Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 100

Search results for: Johan Sebastián Lopera Valle

100 Prevalence and Characteristics of Consumption of Nutraceuticals: The Case Study of Undergraduate Students of Medellin- Colombia, 2013

Authors: Gloria Inés Martínez Domínguez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Juan Guillermo Jiménez Jiménez, Johan Sebastián Lopera Valle, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Sara Rojas Jiménez, Alejandra Uribe Ocampo, Sara Correa Pérez, Natalia Perilla Hernández, Juan Sebastián Marín Cárdenas

Abstract:

The relationship between diet and chronic or degenerative diseases has led to the development of functional foods such as nutraceuticals. Objective: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of consumption of nutraceuticals in undergraduate students. Methodology: Cross-sectional study. It was a simple random sampling with the Statcalc EpiInfo software vr 6.04. It was designed an instrument for collection of demographic data and consumption of nutraceuticals. Statistical analysis used the SPSS program. Results: 427 students, average age 20.8 years (SD 3.1), 56.1% were women. The life prevalence of nutraceuticals consumption was 66.3% and the annual 51.8%. The main reasons for consumption were as food complement 32.8% and prevent diseases 20.1%. Conclusion: The high prevalence of nutraceuticals observed is comparable to that reported in the literature, which suggests an increasing trend in the habit of consumption of dietary supplement which have a preventive or protective effect on health.

Keywords: Food, Health, Functional food, dietary supplements, Colombia

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
99 Stun Practices in Swine in the Valle De Aburrá and Animal Welfare

Authors: Natalia Uribe Corrales, Santiago Henao Villegas, Carolina Cano Arroyave

Abstract:

Introduction: Stunning is an important stage in the meat industry due to the repercussions on the characteristics of the carcass. It has been demonstrated that inadequate stun can lead to hematomas, fractures and promote the appearance of pale, soft and exudative meat due to the stress caused in animals. In Colombia, gas narcosis and electrical stunning are the two authorized methods in pigs. Objective: To describe the practices of stunning in the Valle de Aburrá and its relation with animal welfare. Methods: A descriptive cross - sectional study was carried out in Valle de Aburrá slaughterhouses, which were authorized by National Institute for Food and Medicine Surveillance (INVIMA). Variables such as stunning method, presence of vocalization, falls, slips, rhythmic breathing, corneal reflex and attempts to incorporate after stunning, stun time and time between stun and bleeding were analyzed. Results: 225 pigs were analyzed, finding that 50.2% had electrical stun, whose amperage and voltage were 1.23 (A) and 120 (V) respectively; 49.8% of the animals were stunned with CO2 chamber whose concentration was always above 95%, the mean desensitization time was 16.8 seconds (d.e.5.37); the mean time of stunning - bleeding was 47.9 seconds (d.e.13.9); similarly, it was found that 27.1% had vocalizations after stunning; 12% had falls; 10.7% showed rhythmic breathing; 33.3% exhibited corneal reflex; and 10.7% had reincorporation attempts. Conclusions: The methods of stunning used in the Valle de Aburrá, although performed with those permitted by law, are shortcomings in relation to the amperage and voltage used for each type of pig, as well, it is found that welfare animal is being violated to find signology of an inadequate desensitization. It is necessary to promote compliance with the principles of stunning according to Animal Welfare, and keep in mind that in electrical desensitization, the calibration of the equipment must be guaranteed (pressure according to the type of animal or current applied and the position where the electrodes are) and in the narcosis the equipment should be calibrated to ensure proper gas concentration and exposure time.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Pigs, quality of meat, stun methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
98 Parameters Adjustment of the Modified UBCSand Constitutive Model for the Potentially Liquefiable Sands of Santiago de Cali-Colombia

Authors: Peter Thomson, Daniel Rosero, Johan S. Arana, Sebastian Arango, Alejandro Cruz, Isabel Gomez-Gutierrez

Abstract:

Santiago de Cali is located in the southwestern Colombia in a high seismic hazard zone. About 50% of the city is on the banks of the Cauca River, which is the second most important hydric affluent in the country and whose alluvial deposits contain potentially liquefiable sands. Among the methods used to study a site's liquefaction potential is the finite elements method which use constitutive models to simulate the soil response for different load types. Among the different constitutive models, the Modified UBCSand stands out to study the seismic behavior of sands, and especially the liquefaction phenomenon. In this paper, the dynamic behavior of a potentially liquefiable sand of Santiago de Cali is studied by cyclic triaxial and CPTu tests. Subsequently, the behavior of the sand is simulated using the Modified UBCSand constitutive model, whose parameters are calibrated using the results of cyclic triaxial and CPTu tests. The above with the aim of analyze the constitutive model applicability for studying the geotechnical problems associated to liquefaction in the city.

