vision system, Laplacian of Gaussian

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18 An Adaptive CFAR Algorithm Based on Automatic Censoring in Heterogeneous Environments

Authors: Naime Boudemagh

Abstract:

In this work, we aim to improve the detection performances of radar systems. To this end, we propose and analyze a novel censoring technique of undesirable samples, of priori unknown positions, that may be present in the environment under investigation. Therefore, we consider heterogeneous backgrounds characterized by the presence of some irregularities such that clutter edge transitions and/or interfering targets. The proposed detector, termed automatic censoring constant false alarm (AC-CFAR), operates exclusively in a Gaussian background. It is built to allow the segmentation of the environment to regions and switch automatically to the appropriate detector; namely, the cell averaging CFAR (CA-CFAR), the censored mean level CFAR (CMLD-CFAR) or the order statistic CFAR (OS-CFAR). Monte Carlo simulations show that the AC-CFAR detector performs like the CA-CFAR in a homogeneous background. Moreover, the proposed processor exhibits considerable robustness in a heterogeneous background.

Keywords: CFAR, automatic censoring, heterogeneous environments, radar systems

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17 Analysis of Formation Methods of Range Profiles for an X-Band Coastal Surveillance Radar

Authors: Nguyen Van Loi, Le Thanh Son, Tran Trung Kien

Abstract:

The paper deals with the problem of the formation of range profiles (RPs) for an X-band coastal surveillance radar. Two popular methods, the difference operator method, and the window-based method, are reviewed and analyzed via two tests with different datasets. The test results show that although the original window-based method achieves a better performance than the difference operator method, it has three main drawbacks that are the use of 3 or 4 peaks of an RP for creating the windows, the extension of the window size using the power sum of three adjacent cells in the left and the right sides of the windows and the same threshold applied for all types of vessels to finish the formation process of RPs. These drawbacks lead to inaccurate RPs due to the low signal-to-clutter ratio. Therefore, some suggestions are proposed to improve the original window-based method.

Keywords: range profile, difference operator method, window-based method, automatic target recognition

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16 Automatic Censoring in K-Distribution for Multiple Targets Situations

Authors: Naime Boudemagh, Zoheir Hammoudi

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The parameters estimation of the K-distribution is an essential part in radar detection. In fact, presence of interfering targets in reference cells causes a decrease in detection performances. In such situation, the estimate of the shape and the scale parameters are far from the actual values. In the order to avoid interfering targets, we propose an Automatic Censoring (AC) algorithm of radar interfering targets in K-distribution. The censoring technique used in this work offers a good discrimination between homogeneous and non-homogeneous environments. The homogeneous population is then used to estimate the unknown parameters by the classical Method of Moment (MOM). The AC algorithm does not need any prior information about the clutter parameters nor does it require both the number and the position of interfering targets. The accuracy of the estimation parameters obtained by this algorithm are validated and compared to various actual values of the shape parameter, using Monte Carlo simulations, this latter show that the probability of censing in multiple target situations are in good agreement.

Keywords: parameters estimation, method of moments, automatic censoring, K distribution

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15 Ship Detection Requirements Analysis for Different Sea States: Validation on Real SAR Data

Authors: Jaime Martín-de-Nicolás, David Mata-Moya, Nerea del-Rey-Maestre, Pedro Gómez-del-Hoyo, María-Pilar Jarabo-Amores

Abstract:

Ship detection is nowadays quite an important issue in tasks related to sea traffic control, fishery management and ship search and rescue. Although it has traditionally been carried out by patrol ships or aircrafts, coverage and weather conditions and sea state can become a problem. Synthetic aperture radars can surpass these coverage limitations and work under any climatological condition. A fast CFAR ship detector based on a robust statistical modeling of sea clutter with respect to sea states in SAR images is used. In this paper, the minimum SNR required to obtain a given detection probability with a given false alarm rate for any sea state is determined. A Gaussian target model using real SAR data is considered. Results show that SNR does not depend heavily on the class considered. Provided there is some variation in the backscattering of targets in SAR imagery, the detection probability is limited and a post-processing stage based on morphology would be suitable.

