Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 161

Search results for: Colombia

161 Analysis of the Internationalisation of Spanish Enterprises in Colombia through Cooperation Agreements

Authors: Sandoval H. Leyla Angélica, Casani Fernando

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The objective of this study is to analyse how enterprises in developed countries use cooperation agreements to expand into developing countries. Starting from the literature review, seven theoretical prepositions were derived. The qualitative methodology used includes case study, through interviews conducted with eight enterprises from Spain and Colombia. Results show that the cooperation agreements have provided a quick and solid connection that facilitates internationalization, bearing in mind aspects such as: strategic factors, partners, network, technology, experience, communication methods, social benefit and the connection between these aspects and allied enterprises.

Keywords: internationalisation, firms, cooperation agreement, case study, Spain, Colombia

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
160 Sustainability and Promotion of Inland Waterway Transportation Projects in Colombia: Case of the Magdalena River

Authors: David Julian Bernal Melgarejo

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Inland Waterway Transportation (IWT) is playing an important role in national transport systems, water transportation is considered to be safe, energy efficient and environmentally friendly mode of transport, considering all the benefits of IWT the Colombian government is planning to restore the Magdalena’s River navigability, embrace waterway transportation in Colombia could strength competitiveness while reduce most of the transport externalities. However, the current situation of the Magdalena deplorable, the most important river of Colombia has been abandoned for decades and the solution is beyond of a single administrative entity. This paper analyzes the outcomes of the Navigation And Inland Waterway Action and Development in Europe (NAIADES) program as a prospective to develop a sustainable program in Colombia. In order to guarantee the long-term future, and the adaptability of the program a research based on individual interviews with stakeholders and policy experts were carried out, findings support the idea of lack of integration within governmental institution, develop marketing strategies and human resources.

Keywords: inland waterway transportation, logistics, sustainability, multimodal transport systems, water transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
159 Education for Sustainability Using PBL on an Engineering Course at the National University of Colombia

Authors: Hernán G. Cortés-Mora, José I. Péna-Reyes, Alfonso Herrera-Jiménez

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This article describes the implementation experience of Project-Based Learning (PBL) in an engineering course of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, with the aim of strengthening student skills necessary for the exercise of their profession under a sustainability framework. Firstly, we present a literature review on the education for sustainability field, emphasizing the skills and knowledge areas required for its development, as well as the commitment of the Faculty of Engineering of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, and other engineering faculties of the country, regarding education for sustainability. This article covers the general aspects of the course, describes how students team were formed, and how their experience was during the first semester of 2017. During this period two groups of students decided to develop their course project aiming to solve a problem regarding a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) that works with head-of-household mothers in a low-income neighborhood in Bogota (Colombia). Subsequently, we show how sustainability is involved in the course, how tools are provided to students, and how activities are developed as to strengthen their abilities, which allows them to incorporate sustainability in their projects while also working on the methodology used to develop said projects. Finally, we introduce the results obtained by the students who sent the prototypes of their projects to the community they were working on and the conclusions reached by them regarding the course experience.

Keywords: sustainability, project-based learning, engineering education, higher education for sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
158 Gold, Power, Protest, Examining How Digital Media and PGIS are Used to Protest the Mining Industry in Colombia

Authors: Doug Specht

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This research project sought to explore the links between digital media, PGIS and social movement organisations in Tolima, Colombia. The primary aim of the research was to examine how knowledge is created and disseminated through digital media and GIS in the region, and whether there exists the infrastructure to allow for this. The second strand was to ascertain if this has had a significant impact on the way grassroots movements work and produce collective actions. The third element is a hypothesis about how digital media and PGIS could play a larger role in activist activities, particularly in reference to the extractive industries. Three theoretical strands have been brought together to provide a basis for this research, namely (a) the politics of knowledge, (b) spatial management and inclusion, and (c) digital media and political engagement. Quantitative data relating to digital media and mobile internet use was collated alongside qualitative data relating to the likelihood of using digital media in activist campaigns, with particular attention being given to grassroots movements working against extractive industries in the Tolima region of Colombia. Through interviews, surveys and GIS analysis it has been possible to build a picture of online activism and the role of PPGIS within protest movement in the region of Tolima, Colombia. Results show a gap between the desires of social movements to use digital media and the skills and finances required to implement programs that utilise it. Maps and GIS are generally reserved for legal cases rather than for informing the lay person. However, it became apparent that the combination of digital/social media and PPGIS could play a significant role in supporting the work of grassroots movements.