Keywords: Dynamic Behavior, constitutive model, cyclic triaxial test, liquefiable sand, modified ubcsand

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
97 Management Practices in Holding Pens in Pig’s Slaughterhouses in the Valle De Aburrá, Antioquia and Animal Welfare

Authors: Natalia Uribe Corrales, Santiago Henao Villegas

Abstract:

Introduction: The management of pigs in the holding pens at the slaughterhouses is a key point to minimize levels of stress and fear, improve efficiency, maintain a good quality of meat and avoid economic losses. Holding pens should guarantee drinking water continuously, a minimum space of 1.2 m2/ animal; As well as an adequate management in the conduction of the animals towards stun. Objective: To characterize the management practices in holding pens in slaughterhouses in the Valle de Aburrá. Methods: A descriptive cross - sectional study was carried out in Valle de Aburrá benefit plants, which were authorized by National Institute for Food and Medicine Surveillance (INVIMA). Variables such as management mechanisms to the pens, time of housing, water supply, load density, vocalization, slips and falls of the animals in the pens and mechanism of conduction towards desensitization were analyzed. Results: 225 pigs were analyzed, finding that 35.6% were lowered with slaps from the trucks to the waiting pens; The lairage time was greater than 10 hours in 16% of the animals; 12.9% of pigs had no water permanently; 40.9% was subjected to a high load density, while 19.6% had a low load density. Regarding aspects of animal welfare, 37.3% presented high vocalizations; 29.3% and 14.2% presented slips or falls respectively. Regarding the mechanism of conduction towards desensitization, slapping was used in 56% and electrical prod in 4%. Conclusions: It is necessary to continue promoting the learning of the densities of load, since both high and low densities generate inconveniences in animal welfare, favoring the appearance of lesions and stress in the animals. Also, to promote the rule of permanent water in the pens and a time of housing less than 10 hours. In relation to the driving mechanisms, it is necessary to continue animal husbandry campaigns, encouraging the use of other alternatives such as boards or panels to assist the movement of pigs.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Swine, quality of meat, waiting pens

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
96 Management in the Transport of Pigs to Slaughterhouses in the Valle De Aburrá, Antioquia

Authors: Natalia Uribe Corrales, María Fernanda Benavides Erazo, Santiago Henao Villegas

Abstract:

Introduction: Transport is a crucial link in the porcine chain because it is considered a stressful event in the animal, due to it is a new environment, which generates new interactions, together with factors such as speed, noise, temperature changes, vibrations, deprivation of food and water. Therefore, inadequate handling at this stage can lead to bruises, musculoskeletal injuries, fatigue, and mortality, resulting in canal seizures and economic losses. Objective: To characterize the transport and driving practices for the mobilization of standing pigs directed to slaughter plants in the Valle de Aburrá, Antioquia, Colombia in 2017. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with the transporters arriving at the slaughterhouses approved by National Institute for Food and Medicine Surveillance (INVIMA) during 2017 in the Valle de Aburrá. The process of obtaining the samples was made from probabilistic sampling. Variables such as journey time, mechanical technical certificate, training in animal welfare, driving speed, material, and condition of floors and separators, supervision of animals during the trip, load density and mortality were analyzed. It was approved by the ethics committee for the use and care of animals CICUA of CES University, Act number 14 of 2015. Results: 190 trucks were analyzed, finding that 12.4% did not have updated mechanical technical certificate; the transporters experience in pig’s transportation was an average of 9.4 years (d.e.7.5). The 85.8% reported not having received training in animal welfare. Other results were that the average speed was 63.04km/hr (d.e 13.46) and the 62% had floors in good condition; nevertheless, the 48% had bad conditions on separators. On the other hand, the 88% did not supervise their animals during the journey, although the 62.2% had an adequate loading density, in relation to the average mortality was 0.2 deaths/travel (d.e. 0.5). Conclusions: Trainers should be encouraged on issues such as proper maintenance of vehicles, animal welfare, obligatory review of animals during mobilization and speed of driving, as these poorly managed indicators generate stress in animals, increasing generation of injuries as well as possible accidents; also, it is necessary to continue to improve aspects such as aluminum floors and separators that favor easy cleaning and maintenance, as well as the appropriate handling in the density of load that generates animal welfare.