Keywords: SAR, generalized gamma distribution, detection curves, radar detection

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14 A Practical and Efficient Evaluation Function for 3D Model Based Vehicle Matching

Authors: Yuan Zheng

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3D model-based vehicle matching provides a new way for vehicle recognition, localization and tracking. Its key is to construct an evaluation function, also called fitness function, to measure the degree of vehicle matching. The existing fitness functions often poorly perform when the clutter and occlusion exist in traffic scenarios. In this paper, we present a practical and efficient fitness function. Unlike the existing evaluation functions, the proposed fitness function is to study the vehicle matching problem from both local and global perspectives, which exploits the pixel gradient information as well as the silhouette information. In view of the discrepancy between 3D vehicle model and real vehicle, a weighting strategy is introduced to differently treat the fitting of the model’s wireframes. Additionally, a normalization operation for the model’s projection is performed to improve the accuracy of the matching. Experimental results on real traffic videos reveal that the proposed fitness function is efficient and robust to the cluttered background and partial occlusion.

Keywords: 3D-2D matching, fitness function, 3D vehicle model, local image gradient, silhouette information

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13 Recognition of Objects in a Maritime Environment Using a Combination of Pre- and Post-Processing of the Polynomial Fit Method

Authors: R. R. Hordijk, O. J. G. Somsen

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Traditionally, radar systems are the eyes and ears of a ship. However, these systems have their drawbacks and nowadays they are extended with systems that work with video and photos. Processing of data from these videos and photos is however very labour-intensive and efforts are being made to automate this process. A major problem when trying to recognize objects in water is that the 'background' is not homogeneous so that traditional image recognition technics do not work well. Main question is, can a method be developed which automate this recognition process. There are a large number of parameters involved to facilitate the identification of objects on such images. One is varying the resolution. In this research, the resolution of some images has been reduced to the extreme value of 1% of the original to reduce clutter before the polynomial fit (pre-processing). It turned out that the searched object was clearly recognizable as its grey value was well above the average. Another approach is to take two images of the same scene shortly after each other and compare the result. Because the water (waves) fluctuates much faster than an object floating in the water one can expect that the object is the only stable item in the two images. Both these methods (pre-processing and comparing two images of the same scene) delivered useful results. Though it is too early to conclude that with these methods all image problems can be solved they are certainly worthwhile for further research.

Keywords: image processing, image recognition, polynomial fit, water

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12 An Optimal Matching Design Method of Space-Based Optical Payload for Typical Aerial Target Detection

Authors: Yin Zhang, Kai Qiao, Xiyang Zhi, Jinnan Gong, Jianming Hu

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In order to effectively detect aerial targets over long distances, an optimal matching design method of space-based optical payload is proposed. Firstly, main factors affecting optical detectability of small targets under complex environment are analyzed based on the full link of a detection system, including band center, band width and spatial resolution. Then a performance characterization model representing the relationship between image signal-to-noise ratio (SCR) and the above influencing factors is established to describe a detection system. Finally, an optimal matching design example is demonstrated for a typical aerial target by simulating and analyzing its SCR under different scene clutter coupling with multi-scale characteristics, and the optimized detection band and spatial resolution are presented. The method can provide theoretical basis and scientific guidance for space-based detection system design, payload specification demonstration and information processing algorithm optimization.

Keywords: space-based detection, aerial targets, optical system design, detectability characterization

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11 Detectability Analysis of Typical Aerial Targets from Space-Based Platforms

Authors: Yin Zhang, Kai Qiao, Xiyang Zhi, Jinnan Gong, Jianming Hu

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In order to achieve effective detection of aerial targets over long distances from space-based platforms, the mechanism of interaction between the radiation characteristics of the aerial targets and the complex scene environment including the sunlight conditions, underlying surfaces and the atmosphere are analyzed. A large simulated database of space-based radiance images is constructed considering several typical aerial targets, target working modes (flight velocity and altitude), illumination and observation angles, background types (cloud, ocean, and urban areas) and sensor spectrums ranging from visible to thermal infrared. The target detectability is characterized by the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) extracted from the images. The influence laws of the target detectability are discussed under different detection bands and instantaneous fields of view (IFOV). Furthermore, the optimal center wavelengths and widths of the detection bands are suggested, and the minimum IFOV requirements are proposed. The research can provide theoretical support and scientific guidance for the design of space-based detection systems and on-board information processing algorithms.