Keywords: PGIS, GIS, social media, digital media, mining, colombia, social movements, protest

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
157 Emancipation through the Inclusion of Civil Society in Contemporary Peacebuilding: A Case Study of Peacebuilding Efforts in Colombia

Authors: D. Romero Espitia

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Research on peacebuilding has taken a critical turn into examining the neoliberal and hegemonic conception of peace operations. Alternative peacebuilding models have been analyzed, but the scholarly discussion fails to bring them together or form connections between them. The objective of this paper is to rethink peacebuilding by extracting the positive aspects of the various peacebuilding models, connecting them with the local context, and therefore promote emancipation in contemporary peacebuilding efforts. Moreover, local ownership has been widely labelled as one, if not the core principle necessary for a successful peacebuilding project. Yet, definitions of what constitutes the 'local' remain debated. Through a qualitative review of literature, this paper unpacks the contemporary conception of peacebuilding in nexus with 'local ownership' as manifested through civil society. Using Colombia as a case study, this paper argues that a new peacebuilding framework, one that reconsiders the terms of engagement between international and national actors, is needed in order to foster effective peacebuilding efforts in contested transitional states.

Keywords: civil society, Colombia, emancipation, peacebuilding

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156 Financial Inclusion from the Perspective of Social Innovation: The Case of Colombia

Authors: Maria Luisa Jaramillo, Alvaro Turriago Hoyos, Ulf Thoene

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Financial inclusion has become a crucially important factor in debates on economic inequality posing challenges to the financial systems of countries around the world. Nowadays, governments and banks are concerned about creating products that allow access to wide sectors of the population. The creation of banking products by the financial sector for people with low incomes tends to lead to improvements in the quality of life of vulnerable parts of the population. In countries with notable social and economic inequalities financial inclusion is a key aspect for equitable economic growth. This study is based on the case of Colombia, which is a country with a strong record of economic growth over the past decade. Nevertheless, corruption, unemployment, and poverty contribute to uncertainty regarding the country’s future growth prospects. This study wants to explain the situation of financial exclusion and financial inclusion with respect to the Colombian case. Financial inclusion is going to be studied from the perspective of social innovation.

Keywords: Colombia, financial exclusion, financial inclusion, social innovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
155 Colombia Fossil Fuel Policies and Their Impact on Urban Air Quality

Authors: Ruth Catacolí, Hector Garcia

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Colombia Urban Areas shows a decreasing of their air quality, no matter the actions developed by the Government facing the mitigation of pressure factors related with air pollution. Examples of these actions were the fossil fuel quality improvement policies (FFQI). This study evaluated the impact of three FFQI in the air quality of Bogotá during the period 1990 - 2006: The phase-out of lead in the gasoline; the sulfur reduction in diesel oil consumed in Bogotá and the oxygenation of gasoline through the addition of ethanol. The results indicate that only the policy of phase-out of lead in gasoline has been effective, showing dropping of lead oxides concentration in the air. Some stakeholders believe that the FFQI evaluated in the study are environmental policies, but no one of these policies has been supported by an environmental impact assessment that shows specific benefits in air quality. The research includes some fuel policy elements to achieve positive impact on the air quality in the urban centers of Colombia.

Keywords: policy assessment, fuel quality, urban air quality, air quality management

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
154 Case Study: Throughput Analysis over PLC Infrastructure as Last Mile Residential Solution in Colombia

Authors: Edward P. Guillen, A. Karina Martinez Barliza

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Powerline Communications (PLC) as last mile solution to provide communication services, has the advantage of transmitting over channels already used for electrical distribution. However these channels have been not designed with this purpose, for that reason telecommunication companies in Colombia want to know how good would be using PLC in costs and network performance in comparison to cable modem or DSL. This paper analyzes PLC throughput for residential complex scenarios using a PLC network scenarios and some statistical results are shown.

Keywords: home network, power line communication, throughput analysis, power factor, cost, last mile solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
153 Multimodal Discourse, Logic of the Analysis of Transmedia Strategies

Authors: Bianca Suárez Puerta

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Multimodal discourse refers to a method of study the media continuum between reality, screens as a device, audience, author, and media as a production from the audience. For this study we used semantic differential, a method proposed in the sixties by Osgood, Suci and Tannenbaum, starts from the assumption that under each particular way of perceiving the world, in each singular idea, there is a common cultural meaning that organizes experiences. In relation to these shared symbolic dimension, this method has had significant results, as it focuses on breaking down the meaning of certain significant acts into series of statements that place the subjects in front of some concepts. In Colombia, in 2016, a tool was designed to measure the meaning of a multimodal production, specially the acts of sense of transmedia productions that managed to receive funds from the Ministry of ICT of Colombia, and also, to analyze predictable patterns that can be found in calls and funds aimed at the production of culture in Colombia, in the context of the peace agreement, as a request for expressions from a hegemonic place, seeking to impose a worldview.

