Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 372

Search results for: Yuan Yan Tang

372 Film Censorship and Female Chastity: Exploring State's Discourses and Patriarchal Values in Reconstructing Chinese Film Stardom of Tang Wei

Authors: Xinchen Zhu


The rapid fame of the renowned female film star Tang Wei has made her a typical subject (or object) entangled with sensitive issues involving the official ideology, sexuality, and patriarchal values of contemporary China. In 2008, Tang Wei’s official ban has triggered the wave of debates concerning state power and censorship, actor’s rights, sexual ethics, and feminism in the public sphere. Her ban implies that Chinese film censorship acts as a key factor in reconstructing Chinese film stardom. Following the ban, as sensational media texts are re-interpreting the official discourses, the texts also functioned as a crucial vehicle in reconstructing Tang's female image. Therefore, the case study of Tang's film stardom allows us to further explore how female stardom has been entangled with the issues involving official ideology, female sexual ethics, and patriarchal values in contemporary China. This paper argues that Chinese female film stars shoulder the responsibility of film acting which would conform to the official male-dominated values. However, with the development of the Internet, the state no longer remains an absolute control over the new venues. The netizens’ discussion about her ban reshaped Tang’s image as a victim and scapegoat under the unfair oppression of the official authority. Additionally, this paper argues that similar to State’s discourse, netizens’ discourse did not reject patriarchal values, and in turn emphasized Tang Wei’s female chastity.

Keywords: film censorship, Chinese female film stardom, party-state’s power, national discourses, Tang Wei

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371 Variations and Fugue on an Ancient Taiwanese Music: The Art of Combining Taiwanese Traditional Music and Western Composition in Kuo Chih-Yuan's Piano Repertoire

Authors: Sheng-Wei Hsu


Taiwanese composer Kuo Chih-Yuan (1921-2013) studied composition at Tokyo University of the Arts and was influenced by the musical nationalism prevailing in Japan at the time. Determined to create world-class contemporary works to represent Taiwan, he created music with elements of traditional Taiwanese music in ways that had not been done before. The aims of this study were to examine the traditional elements used in Kuo Chih-Yuan’s Variations and Fugue on an Ancient Taiwanese Music (1972), and how an understanding of these elements might guide pianists to interpret a more proper performance of his work was also presented in this study.

Keywords: Taiwanese traditional music, piano performance research, Kuo Chih-Yuan, fugue, variations

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370 Development of a Small-Group Teaching Method for Enhancing the Learning of Basic Acupuncture Manipulation Optimized with the Theory of Motor Learning

Authors: Wen-Chao Tang, Tang-Yi Liu, Ming Gao, Gang Xu, Hua-Yuan Yang


This study developed a method for teaching acupuncture manipulation in small groups optimized with the theory of motor learning. Sixty acupuncture students and their teacher participated in our research. Motion videos were recorded of their manipulations using the lifting-thrusting method. These videos were analyzed using Simi Motion software to acquire the movement parameters of the thumb tip. The parameter velocity curves along Y axis was used to generate small teaching groups clustered by a self-organized map (SOM) and K-means. Ten groups were generated. All the targeted instruction based on the comparative results groups as well as the videos of teacher and student was provided to the members of each group respectively. According to the theory and research of motor learning, the factors or technologies such as video instruction, observational learning, external focus and summary feedback were integrated into this teaching method. Such efforts were desired to improve and enhance the effectiveness of current acupuncture teaching methods in limited classroom teaching time and extracurricular training.

Keywords: acupuncture, group teaching, video instruction, observational learning, external focus, summary feedback

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369 A Prediction Method for Large-Size Event Occurrences in the Sandpile Model

Authors: S. Channgam, A. Sae-Tang, T. Termsaithong


In this research, the occurrences of large size events in various system sizes of the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model are considered. The system sizes (square lattice) of model considered here are 25×25, 50×50, 75×75 and 100×100. The cross-correlation between the ratio of sites containing 3 grain time series and the large size event time series for these 4 system sizes are also analyzed. Moreover, a prediction method of the large-size event for the 50×50 system size is also introduced. Lastly, it can be shown that this prediction method provides a slightly higher efficiency than random predictions.