Keywords: space-based detection, aerial targets, detectability analysis, scene environment

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10 Motion Detection Method for Clutter Rejection in the Bio-Radar Signal Processing

Authors: Carolina Gouveia, José Vieira, Pedro Pinho

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The cardiopulmonary signal monitoring, without the usage of contact electrodes or any type of in-body sensors, has several applications such as sleeping monitoring and continuous monitoring of vital signals in bedridden patients. This system has also applications in the vehicular environment to monitor the driver, in order to avoid any possible accident in case of cardiac failure. Thus, the bio-radar system proposed in this paper, can measure vital signals accurately by using the Doppler effect principle that relates the received signal properties with the distance change between the radar antennas and the person’s chest-wall. Once the bio-radar aim is to monitor subjects in real-time and during long periods of time, it is impossible to guarantee the patient immobilization, hence their random motion will interfere in the acquired signals. In this paper, a mathematical model of the bio-radar is presented, as well as its simulation in MATLAB. The used algorithm for breath rate extraction is explained and a method for DC offsets removal based in a motion detection system is proposed. Furthermore, experimental tests were conducted with a view to prove that the unavoidable random motion can be used to estimate the DC offsets accurately and thus remove them successfully.

Keywords: bio-signals, DC component, Doppler effect, ellipse fitting, radar, SDR

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9 Detection of Micro-Unmanned Ariel Vehicles Using a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Digital Array Radar

Authors: Tareq AlNuaim, Mubashir Alam, Abdulrazaq Aldowesh

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The usage of micro-Unmanned Ariel Vehicles (UAVs) has witnessed an enormous increase recently. Detection of such drones became a necessity nowadays to prevent any harmful activities. Typically, such targets have low velocity and low Radar Cross Section (RCS), making them indistinguishable from clutter and phase noise. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Radars have many potentials; it increases the degrees of freedom on both transmit and receive ends. Such architecture allows for flexibility in operation, through utilizing the direct access to every element in the transmit/ receive array. MIMO systems allow for several array processing techniques, permitting the system to stare at targets for longer times, which improves the Doppler resolution. In this paper, a 2×2 MIMO radar prototype is developed using Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology, and its performance is evaluated against a slow-moving low radar cross section micro-UAV used by hobbyists. Radar cross section simulations were carried out using FEKO simulator, achieving an average of -14.42 dBsm at S-band. The developed prototype was experimentally evaluated achieving more than 300 meters of detection range for a DJI Mavic pro-drone

Keywords: digital beamforming, drone detection, micro-UAV, MIMO, phased array

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8 Quantitative Analysis of the Quality of Housing and Land Use in the Built-up area of Croatian Coastal City of Zadar

Authors: Silvija Šiljeg, Ante Šiljeg, Branko Cavrić

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Housing is considered as a basic human need and important component of the quality of life (QoL) in urban areas worldwide. In contemporary housing studies, the concept of the quality of housing (QoH) is considered as a multi-dimensional and multi-disciplinary field. It emphasizes connection between various aspects of the QoL which could be measured by quantitative and qualitative indicators at different spatial levels (e.g. local, city, metropolitan, regional). The main goal of this paper is to examine the QoH and compare results of quantitative analysis with the clutter land use categories derived for selected local communities in Croatian Coastal City of Zadar. The qualitative housing analysis based on the four housing indicators (out of total 24 QoL indicators) has provided identification of the three Zadar’s local communities with the highest estimated QoH ranking. Furthermore, by using GIS overlay techniques, the QoH was merged with the urban environment analysis and introduction of spatial metrics based on the three categories: the element, class and environment as a whole. In terms of semantic-content analysis, the research has also generated a set of indexes suitable for evaluation of “housing state of affairs” and future decision making aiming at improvement of the QoH in selected local communities.

Keywords: housing, quality, indicators, indexes, urban environment, GIS, element, class

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7 Particle Filter Supported with the Neural Network for Aircraft Tracking Based on Kernel and Active Contour

Authors: Mohammad Izadkhah, Mojtaba Hoseini, Alireza Khalili Tehrani

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In this paper we presented a new method for tracking flying targets in color video sequences based on contour and kernel. The aim of this work is to overcome the problem of losing target in changing light, large displacement, changing speed, and occlusion. The proposed method is made in three steps, estimate the target location by particle filter, segmentation target region using neural network and find the exact contours by greedy snake algorithm. In the proposed method we have used both region and contour information to create target candidate model and this model is dynamically updated during tracking. To avoid the accumulation of errors when updating, target region given to a perceptron neural network to separate the target from background. Then its output used for exact calculation of size and center of the target. Also it is used as the initial contour for the greedy snake algorithm to find the exact target's edge. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a database which contains a lot of challenges such as high speed and agility of aircrafts, background clutter, occlusions, camera movement, and so on. The experimental results show that the use of neural network increases the accuracy of tracking and segmentation.