Keywords: semantic differential, semiotics, transmedia, critical analysis of discourse

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
152 Necro-Power, Paramilitarism, and Sovereignty: An Interpretation of Colombian Paramilitarism as Symptom of the Formation Process of the (Neo)Liberal Democratic State

Authors: Julian David Rios Acuna

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This paper seeks to argue that the phenomenon of ‘paramilitarism’ in Colombia exhibits the role of violence as constitutive of the political process of state formation in the country. In order to do this, it takes as its point of departure a landmark moment in the long history of private armies known as the ‘paramilitary’ in Colombia. In 2001, paramilitary commanders, politicians, and members of the military and other branches of state power singed what is known as the ‘Pact of Ralito.’ In this pact, the paramilitary appropriated constitutional and legal language. The paper argues that this appropriation shows that the paramilitary and the state express the same claim to sovereign power and therefore have the same foundation. More precisely, paramilitary power shows itself to base its power on the same foundation as the legal order, namely, extreme forms of violence where death is generative of power. In this sense, the paper shows how, by sharing its foundation, Colombian paramilitarism exhibits that state power in Colombia can be characterized as necro-power as Achille Mbembe understands it. The paper argues that paramilitarism shows state power as necro-power by constituting itself as a symptom understood, following Zizek, as that which both shows and overthrows its own foundation. In this way, paramilitarism shows the foundation of the state, thereby reconfiguring this very state. This reconfiguration, explicitly based on necro-power, the paper concludes, transforms the state into a form more appropriate to the political demands of neo-liberalism. By exhibiting its foundation in necro-power through paramilitarism, the Colombian State turns from a liberal into a (neo)liberal democracy.

Keywords: necro-power, necropolitics, paramilitarism in Colombia, state formation, state power, sovereign power

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
151 Fragile States as the Fertile Ground for Non-State Actors: Colombia and Somalia

Authors: Giorgi Goguadze, Jakub Zajączkowski

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This paper is written due to overview the connection between fragile states and non-state actors, we should take into account that fragile states may vary from weak, failing and failed. In this paper we will discuss about two countries, one of them is weak (Colombia/ second one is already failed- Somalia. We will try to understand what feeds ill non-state actors such as: terrorist organizations, criminal entities and other cells in these countries, what threats are they representing and how to eliminate these dangers in both national and international scope. This paper is mainly based on literature overview and personal attitude and doesn’t claim to be in scientific chain.

Keywords: fragile States, terrorism, tribalism, Somalia

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
150 Music Educators for Peace: Synchronizing Music and Pedagogical Experiences to Re-Build Social Fabric in Colombia's Post-Conflict

Authors: Julian Dario Castro Cifuentes

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In Colombia, the armed conflict has lasted for more than sixty years bringing poverty, internal displacement of people, deaths from both government and insurgent forces and other violence-related problems that has damaged its social fabric. In 2016, the peace process between the Colombian government and the FARC rebels brought the possibility of ending this war and a new set of challenges to Colombian society in order to achieve pacific coexistence and reconciliation. In this scenario, there have been different efforts from diverse social actors in order to build peace and reconciliation mainly within the victims of the armed conflict. In the case of music, there have been multiple programs for social transformation through music and pedagogical experiences. Nevertheless, the need to strengthen this initiative by giving ‘peace building oriented’ pedagogical tools to the musicians that lead this experiences and understanding which aspects make this practices ‘musically meaningful’, has been recognized. For this reason, the purpose of this study is to discuss the convergences and divergences of music, and educational experiences applied to peacebuilding in the context of Colombia’s post-conflict. In this research, the hermeneutic phenomenology paradigm is applied in a case study of a peace building music education experience in the department of Nariño, Colombia articulated with the program ‘Manos a la Paz’. Two particular experiences, one on musical practice and another on music education are taken as a unit of analysis to understand its essence and structure in order to find ways to articulate efforts in peace building actions from music. This study shows how the existent gap between music experience and its subjacent pedagogical knowledge, can be reduced through deconstruction of the music and pedagogical experience. The ‘Manos a la Paz’ program showed how a peace building approach to music education can make major contributions to Pacific Coexistence and Reconciliation in Colombia’s Post-Conflict.