Keywords: Animal Welfare, Pigs, driving practices, truck infrastructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
95 Enhanced Ripening Behaviour of Manganese Doped Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots (Mn-doped CdSe QDs)

Authors: N. A. Hamizi, M. R. Johan, Y. H. Hor, A. N. Sabri, Y. Y. A. Yong

Abstract:

In this research, Mn-doped CdSe QDs is synthesized by using paraffin liquid as the reacting solvent and oleic acid as the ligands for Cd in order to produce Mn-doped CdSe QDs in zinc-blende crystal structure. Characterization studies for synthesized Mn-doped CdSe QDs are carried out using UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The absorption wavelengths in UV-vis test and emission wavelengths in PL test were increase with the increases in the ripening temperature and time respectively.

Keywords: Semiconductor, Chemical Synthesis, Optical Properties, ripening

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
94 Assessment of Impact of Urbanization in Drainage Urban Systems, Cali-Colombia

Authors: J. Zambrano Nájera, A. Caicedo Padilla

Abstract:

Cali, the capital of Valle del Cauca and the second city of Colombia, is located in the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Cordillera that is South West of the country. The topography of the city is mainly flat, but it is possibly to find mountains in the west. The city has increased urbanization during XX century, especially since 1958 when started a rapid growth due to migration of people from other parts of the region. Much of that population has settled in eastern of Cali, an area originally intended for cane cultivation and a zone of flood from Cauca River and its tributaries. Due to the unplanned migration, settling was inadequate and produced changes in natural dynamics of the basins, which has resulted in increases in runoff volumes, peak flows and flow velocities, that in turn increases flood risk. Sewerage networks capacity were not enough for this higher runoff volume, because in first term they were not adequately designed and built, causing its failure. This in turn generates increasingly recurrent floods generating considerable effects on the economy and development of normal activities in Cali. Thus, it becomes very important to know hydrological behavior of Urban Watersheds. This research aims to determine the impact of urbanization on hydrology of watersheds with very low slopes. The project aims to identify changes in natural drainage patterns caused by the changes made on landscape. From the identification of such modifications it will be defined the most critical areas due to recurring flood events in the city of Cali. Critical areas are defined as areas where the sewerage system does not work properly as surface runoff increases considerable with storm events, and floods are recurrent. The assessment will be done from the analysis of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) theme layers from CVC Environmental Institution of Regional Control in Valle del Cauca, hydrological data and disaster database developed by OSSO Corporation. Rainfall data from a network and historical stream flow data will be used for analysis of historical behavior and change of precipitation and hydrological response according to homogeneous zones characterized by EMCALI S.A. public utility enterprise of Cali in 1999.

Keywords: Urban Planning, Urban Hydrology, drainage systems, land cover changes

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
93 Evidence of Conditional and Unconditional Cooperation in a Public Goods Game: Experimental Evidence from Mali

Authors: Maria Laura Alzua, Maria Adelaida Lopera

Abstract:

This paper measures the relative importance of conditional cooperation and unconditional cooperation in a large public goods experiment conducted in Mali. We use expectations about total public goods provision to estimate a structural choice model with heterogeneous preferences. While unconditional cooperation can be captured by common preferences shared by all participants, conditional cooperation is much more heterogeneous and depends on unobserved individual factors. This structural model, in combination with two experimental treatments, suggests that leadership and group communication incentivize public goods provision through different channels. First, We find that participation of local leaders effectively changes individual choices through unconditional cooperation. A simulation exercise predicts that even in the most pessimistic scenario in which all participants expect zero public good provision, 60% would still choose to cooperate. Second, allowing participants to communicate fosters conditional cooperation. The simulations suggest that expectations are responsible for around 24% of the observed public good provision and that group communication does not necessarily ameliorate public good provision. In fact, communication may even worsen the outcome when expectations are low.

Keywords: Expectations, random coefficients model, conditional cooperation, discrete choice model, public goods game

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
92 Identify the Renewable Energy Potential through Sustainability Indicators and Multicriteria Analysis

Authors: Patricia Teixeira Leite Asano, Camila Lima, Murilo Andrade Valle

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The growth in demand for electricity, caused by human development, depletion and environmental impacts caused by traditional sources of electricity generation have made new energy sources are increasingly encouraged and necessary for companies in the electricity sector. Based on this scenario, this paper assesses the negative environmental impacts associated with thermoelectric power plants in Brazil, pointing out the importance of using renewable energy sources, reducing environmental aggression. This article points out the existence of an energy alternative, wind energy, of the municipalities of São Paulo, represented by georeferenced maps with the help of GIS, using as a premise the indicators of sustainability and multicriteria analysis in the decision-making process.