Keywords: Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model, cross-correlation, avalanches, prediction method

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368 Biologically Inspired Small Infrared Target Detection Using Local Contrast Mechanisms

Authors: Tian Xia, Yuan Yan Tang


In order to obtain higher small target detection accuracy, this paper presents an effective algorithm inspired by the local contrast mechanism. The proposed method can enhance target signal and suppress background clutter simultaneously. In the first stage, a enhanced image is obtained using the proposed Weighted Laplacian of Gaussian. In the second stage, an adaptive threshold is adopted to segment the target. Experimental results on two changeling image sequences show that the proposed method can detect the bright and dark targets simultaneously, and is not sensitive to sea-sky line of the infrared image. So it is fit for IR small infrared target detection.

Keywords: small target detection, local contrast, human vision system, Laplacian of Gaussian

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
367 Robust Pattern Recognition via Correntropy Generalized Orthogonal Matching Pursuit

Authors: Yulong Wang, Yuan Yan Tang, Cuiming Zou, Lina Yang


This paper presents a novel sparse representation method for robust pattern classification. Generalized orthogonal matching pursuit (GOMP) is a recently proposed efficient sparse representation technique. However, GOMP adopts the mean square error (MSE) criterion and assign the same weights to all measurements, including both severely and slightly corrupted ones. To reduce the limitation, we propose an information-theoretic GOMP (ITGOMP) method by exploiting the correntropy induced metric. The results show that ITGOMP can adaptively assign small weights on severely contaminated measurements and large weights on clean ones, respectively. An ITGOMP based classifier is further developed for robust pattern classification. The experiments on public real datasets demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

Keywords: correntropy induced metric, matching pursuit, pattern classification, sparse representation

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366 Assessing Relationships between Glandularity and Gray Level by Using Breast Phantoms

Authors: Yun-Xuan Tang, Pei-Yuan Liu, Kun-Mu Lu, Min-Tsung Tseng, Liang-Kuang Chen, Yuh-Feng Tsai, Ching-Wen Lee, Jay Wu


Breast cancer is predominant of malignant tumors in females. The increase in the glandular density increases the risk of breast cancer. BI-RADS is a frequently used density indicator in mammography; however, it significantly overestimates the glandularity. Therefore, it is very important to accurately and quantitatively assess the glandularity by mammography. In this study, 20%, 30% and 50% glandularity phantoms were exposed using a mammography machine at 28, 30 and 31 kVp, and 30, 55, 80 and 105 mAs, respectively. The regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn to assess the gray level. The relationship between the glandularity and gray level under various compression thicknesses, kVp, and mAs was established by the multivariable linear regression. A phantom verification was performed with automatic exposure control (AEC). The regression equation was obtained with an R-square value of 0.928. The average gray levels of the verification phantom were 8708, 8660 and 8434 for 0.952, 0.963 and 0.985 g/cm3, respectively. The percent differences of glandularity to the regression equation were 3.24%, 2.75% and 13.7%. We concluded that the proposed method could be clinically applied in mammography to improve the glandularity estimation and further increase the importance of breast cancer screening.

Keywords: mammography, glandularity, gray value, BI-RADS

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365 The Structural Pattern: An Event-Related Potential Study on Tang Poetry

Authors: ShuHui Yang, ChingChing Lu


Measuring event-related potentials (ERPs) has been fundamental to our understanding of how people process language. One specific ERP component, a P600, has been hypothesized to be associated with syntactic reanalysis processes. We, however, propose that the P600 is not restricted to reanalysis processes, but is the index of the structural pattern processing. To investigate the structural pattern processing, we utilized the effects of stimulus degradation in structural priming. To put it another way, there was no P600 effect if the structure of the prime was the same with the structure of the target. Otherwise, there would be a P600 effect if the structure were different between the prime and the target. In the experiment, twenty-two participants were presented with four sentences of Tang poetry. All of the first two sentences, being prime, were conducted with SVO+VP. The last two sentences, being the target, were divided into three types. Type one of the targets was SVO+VP. Type two of the targets was SVO+VPVP. Type three of the targets was VP+VP. The result showed that both of the targets, SVO+VPVP and VP+VP, elicited positive-going brainwave, a P600 effect, at 600~900ms time window. Furthermore, the P600 component was lager for the target’ VP+VP’ than the target’ SVO+VPVP’. That meant the more dissimilar the structure was, the lager the P600 effect we got. These results indicate that P600 was the index of the structure processing, and it would affect the P600 effect intensity with the degrees of structural heterogeneity.