Keywords: music education, music for peace, music pedagogy, peace building, social fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
149 Debt Portfolios of the Poor: The Case of Street Vendors in Cali, Colombia

Authors: Lina Martinez, Juan David Rivera Acevedo, Isabella Franco

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The informal economy plays a significant role in the job market in Colombia. Cali, the third largest city in the country, is characterized by a high percentage of socially and economically vulnerable population groups who take part in the urban informal economy, with street vending as their primary source of income. This paper studies the socio-economic dimensions of street vendors in Cali. In particular, it examines why they are unable to capitalize on their comparatively high earnings and are not likely to escape poverty even though they usually profit from government welfare and tax evasion due to the non-regulated character of informality. The analysis of an observational study and two surveys with 637 and 300 participants show that street vending is a cash-based day-to-day activity. Since most of the street vendors do not have access to formal banking systems, they depend on payday loans with incomparably high interest rates which absorb a large share of their income and maintain a continuous indebtedness. This is one of the main reasons why they are unable to improve their living conditions. However, the daily cash flow masks the high opportunity cost of loans and long-term deficits.

Keywords: Colombia, informal economy, payday loans, street vendors

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
148 Crickets as Social Business Model for Rural Women in Colombia

Authors: Diego Cruz, Helbert Arevalo, Diana Vernot

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In 2013, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) said that insect production for food and feed could become an economic opportunity for rural women in developing countries. However, since then, just a few initiatives worldwide had tried to implement this kind of project in zones of tropical countries without previous experience in cricket production and insect human consumption, such as Colombia. In this project, ArthroFood company and the University of La Sabana join efforts to make a holistic multi-perspective analysis from biological, economic, culinary, and social sides of the Gryllodes sigillatus production by rural women of the municipality of La Mesa, Cundinamarca, Colombia. From a biological and economic perspective, G. sigillatus production in a 60m2 greenhouse was evaluated considering the effect of rearing density and substrates on final weight and length, developing time, survival rate, and proximate composition. Additionally, the production cost and labor hours were recorded for five months. On the other hand, from a socio- economic side, the intention of the rural women to implement cricket farms or micro-entrepreneurship around insect production was evaluated after developing ethnographies and empowerment, entrepreneurship, and cricket production workshops. Finally, the results of the elaboration of culinary recipes with cricket powder incorporating cultural aspects of the context of La Mesa, Cundinamarca, will be presented. This project represents Colombia's first attempt to create a social business model of cricket production involving rural women, academies, the private sector, and local authorities.

Keywords: cricket production, developing country, edible insects, entrepreneurship, insect culinary recipes

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147 Evaluation Model in the Branch of Virtual Education of “Universidad Manuela Beltrán” Bogotá-Colombia

Authors: Javier López

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This Paper presents the evaluation model designed for the virtual education branch of The “Universidad Manuela Beltrán, Bogotá-Colombia”. This was the result of a research, developed as a case study, which had three stages: Document review, observation, and a perception survey for teachers. In the present model, the evaluation is a cross-cutting issue to the educational process. Therefore, it consists in a group of actions and guidelines which lead to analyze the student’s learning process from the admission, during the academic training, and to the graduation. This model contributes to the evaluation components which might interest other educational institutions or might offer methodological guidance to consolidate an own model

Keywords: model, evaluation, virtual education, learning process

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
146 An Epistemological Approach of the Social Movements Studies in Cali (Colombia) between 2002 and 2016

Authors: Faride Crespo Razeg, Beatriz Eugenia Rivera Pedroza

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While Colombian’s society has changed, the way that Colombian’s civil society participates has changed too. Thus, the social movements as a form of participation should be research to understand as the society structure as the groups’ interactions. In fact, in the last decades, the social movements in Colombia have been transformed in three categories: actors, spaces, and demands. For this reason, it is important to know from what perspectives have been researched this topic, allowing to recognize an epistemological and ontological reflections of it. The goal of this research has been characterizing the social movements of Cali – Colombia between 2002 and 2016. Cali is the southwest largest Colombian city; for this reason, it could be considered as a representative data for the social dynamic of the region. Qualitative methods as documental analysis have been used, in order to know the way that the research on social movements has been done. Thus taking into account this methodological technique, it has been found the goals that are present in most of the studies, which represents what are the main concerns around this topic. Besides, the methodology more used, to understand the way that the data was collected, its problems and its advantages. Finally, the ontological and epistemological reflections are important to understand which have been the theory and conceptual approach of the studies and how its have been contextualized to Cali, taking into account its own history.