Keywords: Wind energy, Sustainability, multicriteria analysis, GIS (geographic information systems)

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
91 Forward Conditional Restricted Boltzmann Machines for the Generation of Music

Authors: Johan Loeckx, Joeri Bultheel

Abstract:

Recently, the application of deep learning to music has gained popularity. Its true potential, however, has been largely unexplored. In this paper, a new idea for representing the dynamic behavior of music is proposed. A ”forward” conditional RBM takes into account not only preceding but also future samples during training. Though this may sound controversial at first sight, it will be shown that it makes sense from a musical and neuro-cognitive perspective. The model is applied to reconstruct music based upon the first notes and to improvise in the musical style of a composer. Different to expectations, reconstruction accuracy with respect to a regular CRBM with the same order, was not significantly improved. More research is needed to test the performance on unseen data.

Keywords: Deep learning, restricted boltzmann machine, music generation, conditional restricted boltzmann machine (CRBM)

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90 Managing of Work Risk in Small and Medium-Size Companies

Authors: Sebastian Kot, Janusz K. Grabara, Bartłomiej Okwiet

Abstract:

The purpose of the article is presentation and analysis of the aspect of job security in small and medium-size enterprises in Poland with reference to other EU countries. We show the theoretical aspects of the risk with reference to managing small and medium enterprises, next risk management in small and medium enterprises in Poland, which were subjected to a detailed analysis. We show in detail the risk associated with the operation of the mentioned above companies, as well as analyses its levels on various stages and for different kinds of conducted activity.

Keywords: Risk management, SME, job safety, work risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
89 Rodriguez Diego, Del Valle Martin, Hargreaves Matias, Riveros Jose Luis

Authors: Nathainail Bashir, Neil Anderson

Abstract:

The objective of this study site was to investigate the current state of the practice with regards to karst detection methods and recommend the best method and pattern of arrays to acquire the desire results. Proper site investigation in karst prone regions is extremely valuable in determining the location of possible voids. Two geophysical techniques were employed: multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and electric resistivity tomography (ERT).The MASW data was acquired at each test location using different array lengths and different array orientations (to increase the probability of getting interpretable data in karst terrain). The ERT data were acquired using a dipole-dipole array consisting of 168 electrodes. The MASW data was interpreted (re: estimated depth to physical top of rock) and used to constrain and verify the interpretation of the ERT data. The ERT data indicates poorer quality MASW data were acquired in areas where there was significant local variation in the depth to top of rock.

Keywords: ERT, MASW, dipole-dipole, Karst terrains

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
88 Application of Finite Volume Method for Numerical Simulation of Contaminant Transfer in a Two-Dimensional Reservoir

Authors: Atousa Ataieyan, Salvador A. Gomez-Lopera, Gennaro Sepede

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Today, due to the growing urban population and consequently, the increasing water demand in cities, the amount of contaminants entering the water resources is increasing. This can impose harmful effects on the quality of the downstream water. Therefore, predicting the concentration of discharged pollutants at different times and distances of the interested area is of high importance in order to carry out preventative and controlling measures, as well as to avoid consuming the contaminated water. In this paper, the concentration distribution of an injected conservative pollutant in a square reservoir containing four symmetric blocks and three sources using Finite Volume Method (FVM) is simulated. For this purpose, after estimating the flow velocity, classical Advection-Diffusion Equation (ADE) has been discretized over the studying domain by Backward Time- Backward Space (BTBS) scheme. Then, the discretized equations for each node have been derived according to the initial condition, boundary conditions and point contaminant sources. Finally, taking into account the appropriate time step and space step, a computational code was set up in MATLAB. Contaminant concentration was then obtained at different times and distances. Simulation results show how using BTBS differentiating scheme and FVM as a numerical method for solving the partial differential equation of transport is an appropriate approach in the case of two-dimensional contaminant transfer in an advective-diffusive flow.