Keywords: ERPs, P600, structural pattern, structural priming, Tang poetry

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364 Macroeconomic Reevaluation of CNY/USD Exchange Rate: Quantitative Impact on EUR/USD Exchange Rate

Authors: R. Henry, H. Andriamboavonjy, J. B. Paulin, S. Drahy, R. Gourichon


During past decade, Chinese monetary policy has been to maintain stability of exchange rate CNY/USD by creating parity between the two currencies. This policy, against market equilibrium, impacts the exchange rate in having low Yuan currency, and keeping attractiveness of Chinese industries. Using macroeconomic and statistic approach, the impact of such policy onto CNY/USD exchange rate is quantitatively determined. It is also pointed out how Chinese banks respect Basel III ratios, in particular the foreign exchange ratio. The main analysis is focusing on how Chinese banks will respect these ratios in the future.

Keywords: macroeconomics models, yuan floating exchange rate, basel iii, china banking system

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
363 Image Transform Based on Integral Equation-Wavelet Approach

Authors: Yuan Yan Tang, Lina Yang, Hong Li


Harmonic model is a very important approximation for the image transform. The harmanic model converts an image into arbitrary shape; however, this mode cannot be described by any fixed functions in mathematics. In fact, it is represented by partial differential equation (PDE) with boundary conditions. Therefore, to develop an efficient method to solve such a PDE is extremely significant in the image transform. In this paper, a novel Integral Equation-Wavelet based method is presented, which consists of three steps: (1) The partial differential equation is converted into boundary integral equation and representation by an indirect method. (2) The boundary integral equation and representation are changed to plane integral equation and representation by boundary measure formula. (3) The plane integral equation and representation are then solved by a method we call wavelet collocation. Our approach has two main advantages, the shape of an image is arbitrary and the program code is independent of the boundary. The performance of our method is evaluated by numerical experiments.

Keywords: harmonic model, partial differential equation (PDE), integral equation, integral representation, boundary measure formula, wavelet collocation

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362 Discovery the Relics of Buddhist Stupa at Thanesar, Kurukshetra

Authors: Chander Shekhar, Manoj Kumar


Present paper deal with the discovery of the stupa’s relics which belongs to the Kushana period. These remains were found during the scientific clearance work at a mound near Brahma-SarovarThanesar, Kurukshetra. This archaeological work was done by Department of Archaeology & Museums Haryana Government. The relics of stupa show that it would have been similar to Assandh and Damekhstupa. As per-Buddhist literature, GoutamBudhha reached Thanesar. In memory of Buddh’s Journey, King Ashoka built a big Stupa at Thanesar on the bank of Sarasvati River. Chinese pilgrim Yuan Chuang also referred a Monastery and stupa near Aujas-ghatof Brahma-sarovar. It may be part of that settlement which was mentioned by Yuan Chuang.

Keywords: archaeology, stupa, buddhism, excavtoin

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361 Compilation of Load Spectrum of Loader Drive Axle

Authors: Wei Yongxiang, Zhu Haoyue, Tang Heng, Yuan Qunwei


In order to study the preparation method of gear fatigue load spectrum for loaders, the load signal of four typical working conditions of loader is collected. The signal that reflects the law of load change is obtained by preprocessing the original signal. The torque of the drive axle is calculated by using the rain flow counting method. According to the operating time ratio of each working condition, the two-dimensional load spectrum based on the real working conditions of the drive axle of loader is established by the cycle extrapolation and synthesis method. The two-dimensional load spectrum is converted into one-dimensional load spectrum by means of the mean of torque equal damage method. Torque amplification includes the maximum load torque of the main reduction gear. Based on the theory of equal damage, the accelerated cycles are calculated. In this way, the load spectrum of the loading condition of the drive axle is prepared to reflect loading condition of the loader. The load spectrum can provide reference for fatigue life test and life prediction of loader drive axle.

Keywords: load spectrum, axle, torque, rain-flow counting method, extrapolation

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360 Mixing Behaviors of Shear-Thinning Fluids in Serpentine-Channel Micromixers

Authors: Rei-Tang Tsai, Chih-Yang Wu, Chia-Yuan Chang, Ming-Ying Kuo


This study aims to investigate the mixing behaviors of deionized (DI) water and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions in C-shaped serpentine micromixers over a wide range of flow conditions. The flow of CMC solutions exhibits shear-thinning behaviors. Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the mean flow speed, fluid properties and geometry parameters on flow and mixing in the micromixers with serpentine channel of the same overall channel length. From the results, we can find the following trends. When fluid mixing is dominated by convection, the curvature-induced vortices enhance fluid mixing effectively. The mixing efficiency of a micromixer consisting of semicircular C-shaped repeating units with a smaller center-line radius is better than that of a micromixer consisting of major-segment repeating units with a larger center-line radius. The viscosity of DI water is less than the overall average apparent viscosity of CMC solutions, and so the effect of curvature-induced vortices on fluid mixing in DI water is larger than that in CMC solutions for the cases with the same mean flow speed.