Keywords: social movements, civil society, forms of participation, collective actions

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
145 A Comparative Analysis of Heuristics Applied to Collecting Used Lubricant Oils Generated in the City of Pereira, Colombia

Authors: Diana Fajardo, Sebastián Ortiz, Oscar Herrera, Angélica Santis

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Currently, in Colombia is arising a problem related to collecting used lubricant oils which are generated by the increment of the vehicle fleet. This situation does not allow a proper disposal of this type of waste, which in turn results in a negative impact on the environment. Therefore, through the comparative analysis of various heuristics, the best solution to the VRP (Vehicle Routing Problem) was selected by comparing costs and times for the collection of used lubricant oils in the city of Pereira, Colombia; since there is no presence of management companies engaged in the direct administration of the collection of this pollutant. To achieve this aim, six proposals of through methods of solution of two phases were discussed. First, the assignment of the group of generator points of the residue was made (previously identified). Proposals one and four of through methods are based on the closeness of points. The proposals two and five are using the scanning method and the proposals three and six are considering the restriction of the capacity of collection vehicle. Subsequently, the routes were developed - in the first three proposals by the Clarke and Wright's savings algorithm and in the following proposals by the Traveling Salesman optimization mathematical model. After applying techniques, a comparative analysis of the results was performed and it was determined which of the proposals presented the most optimal values in terms of the distance, cost and travel time.

Keywords: Heuristics, optimization Model, savings algorithm, used vehicular oil, V.R.P.

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
144 A Bayesian Hierarchical Poisson Model with an Underlying Cluster Structure for the Analysis of Measles in Colombia

Authors: Ana Corberan-Vallet, Karen C. Florez, Ingrid C. Marino, Jose D. Bermudez

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In 2016, the Region of the Americas was declared free of measles, a viral disease that can cause severe health problems. However, since 2017, measles has reemerged in Venezuela and has subsequently reached neighboring countries. In 2018, twelve American countries reported confirmed cases of measles. Governmental and health authorities in Colombia, a country that shares the longest land boundary with Venezuela, are aware of the need for a strong response to restrict the expanse of the epidemic. In this work, we apply a Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model with an underlying cluster structure to describe disease incidence in Colombia. Concretely, the proposed methodology provides relative risk estimates at the department level and identifies clusters of disease, which facilitates the implementation of targeted public health interventions. Socio-demographic factors, such as the percentage of migrants, gross domestic product, and entry routes, are included in the model to better describe the incidence of disease. Since the model does not impose any spatial correlation at any level of the model hierarchy, it avoids the spatial confounding problem and provides a suitable framework to estimate the fixed-effect coefficients associated with spatially-structured covariates.

Keywords: Bayesian analysis, cluster identification, disease mapping, risk estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
143 Out of Pocket Costs for Patients with Tuberculosis in Colombia: Evidence from Three Metropolitan Areas

Authors: Jose Hernandez, Lina Martínez, Gustavo Gonzalez, Carlos Lázaro, Diana Castrillon, Jonathan Cardona, Laura Mejía, Yina Sanchez, Luisa Ochoa, Evert Jimenez

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Objectives: Economic analyses of tuberculosis control interventions are usually focused on the payer’s perspective. To assess the overall economic impact of the disease, out-of-pocket and indirect costs are also required. This research is aimed to estimate overall economic impact under DOTS-strategy (Directly Observed Therapy Short Course). Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 91 adult tuberculosis patients in treatment for at least two months was conducted from the society perspective. A standardized questionnaire was used in three different cities of Colombia: Medellin (poverty is 17.7%), Monteria (poverty is 36.9%) and Quibdó (poverty is 51.2%). Costs were converted to 2013 USD and categorized into two periods: diagnostics phase and treatment. Results: The median cost during diagnostics was 13$ (±SD 9.5). The median monthly patient out-of-pocket costs during treatment were 32$ (±SD 6.8), equivalent to 17% of patient’s median monthly income, estimated in 186$ (±SD 23). Costs recorded in Medellin were 47$ in Monteria was 18$ and in Quibdó was 13$. Conclusion: Patient costs under DOTS strategy are high even when services are provided free of charge. The creation or strengthening of community-based treatment supervisors could greatly impact costs of tuberculosis and lower drop-outs.

Keywords: tuberculosis, costs and cost analysis, health promotion, Colombia

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
142 A Location Routing Model for the Logistic System in the Mining Collection Centers of the Northern Region of Boyacá-Colombia

Authors: Erika Ruíz, Luis Amaya, Diego Carreño

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The main objective of this study is to design a mathematical model for the logistics of mining collection centers in the northern region of the department of Boyacá (Colombia), determining the structure that facilitates the flow of products along the supply chain. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to define a suitable design of the distribution network, taking into account the products, customer’s characteristics and the availability of information. Likewise, some other aspects must be defined, such as number and capacity of collection centers to establish, routes that must be taken to deliver products to the customers, among others. This research will use one of the operation research problems, which is used in the design of distribution networks known as Location Routing Problem (LRP).