Keywords: Water pollution, mass transfer, finite volume, BTBS differentiating scheme, contaminant concentration

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87 In Silico Analysis of Small Heat Shock Protein Gene Family by RNA-Seq during Tomato Fruit Ripening

Authors: Debora P. Arce, Flavia J. Krsticevic, Marco R. Bertolaccini, Joaquín Ezpeleta, Estela M. Valle, Sergio D. Ponce, Elizabeth Tapia

Abstract:

Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are low molecular weight chaperones that play an important role during stress response and development in all living organisms. Fruit maturation and oxidative stress can induce sHSP synthesis both in Arabidopsis and tomato plants. RNA-Seq technology is becoming widely used in various transcriptomics studies; however, analyzing and interpreting the RNA-Seq data face serious challenges. In the present work, we de novo assembled the Solanum lycopersicum transcriptome for three different maturation stages (mature green, breaker and red ripe). Differential gene expression analysis was carried out during tomato fruit development. We identified 12 sHSPs differentially expressed that might be involved in breaker and red ripe fruit maturation. Interestingly, these sHSPs have different subcellular localization and suggest a complex regulation of the fruit maturation network process.

Keywords: assembly, Maturation, RNA-Seq, tomato, sHSPs

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
86 A Syntactic Errors Analysis in the Malaysian ESL Learners' Written Composition

Authors: Annie Gedion, Johan Severinus Tati, Jacinta Caroline Peter

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Syntax error analysis studies have a significant role in English language teaching especially in the second language. This study investigates the syntax errors in written composition by 50 multilingual ESL learners in Politeknik Kota Kinabalu Sabah, Malaysia. The subjects speak their own dialect, Malay as their second language and English as their third or foreign language. Data were collected from the written discourse in the form of descriptive essays. The subjects were asked to write in the classroom within 45 minutes. 15 categories of errors were classified into a set of syntactic categories and were analysed based on the five steps of the syntactic analysis procedure. The findings of the study showed that the mother tongue interference, as well as lack of vocabulary and grammar knowledge, were the major sources of syntax errors in the learners’ written composition. Learners should be exposed to the differentiation of Malay and English grammar to avoid interference and effective learning of second language writing.

Keywords: English as a Second Language, errors analysis, syntactic analysis, ESL writing

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
85 Microfluidic Continuous Approaches to Produce Magnetic Nanoparticles with Homogeneous Size Distribution

Authors: Victor Sebastian, Ane Larrea, Manuel Arruebo, Jesus Santamaria

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We present a gas-liquid microfluidic system as a reactor to obtain magnetite nanoparticles with an excellent degree of control regarding their crystalline phase, shape and size. Several types of microflow approaches were selected to prevent nanomaterial aggregation and to promote homogenous size distribution. The selected reactor consists of a mixer stage aided by ultrasound waves and a reaction stage using a N2-liquid segmented flow to prevent magnetite oxidation to non-magnetic phases. A milli-fluidic reactor was developed to increase the production rate where a magnetite throughput close to 450 mg/h in a continuous fashion was obtained.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Microfluidics, magnetic nanoparticles, continuous production

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
84 Festive Fictions: An Iconographic Study of Ritual and Intersectionality in Cartagena, Colombia

Authors: Melissa Valle

Abstract:

This paper draws upon the studies of visual culture and intersectionality to illuminate how visuality can naturalize social hierarchies. Through the use of iconography, it decodes the denotative, connotative and ideological meanings of symbols of ritualistic events in the context of the Colombian Atlantic Coast. An examination of such exceptional moments, i.e. of the spectacle, brings into focus how such performances are imbued with meaning by both the on-looker and the performer. Through an analysis of preexisting visuals (e.g., advertisements, social media) and visual materials produced by the researcher for the purpose of photo-elicitation interviews, this paper provides a contextual analysis of the ways in which three representations, popular during Colombian Atlantic coastal festivals (Negrita Puloy, Las Palenqueras, and El Son de Negro), have been historically, culturally and politically constituted. This work reveals that the visualizations are born out of and reproduce typifications systems heavily based upon race, gender, class, and ethnicity. Understanding the ways these categories are mutually constituted through the cultural practice of visual representation is essential to a more comprehensive understanding of the role such representation plays in the reproduction of social difference.

Keywords: Visual Culture, Festivals, intersectionality‎, Colombia

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
83 Treatment and Reuse of Nonmetallic PCBs Waste

Authors: Shantha Kumari Muniyandi, Johan Sohaili, Siti Suhaila Mohamad

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The strength development, durability and leachability aspects of mortar added with nonmetallic printed circuit board (NMPCBs) were investigated. This study aims to propose methods for treatment and reuse of NMPCBs waste. The leachability of raw NMPCBs was tested for toxicity by performing the Crushed Block Leachability (CBL) test. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by performing compressive, flexural strength, durability and whole block leachability (WBL) tests on the mortar. The results indicated that the concentration of metals leach from the raw NMPCBs are within the standard limits and higher than the concentration of metals from WBL test. The compressive and flexural strength of the NMPCBs mortar was generally lower than the standard mortar. From durability tests, weight and compressive strength both of mortars was decrease after soaking in acid solution. As a conclusion, the treated NMPCBs can be reused in profitable and environmentally friendly ways and has broad application prospects.