Keywords: curved channel, microfluidics, mixing, non-newtonian fluids, vortex

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359 CMPD: Cancer Mutant Proteome Database

Authors: Po-Jung Huang, Chi-Ching Lee, Bertrand Chin-Ming Tan, Yuan-Ming Yeh, Julie Lichieh Chu, Tin-Wen Chen, Cheng-Yang Lee, Ruei-Chi Gan, Hsuan Liu, Petrus Tang


Whole-exome sequencing focuses on the protein coding regions of disease/cancer associated genes based on a priori knowledge is the most cost-effective method to study the association between genetic alterations and disease. Recent advances in high throughput sequencing technologies and proteomic techniques has provided an opportunity to integrate genomics and proteomics, allowing readily detectable mutated peptides corresponding to mutated genes. Since sequence database search is the most widely used method for protein identification using Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics technology, a mutant proteome database is required to better approximate the real protein pool to improve disease-associated mutated protein identification. Large-scale whole exome/genome sequencing studies were launched by National Cancer Institute (NCI), Broad Institute, and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), which provide not only a comprehensive report on the analysis of coding variants in diverse samples cell lines but a invaluable resource for extensive research community. No existing database is available for the collection of mutant protein sequences related to the identified variants in these studies. CMPD is designed to address this issue, serving as a bridge between genomic data and proteomic studies and focusing on protein sequence-altering variations originated from both germline and cancer-associated somatic variations.

Keywords: TCGA, cancer, mutant, proteome

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358 “Protection” or “Destruction”: Taking the Cultural Heritage Protection of the Grand Canal in Huaxian and Xunxian Sections of Henan Province as Example

Authors: Yue Sun, Yuan Wang


The Grand Canal of China has been in use for more than two thousand years. It runs through the central and eastern regions of China and communicates with the five major river systems of Haihe River, Yellow River, Huaihe River, Yangtze River and Qiantang River from north to south. It is a complex, systematic and comprehensive water conservancy project in the period of agricultural civilization and includes the three parts of the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal, the Sui and Tang Dynasties Canal and the Eastern Zhejiang Canal. It covers eight provinces and cities including Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Henan and Anhui. The Grand Canal is an important channel connecting the Central Plains and the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal, and it is also an important waterway trade channel. Nowadays, although the Grand Canal no longer bears the burden of communicating water transportation between the north and the south, the site of the Grand Canal is still a “historical museum” of the lifestyle of people who lived on the canal from the Ming and Qing Dynasties to the Republic of China. By means of literature reading and field investigation, this paper compares the different protection strategies of the Grand Canal in the region between the ancient villages of Huaxian and Xunxian, which witness the vicissitudes of canal water transport, to explore whether the protective renovation of historical and cultural routes is “protection” or “destruction”, and puts forward some protection suggestions.

Keywords: The Grand Canal, heritage conservation, cultural route, ancient villages, strategies

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357 Cost-Effective Indoor-Air Quality (IAQ) Monitoring via Cavity Enhanced Photoacoustic Technology

Authors: Jifang Tao, Fei Gao, Hong Cai, Yuan Jin Zheng, Yuan Dong Gu


Photoacoustic technology is used to measure effect absorption of a light by means of acoustic detection, which provides a high sensitive, low-cross response, cost-effective solution for gas molecular detection. In this paper, we proposed an integrated photoacoustic sensor for Indoor-air quality (IAQ) monitoring. The sensor consists of an acoustically resonant cavity, a high silicon acoustic transducer chip, and a low-cost light source. The light is modulated at the resonant frequency of the cavity to create an enhanced periodic heating and result in an amplified acoustic pressure wave. The pressure is readout by a novel acoustic transducer with low noise. Based on this photoacoustic sensor, typical indoor gases, including CO2, CO, O2, and H2O have been successfully detected, and their concentration are also evaluated with very high accuracy. It has wide potential applications in IAQ monitoring for agriculture, food industry, and ventilation control systems used in public places, such as schools, hospitals and airports.