Keywords: location routing problem, logistic, mining collection, model

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
141 Damage Assessment Based on Full-Polarimetric Decompositions in the 2017 Colombia Landslide

Authors: Hyeongju Jeon, Yonghyun Kim, Yongil Kim

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Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an effective tool for damage assessment induced by disasters due to its all-weather and night/day acquisition capability. In this paper, the 2017 Colombia landslide was observed using full-polarimetric ALOS/PALSAR-2 data. Polarimetric decompositions, including the Freeman-Durden decomposition and the Cloude decomposition, are utilized to analyze the scattering mechanisms changes before and after-landslide. These analyses are used to detect the damaged areas induced by the landslide. Experimental results validate the efficiency of the full polarimetric SAR data since the damaged areas can be well discriminated. Thus, we can conclude the proposed method using full polarimetric data has great potential for damage assessment of landslides.

Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), polarimetric decomposition, damage assessment, landslide

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
140 The Impact of the Global Financial Crises on MILA Stock Markets

Authors: Miriam Sosa, Edgar Ortiz, Alejandra Cabello

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This paper examines the volatility changes and leverage effects of the MILA stock markets and their changes since the 2007 global financial crisis. This group integrates the stock markets from Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. Volatility changes and leverage effects are tested with a symmetric GARCH (1,1) and asymmetric TARCH (1,1) models with a dummy variable in the variance equation. Daily closing prices of the stock indexes of Chile (IPSA), Colombia (COLCAP), Mexico (IPC) and Peru (IGBVL) are examined for the period 2003:01 to 2015:02. The evidence confirms the presence of an overall increase in asymmetric market volatility in the Peruvian share market since the 2007 crisis.

Keywords: financial crisis, Latin American Integrated Market, TARCH, GARCH

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
139 Scaling out Sustainable Land Use Systems in Colombia: Some Insights and Implications from Two Regional Case Studies

Authors: Martha Lilia Del Rio Duque, Michelle Bonatti, Katharina Loehr, Marcos Lana, Tatiana Rodriguez, Stefan Sieber

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Nowadays, most agricultural practices can reduce the ability of ecosystems to provide goods and services. To enhance environmentally friendly food production and to maximize social and economic benefits, sustainable land use systems (SLUS) are one of the most critical strategies increasingly/strongly promoted by donors organizations, international agencies, and policymakers. This process involves the question of how SLUS can be scaled out also large-scale landscapes and not merely isolated experiments. As SLUS are context-specific strategies, diffusion and replication of successful SLUS in Colombia required the identification of main factors that facilitate this scaling out process. We applied a case study approach to investigate the scaling out process of SLUS in cocoa and livestock sector within peacebuilding territories in Colombia, specifically, in Cesar and Caqueta region. These two regions are contrasting, but both have a current trend of increasing land degradation. Presently in Colombia, Caqueta is one of the most deforested departments, and Cesar has some most degraded soils. Following a qualitative research approach, 19 semi-structured interviews and 2 focus groups were conducted with agroforestry experts in both regions to analyze (1) what does it mean a sustainable land use system in Cocoa/Livestock, specifically in Caqueta or Cesar and (2) to identify the key elements at the level of the following dimensions: biophysical, economic and profitability, market, social, policy and institutions that can explain how and why SLUS are replicated and spread among more producers. The Interviews were coded and analyzed using MAXQDA to identify, analyze and report patterns (themes) within data. As the results show, key themes, among which: premium market, solid regional markets and price stability, water availability and management, generational renewal, land use knowledge and diversification, producer organization and certifications are crucial to understand how the SLUS can have an impact across large-scale landscapes and how the scaling out process can be set up best in order to be successful across different contexts. The analysis further reveals which key factors might affect SLUS efficiency.