Keywords: treatment, reuse, nonmetallic, printed circuit board

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
82 Use of Cloud Computing and Smart Devices in Healthcare

Authors: Nikunj Agarwal, M. P. Sebastian

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Cloud computing can reduce the start-up expenses of implementing EHR (Electronic Health Records). However, many of the healthcare institutions are yet to implement cloud computing due to the associated privacy and security issues. In this paper, we analyze the challenges and opportunities of implementing cloud computing in healthcare. We also analyze data of over 5000 US hospitals that use Telemedicine applications. This analysis helps to understand the importance of smart phones over the desktop systems in different departments of the healthcare institutions. The wide usage of smartphones and cloud computing allows ubiquitous and affordable access to the health data by authorized persons, including patients and doctors. Cloud computing will prove to be beneficial to a majority of the departments in healthcare. Through this analysis, we attempt to understand the different healthcare departments that may benefit significantly from the implementation of cloud computing.

Keywords: Telemedicine, Cloud Computing, Healthcare, smart devices

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
81 CMOS Solid-State Nanopore DNA System-Level Sequencing Techniques Enhancement

Authors: Syed Islam, Yiyun Huang, Sebastian Magierowski, Ebrahim Ghafar-Zadeh

Abstract:

This paper presents system level CMOS solid-state nanopore techniques enhancement for speedup next generation molecular recording and high throughput channels. This discussion also considers optimum number of base-pair (bp) measurements through channel as an important role to enhance potential read accuracy. Effective power consumption estimation offered suitable rangeof multi-channel configuration. Nanopore bp extraction model in statistical method could contribute higher read accuracy with longer read-length (200 < read-length). Nanopore ionic current switching with Time Multiplexing (TM) based multichannel readout system contributed hardware savings.

Keywords: Dna, amplifier, nanopore, ADC, multichannel

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
80 The Complete Modal Derivatives

Authors: Sebastian Andersen, Peter N. Poulsen

Abstract:

The use of basis projection in the structural dynamic analysis is frequently applied. The purpose of the method is to improve the computational efficiency, while maintaining a high solution accuracy, by projection the governing equations onto a small set of carefully selected basis vectors. The present work considers basis projection in kinematic nonlinear systems with a focus on two widely used basis vectors; the system mode shapes and their modal derivatives. Particularly the latter basis vectors are given special attention since only approximate modal derivatives have been used until now. In the present work the complete modal derivatives, derived from perturbation methods, are presented and compared to the previously applied approximate modal derivatives. The correctness of the complete modal derivatives is illustrated by use of an example of a harmonically loaded kinematic nonlinear structure modeled by beam elements.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, basis projection, kinematic nonlinearities, modal derivatives

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
79 Evaluation Practices in Colombia: Between Beliefs and National Exams

Authors: Danilsa Lorduy, Liliana Valle

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Assessment and evaluation are inextricable parts of the teaching learning process. Evaluation practices concerns are gaining popularity among curriculum developers an educational researchers, particularly in Colombian regions where English language is taught as a foreign language EFL. This study addressed one of those issues, which are the unbalanced in –services’ evaluation practices perceived in school classes. They present predominance on the written test among the procedures they use to evaluate; therefore, the purpose of this case study was to explore in-service teachers’ evaluation practices, their beliefs about evaluation and to establish an eventual connection between practices and beliefs. To this end, classroom observations, questionnaires, and a semi structured interview were applied to three in-service English teachers from different schools in a city in Colombia. The findings suggested that teachers’ beliefs indicate a formative inclination and they actually are using a variety of procedures different from test but they seem to have some issues regarding their appropriateness for application Moreover, it was found that teachers’ practices are being influenced by external factors such as school requirements and national policies. It could be concluded that the predominance in using tests is not only elicited by teachers’ beliefs but also by national test results 'Pruebas Saber' and law 115 demanding. It was also suggested that further quantitative research is needed to demonstrate connections between overuse of testing procedures and 'Pruebas Saber' national test.