Keywords: indoor-air quality (IAQ) monitoring, photoacoustic gas sensor, cavity enhancement, integrated gas sensor

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356 Steepest Descent Method with New Step Sizes

Authors: Bib Paruhum Silalahi, Djihad Wungguli, Sugi Guritman


Steepest descent method is a simple gradient method for optimization. This method has a slow convergence in heading to the optimal solution, which occurs because of the zigzag form of the steps. Barzilai and Borwein modified this algorithm so that it performs well for problems with large dimensions. Barzilai and Borwein method results have sparked a lot of research on the method of steepest descent, including alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method. Inspired by previous works, we modified the step size of the steepest descent method. We then compare the modification results against the Barzilai and Borwein method, alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method for quadratic function cases in terms of the iterations number and the running time. The average results indicate that the steepest descent method with the new step sizes provide good results for small dimensions and able to compete with the results of Barzilai and Borwein method and the alternate minimization gradient method for large dimensions. The new step sizes have faster convergence compared to the other methods, especially for cases with large dimensions.

Keywords: steepest descent, line search, iteration, running time, unconstrained optimization, convergence

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355 Mining Riding Patterns in Bike-Sharing System Connecting with Public Transportation

Authors: Chong Zhang, Guoming Tang, Bin Ge, Jiuyang Tang


With the fast growing road traffic and increasingly severe traffic congestion, more and more citizens choose to use the public transportation for daily travelling. Meanwhile, the shared bike provides a convenient option for the first and last mile to the public transit. As of 2016, over one thousand cities around the world have deployed the bike-sharing system. The combination of these two transportations have stimulated the development of each other and made significant contribution to the reduction of carbon footprint. A lot of work has been done on mining the riding behaviors in various bike-sharing systems. Most of them, however, treated the bike-sharing system as an isolated system and thus their results provide little reference for the public transit construction and optimization. In this work, we treat the bike-sharing and public transit as a whole and investigate the customers’ bike-and-ride behaviors. Specifically, we develop a spatio-temporal traffic delivery model to study the riding patterns between the two transportation systems and explore the traffic characteristics (e.g., distributions of customer arrival/departure and traffic peak hours) from the time and space dimensions. During the model construction and evaluation, we make use of large open datasets from real-world bike-sharing systems (the CitiBike in New York, GoBike in San Francisco and BIXI in Montreal) along with corresponding public transit information. The developed two-dimension traffic model, as well as the mined bike-and-ride behaviors, can provide great help to the deployment of next-generation intelligent transportation systems.

Keywords: riding pattern mining, bike-sharing system, public transportation, bike-and-ride behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
354 How Influencers Influence: The Effects of Social Media Influencers Influence on Purchase Intention and the Differences among Generation X and Millennials

Authors: Samatha Ss Sutton, Kaouther Kooli


In recent years social media influences (SMI) have become integrated into many companies marketing strategies to create buzz, target new and younger markets and further expand social media coverage in business (Lim et al 2017). SMI’s can be defined as online personalities with a substantial number of followers, across one or more social media platforms, with influence on their followers (Lou and Yuan 2018). Recently expenditure on influencer marketing has increased exponentially becoming an important area for marketing opportunities and strategies in the future (Lou and Yuan 2018). In order to market products and brands effectively through SMI’s it is important for business to understand the attributes of SMI that effect purchase intention (Lim et al 2017) of their followers and whether or not these attributes vary across generations so to market effectively to their specific segment or target market. The present study involves quantitative research to understand the attributes by which influence differs across generations namely Generation X and Millennials and its effects on purchase intentions of these generational groups. A survey will be conducted using an online questionnaire. Structural Equation Modelling and Multi group analysis will be applied. The study provides insight to marketers/decision makers on how to use influencers accordingly with their target consumer.