Keywords: agroforestry, cocoa sector, Colombia, livestock sector, sustainable land use system

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138 Markowitz and Implementation of a Multi-Objective Evolutionary Technique Applied to the Colombia Stock Exchange (2009-2015)

Authors: Feijoo E. Colomine Duran, Carlos E. Peñaloza Corredor

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There modeling component selection financial investment (Portfolio) a variety of problems that can be addressed with optimization techniques under evolutionary schemes. For his feature, the problem of selection of investment components of a dichotomous relationship between two elements that are opposed: The Portfolio Performance and Risk presented by choosing it. This relationship was modeled by Markowitz through a media problem (Performance) - variance (risk), ie must Maximize Performance and Minimize Risk. This research included the study and implementation of multi-objective evolutionary techniques to solve these problems, taking as experimental framework financial market equities Colombia Stock Exchange between 2009-2015. Comparisons three multiobjective evolutionary algorithms, namely the Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II), the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2 (SPEA2) and Indicator-Based Selection in Multiobjective Search (IBEA) were performed using two measures well known performance: The Hypervolume indicator and R_2 indicator, also it became a nonparametric statistical analysis and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The comparative analysis also includes an evaluation of the financial efficiency of the investment portfolio chosen by the implementation of various algorithms through the Sharpe ratio. It is shown that the portfolio provided by the implementation of the algorithms mentioned above is very well located between the different stock indices provided by the Colombia Stock Exchange.

Keywords: finance, optimization, portfolio, Markowitz, evolutionary algorithms

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
137 Barriers to Innovation Based on Environmentally Friendly Technology Adoption in Developing Countries: The Case of Production in Rural Areas in Cauca-Colombia

Authors: Deycy Janeth Sanchez Preciado, Bjorn Claes, Paola Andrade

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The development of appropriate environmentally friendly technologies has aided communities in rural areas in emerging economies to better use their natural resources, increase productivity while reducing pollution. Moreover, it has improved their innovation capabilities and ability to develop products for new markets. However, despite the advances, the adoption of these technologies is not generalized and does not always show the expected benefits for the communities and other actors involved in the co-creation process. In this paper, we study the barriers that inhibit the adoption of technologies to reach innovation levels and study comparative cases in rural areas of Cauca in Colombia. We develop and test a theory grounded framework, and we compile an overview of the most important of barriers.

Keywords: technology adoption, environmentally friendly technology, developing countries, rural production, innovation, appropriate technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
136 Regionalization of IDF Curves, by Interpolating Intensity and Adjustment Parameters - Application to Boyacá, Colombia

Authors: Pedro Mauricio Acosta, Carlos Andrés Caro

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This research presents the regionalization of IDF curves for the department of Boyacá, Colombia, which comprises 16 towns, including the provincial capital, Tunja. For regionalization adjustment parameters (U and alpha) of the IDF curves stations referred to in the studied area were used. Similar regionalization is used by the interpolation of intensities. In the case of regionalization by parameters found by the construction of the curves intensity, duration and frequency estimation methods using ordinary moments and maximum likelihood. Regionalization and interpolation of data were performed with the assistance of Arcgis software. Within the development of the project the best choice to provide a level of reliability such as to determine which of the options and ways to regionalize is best sought. The resulting isolines maps were made in the case of regionalization intensities, each map is associated with a different return period and duration in order to build IDF curves in the studied area. In the case of the regionalization maps parameters associated with each parameter were performed last.

Keywords: intensity duration, frequency curves, regionalization, hydrology

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
135 Attitude towards Doping of High-Performance Athletes in a Sports Institute of the City of Medellin, Colombia

Authors: Yuban Sebastian Cuartas-Agudelo, Sandra Marcela López-Hincapié, Vivianna Alexandra Garrido-Altamar, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez-Gázquez, Camilo Ruiz-Mejía, Lina María Martínez-Sánchez, Gloria Inés Martínez-Domínguez, Luis Eduardo Contreras, Felipe Eduardo Marino-Isaza

Abstract:

Introduction: Doping is a prohibited practice in competitive sports with potential adverse effects; therefore, it is crucial to describe the attitudes of athletes towards this behavior and to determine which o these increase the susceptibility to carry out this practice. Objective: To determine the attitude of high-performance athletes towards doping in a sports institute in the city of Medellin, Colombia. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study during 2016, with a sample taken to convenience consisting of athletes over 18 years old enrolled in a sports institute of the city of Medellin (Colombia). The athletes filled by themselves the Petroczi and Aidman questionnaire: Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS) adapted to the Spanish language by Morente-Sánchez et al. This scale has 17 items with likert answer options, with a score ranging from 1 to 6, with a higher score indicating a stronger tendency towards doping practices. Results: 112 athletes were included with an average age of 21.6 years old, a 60% of them were male and the most frequent sports were karate 17%, judo 12.5% and athletics 9.8%. The average score of the questionnaire was 35.5 points of a 102 possible points. The lowest score was obtained in the following items: Is Doping necessary 1,4 and Doping isn’t cheating, everyone does it 1,5. Conclusion: In our population, there is a low tendency towards doping practices.