Keywords: Evaluation, beliefs, external factors, national test

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78 Solid Particle Erosion of Heat Treated TNB-V4 at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Richard Stechow, Sebastian Bolz, Katharina Hobusch, Sabine Weiß

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Solid particle erosion has been identified as a critical wear phenomenon which takes place during operation of aeroengines in dusty environment. The present work discusses the erosion behavior of Ti-44.5Al-6.25Nb-0.8Mo-0.1B alloy (TNB-V4) which finds its application in low pressure gas turbines and can be used for high pressure compressors too. Prior to the erosion tests, the alloy was heat treated to improve the mechanical properties. Afterwards, specimens were eroded at impact angles of 30° and 90° at room and high temperatures (100 °C-400 °C). Volume loss and erosion behavior are studied through gravimetric analysis, whereas erosion mechanisms are characterized through scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate a clear difference in the erosion mechanism for different impact angles. The influence of the test temperature on the erosion behavior of the alloy is also discussed in the present contribution.

Keywords: solid particle erosion, gamma TiAl, TNB-V4, high temperature erosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
77 Macroinvertebrate Variation of Endorheic Depression Wetlands within North West and Mpumalanga Provinces, South Africa

Authors: Lee-Ann Foster, Wynand Malherbe, Martin Ferriera, Johan Van Vuren

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Aquatic macroinvertebrates are rarely used in wetland assessments due to their variability. However, in terms of biodiversity, these invertebrates form an important component of wetlands. The objective of this study was to compare the spatial and temporal variation of macroinvertebrate assemblages within endorheic depressions in Mpumalanga and North West Provinces of South Africa. Sampling was conducted over a period of two seasons during 2012 and 2013 at all sampling points to account for a wet and dry season. The identification of macroinvertebrate community samples resulted in 24 taxa for both provinces. Results showed similarities in the structure of communities in perennial endorheic depressions in both provinces with the exception of one or two species. Macroinvertebrates sampled in Mpumalanga depressions (locally called pans) were similar to those reported in previous studies completed in the area and most of the macroinvertebrates sampled in Mpumalanga and the North West are known to be commonly found in temporary habitats. The knowledge acquired can now be utilised to enhance the available literature on these systems. Long-term studies have to be implemented to better understand the ecological functioning of the pans in the North West Province.

Keywords: Aquatic, PANS, spatial variation, macroinvertebrate assemblages

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
76 Governance of Inter-Organizational Research Cooperation

Authors: Guenther Schuh, Sebastian Woelk

Abstract:

Companies face increasing challenges in research due to higher costs and risks. The intensifying technology complexity and interdisciplinarity require unique know-how. Therefore, companies need to decide whether research shall be conducted internally or externally with partners. On the other hand, research institutes meet increasing efforts to achieve good financing and to maintain high research reputation. Therefore, relevant research topics need to be identified and specialization of competency is necessary. However, additional competences for solving interdisciplinary research projects are also often required. Secured financing can be achieved by bonding industry partners as well as public fundings. The realization of faster and better research drives companies and research institutes to cooperate in organized research networks, which are managed by an administrative organization. For an effective and efficient cooperation, necessary processes, roles, tools and a set of rules need to be determined. The goal of this paper is to show the state-of-art research and to propose a governance framework for organized research networks.

Keywords: Interorganizational Cooperation, design of network governance, research network

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75 Spark Plasma Sintering of Aluminum-Based Composites Reinforced by Nanocrystalline Carbon-Coated Intermetallic Particles

Authors: B. Z. Manuel, H. D. Esmeralda, H. S. Felipe, D. R. Héctor, D. de la Torre Sebastián, R. L. Diego

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Aluminum Matrix Composites reinforced with nanocrystalline Ni3Al carbon-coated intermetallic particles, were synthesized by powder metallurgy. Powder mixture of aluminum with 0.5-volume fraction of reinforcement particles was compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique and the compared with conventional sintering process. The better results for SPS technique were obtained in 520ºC-5kN-3min.The hardness (70.5±8 HV) and the elastic modulus (95 GPa) were evaluated in function of sintering conditions for SPS technique; it was found that the incorporation of these kind of reinforcement particles in aluminum matrix improve its mechanical properties. The densities were about 94% and 97% of the theoretical density. The carbon coating avoided the interfacial reaction between matrix-particle at high temperature (520°C) without show composition change either intermetallic dissolution.