Keywords: video tracking, particle filter, greedy snake, neural network

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6 Hyperspectral Imaging and Nonlinear Fukunaga-Koontz Transform Based Food Inspection

Authors: Hamidullah Binol, Abdullah Bal

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Nowadays, food safety is a great public concern; therefore, robust and effective techniques are required for detecting the safety situation of goods. Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is an attractive material for researchers to inspect food quality and safety estimation such as meat quality assessment, automated poultry carcass inspection, quality evaluation of fish, bruise detection of apples, quality analysis and grading of citrus fruits, bruise detection of strawberry, visualization of sugar distribution of melons, measuring ripening of tomatoes, defect detection of pickling cucumber, and classification of wheat kernels. HSI can be used to concurrently collect large amounts of spatial and spectral data on the objects being observed. This technique yields with exceptional detection skills, which otherwise cannot be achieved with either imaging or spectroscopy alone. This paper presents a nonlinear technique based on kernel Fukunaga-Koontz transform (KFKT) for detection of fat content in ground meat using HSI. The KFKT which is the nonlinear version of FKT is one of the most effective techniques for solving problems involving two-pattern nature. The conventional FKT method has been improved with kernel machines for increasing the nonlinear discrimination ability and capturing higher order of statistics of data. The proposed approach in this paper aims to segment the fat content of the ground meat by regarding the fat as target class which is tried to be separated from the remaining classes (as clutter). We have applied the KFKT on visible and nearinfrared (VNIR) hyperspectral images of ground meat to determine fat percentage. The experimental studies indicate that the proposed technique produces high detection performance for fat ratio in ground meat.

Keywords: food (ground meat) inspection, Fukunaga-Koontz transform, hyperspectral imaging, kernel methods

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5 Consumers Perception of Slogans/ Taglines: A Study of Higher Education Sector in India

Authors: Puja Mahesh

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Purpose: A good slogan captures the essence of your brand's promised consumer benefit in one short phrase. A good slogan conjures up positive imagery about your business or your product. A good slogan has the element of immediacy. Immediacy does not necessarily mean that the slogan will inspire consumers to run right out and buy your product. It does mean, however, that your slogan has an immediate cognitive impact. It forces your audience to "stop-and-think" after exposure as a necessary first step toward remembering your slogan promise. A good slogan is memorable and durability. When your slogan promise is occupying prime real estate in the consumer's subconscious, it aids in recall and activates preference for your brand when you want it -when consumers are ready to buy. The objective of current study is to understand the consumer perception of slogans/taglines of higher education sector in India. Design/Methodology/Approach: Survey of 500 consumers (largely comprising of youth) will be done using questionnaire. Universities and institutes will be chosen on the basis of various streams and Credible Rankings. The perception will be taken from the respondents on the basis of scale. Findings: Catchy phrases, rhymes, music, jingles, avatars (visual representations) and unique imagery are just a few of the mnemonic clutter-busting tactics commonly used in slogans to stand apart from the competition and to aid in memory recall. The study will reveal whether it is true that catchy phrases, rhymes, music, jingles, avatars (visual representations) and unique imagery across disciplines and universities help in building stronger brands. It will also be found whether consumers pay more attention to reputation of University/ College or brand identity. Originality/Value: Researcher has not come across any study of Consumer Perception of Slogans/Taglines of Higher Education Brands in India. Also, it would be interesting to understand Consumer Perception of various colleges/streams particularly Management colleges who invest a lot of time in branding exercise.