Keywords: sports, doping in sports, athletic performance, attitude

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134 Barriers to Public Innovation in Colombia: Case Study in Central Administrative Region

Authors: Yessenia Parrado, Ana Barbosa, Daniela Mahe, Sebastian Toro, Jhon Garcia

Abstract:

Public innovation has gained strength in recent years in response to the need to find new strategies or mechanisms to interact between government entities and citizens. In this way, the Colombian government has been promoting policies aimed at strengthening innovation as a fundamental aspect in the work of public entities. However, in order to potentiate the capacities of public servants and therefore of the institutions and organizations to which they belong, it is necessary to be able to understand the context under which they operate in their daily work. This article aims to compile the work developed by the laboratory of innovation, creativity, and new technologies LAB101 of the National University of Colombia for the National Department of Planning. A case study was developed in the central region of Colombia made up of five departments, through the construction of instruments based on quantitative techniques in response to the item combined with qualitative analysis through semi-structured interviews to understand the perception of possible barriers to innovation and the obstacles that have prevented the acceleration of transformation within public organizations. From the information collected, different analyzes are carried out that allows a more robust explanation to be given to the results obtained, and a set of categories are established to group different characteristics associated with possible difficulties that officials perceive to innovate and that are later conceived as barriers. Finally, a proposal for an indicator was built to measure the degree of innovation within public entities in order to be able to carry a metric in future opportunities. The main findings of this study show three key components to be strengthened in public entities and organizations: governance, knowledge management, and the promotion of collaborative workspaces.

Keywords: barriers, enablers, management, public innovation

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133 Analysis of Storm Flood in Typical Sewer Networks in High Mountain Watersheds of Colombia Based on SWMM

Authors: J. C. Hoyos, J. Zambrano Nájera

Abstract:

Increasing urbanization has led to changes in the natural dynamics of watersheds, causing problems such as increases in volumes of runoff, peak flow rates, and flow rates so that the risk of storm flooding increases. Sewerage networks designed 30 – 40 years ago don’t account for these increases in flow volumes and velocities. Besides, Andean cities with high slopes worsen the problem because velocities are even higher not allowing sewerage network work and causing cities less resilient to landscape changes and climatic change. In Latin America, especially Colombia, this is a major problem because urban population at late XX century was more than 70% is in urban areas increasing approximately in 790% in 1940-1990 period. Thus, it becomes very important to study how changes in hydrological behavior affect hydraulic capacity of sewerage networks in Andean Urban Watersheds. This research aims to determine the impact of urbanization in high-sloped urban watersheds in its hydrology. To this end it will be used as study area experimental urban watershed named Palogrande-San Luis watershed, located in the city of Manizales, Colombia. Manizales is a city in central western Colombia, located in Colombian Central Mountain Range (part of Los Andes Mountains) with an abrupt topography (average altitude is 2.153 m). The climate in Manizales is quite uniform, but due to its high altitude it presents high precipitations (1.545 mm/year average) with high humidity (83% average). Behavior of the current sewerage network will be reviewed by the hydraulic model SWMM (Storm Water Management Model). Based on SWMM the hydrological response of urban watershed selected will be evaluated under the design storm with different frequencies in the region, such as drainage effect and water-logging, overland flow on roads, etc. Cartographic information was obtained from a Geographic Information System (GIS) thematic maps of the Institute of Environmental Studies of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia and the utility Aguas de Manizales S.A. Rainfall and streamflow data is obtained from 4 rain gages and 1 stream gages. This information will allow determining critical issues on drainage systems design in urban watershed with very high slopes, and which practices will be discarded o recommended.

Keywords: land cover changes, storm sewer system, urban hydrology, urban planning

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132 Microbiological Analysis, Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects from Material Captured in PM2.5 and PM10 Filters Used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia)

Authors: Carmen E. Zapata, Juan Bautista, Olga Montoya, Claudia Moreno, Marisol Suarez, Alejandra Betancur, Duvan Nanclares, Natalia A. Cano

Abstract:

This study aims to evaluate the diversity of microorganisms in filters PM2.5 and PM10; and determine the genotoxic and cytotoxic activity of the complex mixture present in PM2.5 filters used in the Aburrá Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network (Colombia). The research results indicate that particulate matter PM2.5 of different monitoring stations are bacteria; however, this study of detection of bacteria and their phylogenetic relationship is not complete evidence to connect the microorganisms with pathogenic or degrading activities of compounds present in the air. Additionally, it was demonstrated the damage induced by the particulate material in the cell membrane, lysosomal and endosomal membrane and in the mitochondrial metabolism; this damage was independent of the PM2.5 concentrations in almost all the cases.

Keywords: cytotoxic, genotoxic, microbiological analysis, PM10, PM2.5

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