Keywords: Intermetallics, aluminum matrix composites, spark plasma sintering, nanocrystalline

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74 Hohmann Transfer and Bi-Elliptic Hohmann Transfer in TRAPPIST-1 System

Authors: Jorge L. Nisperuza, Wilson Sandoval, Edward. A. Gil, Johan A. Jimenez

Abstract:

In orbital mechanics, an active research topic is the calculation of interplanetary trajectories efficient in terms of energy and time. In this sense, this work concerns the calculation of the orbital elements for sending interplanetary probes in the extrasolar system TRAPPIST-1. Specifically, using the mathematical expressions of the circular and elliptical trajectory parameters, expressions for the flight time and the orbital transfer rate increase between orbits, the orbital parameters and the graphs of the trajectories of Hohmann and Hohmann bi-elliptic for sending a probe from the innermost planet to all the other planets of the studied system, are obtained. The relationship between the orbital transfer rate increments and the relationship between the flight times for the two transfer types is found. The results show that, for all cases under consideration, the Hohmann transfer results to be the least energy and temporary cost, a result according to the theory associated with Hohmann and Hohmann bi-elliptic transfers. Saving in the increase of the speed reaches up to 87% was found, and it happens for the transference between the two innermost planets, whereas the time of flight increases by a factor of up to 6.6 if one makes use of the bi-elliptic transfer, this for the case of sending a probe from the innermost planet to the outermost.

Keywords: bi-elliptic Hohmann transfer, exoplanet, extrasolar system, Hohmann transfer, TRAPPIST-1

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73 Characterization of Chemically Deposited CdS Thin Films Annealed in Different Atmospheres

Authors: J. Pantoja Enríquez, G. P. Hernández, G. I. Duharte, X. Mathew, J. Moreira, P. J. Sebastian

Abstract:

Cadmium sulfide films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, thiourea, and ammonium hydroxide. The CdS thin films were annealed in air, argon, hydrogen and nitrogen for 1 h at various temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). The changes in optical and electrical properties of annealed treated CdS thin films were analyzed. The results showed that, the band-gap and resistivity depend on the post-deposition annealing atmosphere and temperatures. Thus, it was found that these properties of the films, were found to be affected by various processes with opposite effects, some beneficial and others unfavorable. The energy gap and resistivity for different annealing atmospheres was seen to oscillate by thermal annealing. Recrystallization, oxidation, surface passivation, sublimation and materials evaporation were found the main factors of the heat-treatment process responsible for this oscillating behavior. Annealing over 400 °C was seen to degrade the optical and electrical properties of the film.

Keywords: Optical, Thin Films, Electrical Properties, annealing, CDS

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72 Effect of Injection Strategy on the Performance and Emission of E85 in a Heavy-Duty Engine under Partially Premixed Combustion

Authors: Amir Aziz, Martin Tuner, Sebastian Verhelst, Oivind Andersson

Abstract:

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) is a combustion concept which aims to simultaneously achieve high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Extending the ignition delay to promote the premixing, has been recognized as one of the key factor to achieve PPC. Fuels with high octane number have been proven to be a good candidates to extend the ignition delay. In this work, E85 (85% ethanol) has been used as a PPC fuel. The aim of this work was to investigate a suitable injection strategy for PPC combustion fueled with E85 in a single-cylinder heavy-duty engine. Single and double injection strategy were applied with different injection timing and the ratio between different injection pulses was varied. The performance and emission were investigated at low load. The results show that the double injection strategy should be preferred for PPC fueled with E85 due to low emissions and high efficiency, while keeping the pressure raise rate at very low levels.

Keywords: performance and emission, E85, partially premixed combustion, injection strategy

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71 Automatic Identification and Monitoring of Wildlife via Computer Vision and IoT

Authors: Bilal Arshad, Johan Barthelemy, Elliott Pilton, Pascal Perez

Abstract:

Getting reliable, informative, and up-to-date information about the location, mobility, and behavioural patterns of animals will enhance our ability to research and preserve biodiversity. The fusion of infra-red sensors and camera traps offers an inexpensive way to collect wildlife data in the form of images. However, extracting useful data from these images, such as the identification and counting of animals remains a manual, time-consuming, and costly process. In this paper, we demonstrate that such information can be automatically retrieved by using state-of-the-art deep learning methods. Another major challenge that ecologists are facing is the recounting of one single animal multiple times due to that animal reappearing in other images taken by the same or other camera traps. Nonetheless, such information can be extremely useful for tracking wildlife and understanding its behaviour. To tackle the multiple count problem, we have designed a meshed network of camera traps, so they can share the captured images along with timestamps, cumulative counts, and dimensions of the animal. The proposed method takes leverage of edge computing to support real-time tracking and monitoring of wildlife. This method has been validated in the field and can be easily extended to other applications focusing on wildlife monitoring and management, where the traditional way of monitoring is expensive and time-consuming.

Keywords: Computer Vision, Internet of Things, Ecology, Wildlife management, Invasive Species Management

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