Keywords: social media marketing, social media influencers, attitude towards social media influencers, intention to purchase

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353 Addition of Phosphates on Stability of Sterilized Goat Milk in Different Seasons

Authors: Mei-Jen Lin, Yuan-Yuan Yu


Low heat stability of goat milk limited the application of ultra-high temperature (UHT) sterilization on producing sterilized goat milk in order to keep excess goat milk in summer for producing goat dairy products in winter in Taiwan. Therefore, this study aimed to add stabilizers in goat milk to increase the heat stability for producing UHT sterilized goat milk preserved for making goat dairy products in winter. The amounts of 0.05-0.11% blend of sodium phosphates (Na) and blend of sodium/potassium phosphates (Sp) were added in raw goat milk at different seasons a night before autoclaved sterilization at 135°C 4 sec. The coagulation, ion calcium concentration and ethanol stability of sterilized goat milk were analyzed. Results showed that there were seasonal differences on choosing the optimal stabilizers and the addition levels. Addition of 0.05% and 0.22% of both Na and Sp salts in Spring goat milk, 0.10-0.11% of both Na and Sp salts in Summer goat milk, and 0.05%Na Sp group in Autumn goat milk were coagulated after autoclaved, respectively. There was no coagulation found with the addition of 0.08-0.09% both Na and Sp salts in goat milk; furthermore, the ionic calcium concentration were lower than 2.00 mM and ethanol stability higher than 70% in both 0.08-0.09% Na and Sp salts added goat milk. Therefore, the optimal addition level of blend of sodium phosphates and blend of sodium/potassium phosphates were 0.08-0.09% for producing sterilized goat milk at different seasons in Taiwan.

Keywords: coagulation, goat milk, phosphates, stability

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352 Anti-Inflammatory Studies on Chungpye-Tang in Asthmatic Human Lung Tissue

Authors: J. H. Bang, H. J. Baek, K. I. Kim, B. J. Lee, H. J. Jung, H. J. Jang, S. K. Jung


Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by airway hyper responsiveness (AHR), airway obstruction and airway wall remodeling responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Genetic and environment factors may result in asthma, but there are no the exact causes of asthma. Chungpye-tang (CPT) has been prescribed as a representative aerosol agent for patients with dyspnea, cough and phlegm in the respiratory clinic at Kyung Hee Korean Medicine Hospital. This Korean herbal medicines have the effect of dispelling external pathogen and dampness pattern. CPT is composed of 4 species of herbal medicines. The 4 species of herbal medicines are Ephedrae herba, Pogostemonis(Agatachis) herba, Caryophylli flos and Zingiberis rhizoma crudus. CPT suppresses neutrophil infiltration and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects of CPT on a mouse model of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) was proved. Activation of the NF-κB has been proven that it plays an important role in inflammation via inducing transcription of pro-inflammatory genes. Over-expression of NF-κB has been believed be related to many inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, gastritis, asthma and COPD. So we firstly hypothesize whether CPT has an anti-inflammatory effect on asthmatic human airway epithelial tissue via inhibiting NF-κB pathway. In this study, CPT was extracted with distilled water for 3 hours at 100°C. After process of filtration and evaporation, it was freeze dried. And asthmatic human lung tissues were provided by MatTek Corp. We investigated the precise mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of CPT by western blotting analysis. We observed whether the decoction extracts could reduce NF-κB activation, COX-2 protein expression and NF-κB-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, eotaxin, IL-4, IL-9 and IL-13 in asthmatic human lung tissue. As results of this study, there was a trend toward decreased NF-κB expression in asthmatic human airway epithelial tissue. We found that the inhibition effects of CPT on COX-2 expression was not determined. IL-9 and IL-13 secretion was significantly reduced in the asthmatic human lung tissue treated with CPT. Overall, our results indicate that CPT has an anti-inflammatory effect through blocking the signaling pathway of NF-κB, thereby CPT may be a potential remedial agent for allergic asthma.

Keywords: Chungpye-tang, allergic asthma, asthmatic human airway epithelial tissue, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, COX-2

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351 A New Car-Following Model with Consideration of the Brake Light

Authors: Zhiyuan Tang, Ju Zhang, Wenyuan Wu


In this research, a car-following model with consideration of the status of the brake light is proposed. The numerical results show that the stability of the traffic flow is improved. The ability of the brake light to reduce car accident is also showed.