Keywords: consumer perception, higher education, slogans, taglines

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4 Executive Deficits in Non-Clinical Hoarders

Authors: Thomas Heffernan, Nick Neave, Colin Hamilton, Gill Case

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Hoarding is the acquisition of and failure to discard possessions, leading to excessive clutter and significant psychological/emotional distress. From a cognitive-behavioural approach, excessive hoarding arises from information-processing deficits, as well as from problems with emotional attachment to possessions and beliefs about the nature of possessions. In terms of information processing, hoarders have shown deficits in executive functions, including working memory, planning, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility. However, this previous research is often confounded by co-morbid factors such as anxiety, depression, or obsessive-compulsive disorder. The current study adopted a cognitive-behavioural approach, specifically assessing executive deficits and working memory in a non-clinical sample of hoarders, compared with non-hoarders. In this study, a non-clinical sample of 40 hoarders and 73 non-hoarders (defined by The Savings Inventory-Revised) completed the Adult Executive Functioning Inventory, which measures working memory and inhibition, Dysexecutive Questionnaire-Revised, which measures general executive function and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, which measures mood. The participant sample was made up of unpaid young adult volunteers who were undergraduate students and who completed the questionnaires on a university campus. The results revealed that, after observing no differences between hoarders and non-hoarders on age, sex, and mood, hoarders reported significantly more deficits in inhibitory control and general executive function when compared with non-hoarders. There was no between-group difference on general working memory. This suggests that non-clinical hoarders have a specific difficulty with inhibition-control, which enables you to resist repeated, unwanted urges. This might explain the hoarder’s inability to resist urges to buy and keep items that are no longer of any practical use. These deficits may be underpinned by general executive function deficiencies.

Keywords: hoarding, memory, executive, deficits

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3 Exploring the Link between Hoarding Disorder and Trauma: A Scoping Review

Authors: Murray Anderson, Galina Freed, Karli Jahn

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Trauma is increasingly recognized as an important construct that has health implications for those who struggle with various mental health issues. For those individuals who meet the criteria for a diagnosis of hoarding disorder (HD), many have experienced some form of trauma. Further, some of the therapeutic interventions for those with HD can further perpetuate or magnify the experience of trauma. Therefore, the aim of this scoping review is to identify and document the nature and extent of research evidence related to trauma as it connects with HD. This review was guided by the questions, ‘How can our understanding of the trauma cycle help us to better appreciate the experiences of individuals who hoard, and how will a trauma informed lens inform the interventions for hoarding disorder? A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify original studies that contained the words “hoarding” and “trauma.” PsychINFO”,''EBSCO host,” “CINAHL” and “PubMed” were searched between January 2005 and April 2021. Articles were screened by three reviewers. Data extracted included publication date, demographics, study design, type of analysis, and noted connections between hoarding and trauma. Of the 329 articles, all duplicates, articles on hoardings of animals, articles not in English, and those without full-text availability were removed. Five categories were found in the remaining 45 articles, including (a) traumatic and stressful life events; (b) the link between posttraumatic stress disorder, trauma, and hoarding; (c) the relationships between different comorbidities, trauma, and hoarding; (d) the lack of early emotional expression and other forms of parental deprivation; and (e) the role of attachment. Lastly, the literature explains how the links between hoarding and trauma are difficult to study due to the highly stigmatized identities with this population. The review provided strong support for the connections between the experience of trauma and HD. What is missing from the literature is the use of a trauma-informed lens to better account for the ways in which hoarding disorder is understood. Other missing pieces in the literature are the potential uses of a trauma-informed lens to enhance the therapeutic process, to understand and reduce treatment attrition, and to improve treatment outcomes. The application of a trauma informed lens could improve our understanding of effective interactions among clients, families, and communities and improve the education around hoarding-related matters. Exploring the connections between trauma and HD can improve therapeutic delivery and destigmatize the experience of dealing with clutter and hoarding concerns. This awareness can also provide health care professionals with both the language and skills to liberate them from a reductionist view on HD.

Keywords: hoarding, attachment, parental deprivation, trauma

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2 Branding in FMCG Sector in India: A Comparison of Indian and Multinational Companies

Authors: Pragati Sirohi, Vivek Singh Rana

Abstract:

Brand is a name, term, sign, symbol or design or a combination of all these which is intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or a group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of the competitors and perception influences purchase decisions here and so building that perception is critical. The FMCG industry is a low margin business. Volumes hold the key to success in this industry. Therefore, the industry has a strong emphasis on marketing. Creating strong brands is important for FMCG companies and they devote considerable money and effort in developing brands. Brand loyalty is fickle. Companies know this and that is why they relentlessly work towards brand building. The purpose of the study is a comparison between Indian and Multinational companies with regard to FMCG sector in India. It has been hypothesized that after liberalization the Indian companies has taken up the challenge of globalization and some of these are giving a stiff competition to MNCs. There is an existence of strong brand image of MNCs compared to Indian companies. Advertisement expenditures of MNCs are proportionately higher compared to Indian counterparts. The operational area of the study is the country as a whole. Continuous time series data is available from 1996-2014 for the selected 8 companies. The selection of these companies is done on the basis of their large market share, brand equity and prominence in the market. Research methodology focuses on finding trend growth rates of market capitalization, net worth, and brand values through regression analysis by the usage of secondary data from prowess database developed by CMIE (Centre for monitoring Indian Economy). Estimation of brand values of selected FMCG companies is being attempted, which can be taken to be the excess of market capitalization over the net worth of a company. Brand value indices are calculated. Correlation between brand values and advertising expenditure is also measured to assess the effect of advertising on branding. Major results indicate that although MNCs enjoy stronger brand image but few Indian companies like ITC is the outstanding leader in terms of its market capitalization and brand values. Dabur and Tata Global Beverages Ltd are competing equally well on these values. Advertisement expenditures are the highest for HUL followed by ITC, Colgate and Dabur which shows that Indian companies are not behind in the race. Although advertisement expenditures are playing a role in brand building process there are many other factors which affect the process. Also, brand values are decreasing over the years for FMCG companies in India which show that competition is intense with aggressive price wars and brand clutter. Implications for Indian companies are that they have to consistently put in proactive and relentless efforts in their brand building process. Brands need focus and consistency. Brand longevity without innovation leads to brand respect but does not create brand value.

Keywords: brand value, FMCG, market capitalization, net worth

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1 Methodology to Achieve Non-Cooperative Target Identification Using High Resolution Range Profiles

Authors: Olga Hernán-Vega, Patricia López-Rodríguez, David Escot-Bocanegra, Raúl Fernández-Recio, Ignacio Bravo

Abstract:

Non-Cooperative Target Identification has become a key research domain in the Defense industry since it provides the ability to recognize targets at long distance and under any weather condition. High Resolution Range Profiles, one-dimensional radar images where the reflectivity of a target is projected onto the radar line of sight, are widely used for identification of flying targets. According to that, to face this problem, an approach to Non-Cooperative Target Identification based on the exploitation of Singular Value Decomposition to a matrix of range profiles is presented. Target Identification based on one-dimensional radar images compares a collection of profiles of a given target, namely test set, with the profiles included in a pre-loaded database, namely training set. The classification is improved by using Singular Value Decomposition since it allows to model each aircraft as a subspace and to accomplish recognition in a transformed domain where the main features are easier to extract hence, reducing unwanted information such as noise. Singular Value Decomposition permits to define a signal subspace which contain the highest percentage of the energy, and a noise subspace which will be discarded. This way, only the valuable information of each target is used in the recognition process. The identification algorithm is based on finding the target that minimizes the angle between subspaces and takes place in a transformed domain. Two metrics, F1 and F2, based on Singular Value Decomposition are accomplished in the identification process. In the case of F2, the angle is weighted, since the top vectors set the importance in the contribution to the formation of a target signal, on the contrary F1 simply shows the evolution of the unweighted angle. In order to have a wide database or radar signatures and evaluate the performance, range profiles are obtained through numerical simulation of seven civil aircraft at defined trajectories taken from an actual measurement. Taking into account the nature of the datasets, the main drawback of using simulated profiles instead of actual measured profiles is that the former implies an ideal identification scenario, since measured profiles suffer from noise, clutter and other unwanted information and simulated profiles don't. In this case, the test and training samples have similar nature and usually a similar high signal-to-noise ratio, so as to assess the feasibility of the approach, the addition of noise has been considered before the creation of the test set. The identification results applying the unweighted and weighted metrics are analysed for demonstrating which algorithm provides the best robustness against noise in an actual possible scenario. So as to confirm the validity of the methodology, identification experiments of profiles coming from electromagnetic simulations are conducted, revealing promising results. Considering the dissimilarities between the test and training sets when noise is added, the recognition performance has been improved when weighting is applied. Future experiments with larger sets are expected to be conducted with the aim of finally using actual profiles as test sets in a real hostile situation.

Keywords: HRRP, NCTI, simulated/synthetic database, SVD

Procedia PDF Downloads 273