Keywords: brake light, car-following model, traffic flow, regional planning, transportation

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350 Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Incoming Flow Conditions on the Rotating Stall in Centrifugal Pump

Authors: Wanru Huang, Fujun Wang, Chaoyue Wang, Yuan Tang, Zhifeng Yao, Ruofu Xiao, Xin Chen


Rotating stall in centrifugal pump is an unsteady flow phenomenon that causes instabilities and high hydraulic losses. It typically occurs at low flow rates due to large flow separation in impeller blade passage. In order to reveal the influence of incoming flow conditions on rotating stall in centrifugal pump, a numerical method for investigating rotating stall was established. This method is based on a modified SST k-ω turbulence model and a fine mesh model was adopted. The calculated flow velocity in impeller by this method was in good agreement with PIV results. The effects of flow rate and sealing-ring leakage on stall characteristics of centrifugal pump were studied by using the proposed numerical approach. The flow structures in impeller under typical flow rates and typical sealing-ring leakages were analyzed. It is found that the stall vortex frequency and circumferential propagation velocity increase as flow rate decreases. With the flow rate decreases from 0.40Qd to 0.30Qd, the stall vortex frequency increases from 1.50Hz to 2.34Hz, the circumferential propagation velocity of the stall vortex increases from 3.14rad/s to 4.90rad/s. Under almost all flow rate conditions where rotating stall is present, there is low frequency of pressure pulsation between 0Hz-5Hz. The corresponding pressure pulsation amplitude increases with flow rate decreases. Taking the measuring point at the leading edge of the blade pressure surface as an example, the flow rate decreases from 0.40Qd to 0.30Qd, the pressure fluctuation amplitude increases by 86.9%. With the increase of leakage, the flow structure in the impeller becomes more complex, and the 8-shaped stall vortex is no longer stable. On the basis of the 8-shaped stall vortex, new vortex nuclei are constantly generated and fused with the original vortex nuclei under large leakage. The upstream and downstream vortex structures of the 8-shaped stall vortex have different degrees of swimming in the flow passage, and the downstream vortex swimming is more obvious. The results show that the proposed numerical approach could capture the detail vortex characteristics, and the incoming flow conditions have significant effects on the stall vortex in centrifugal pumps.

Keywords: centrifugal pump, rotating stall, numerical simulation, flow condition, vortex frequency

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349 Construction of Graph Signal Modulations via Graph Fourier Transform and Its Applications

Authors: Xianwei Zheng, Yuan Yan Tang


Classical window Fourier transform has been widely used in signal processing, image processing, machine learning and pattern recognition. The related Gabor transform is powerful enough to capture the texture information of any given dataset. Recently, in the emerging field of graph signal processing, researchers devoting themselves to develop a graph signal processing theory to handle the so-called graph signals. Among the new developing theory, windowed graph Fourier transform has been constructed to establish a time-frequency analysis framework of graph signals. The windowed graph Fourier transform is defined by using the translation and modulation operators of graph signals, following the similar calculations in classical windowed Fourier transform. Specifically, the translation and modulation operators of graph signals are defined by using the Laplacian eigenvectors as follows. For a given graph signal, its translation is defined by a similar manner as its definition in classical signal processing. Specifically, the translation operator can be defined by using the Fourier atoms; the graph signal translation is defined similarly by using the Laplacian eigenvectors. The modulation of the graph can also be established by using the Laplacian eigenvectors. The windowed graph Fourier transform based on these two operators has been applied to obtain time-frequency representations of graph signals. Fundamentally, the modulation operator is defined similarly to the classical modulation by multiplying a graph signal with the entries in each Fourier atom. However, a single Laplacian eigenvector entry cannot play a similar role as the Fourier atom. This definition ignored the relationship between the translation and modulation operators. In this paper, a new definition of the modulation operator is proposed and thus another time-frequency framework for graph signal is constructed. Specifically, the relationship between the translation and modulation operations can be established by the Fourier transform. Specifically, for any signal, the Fourier transform of its translation is the modulation of its Fourier transform. Thus, the modulation of any signal can be defined as the inverse Fourier transform of the translation of its Fourier transform. Therefore, similarly, the graph modulation of any graph signal can be defined as the inverse graph Fourier transform of the translation of its graph Fourier. The novel definition of the graph modulation operator established a relationship of the translation and modulation operations. The new modulation operation and the original translation operation are applied to construct a new framework of graph signal time-frequency analysis. Furthermore, a windowed graph Fourier frame theory is developed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for constructing windowed graph Fourier frames, tight frames and dual frames are presented in this paper. The novel graph signal time-frequency analysis framework is applied to signals defined on well-known graphs, e.g. Minnesota road graph and random graphs. Experimental results show that the novel framework captures new features of graph signals.

Keywords: graph signals, windowed graph Fourier transform, windowed graph Fourier frames, vertex frequency analysis

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348 Study on the Mechanism of CO₂-Viscoelastic Fluid Synergistic Oil Displacement in Tight Sandstone Reservoirs

Authors: Long Long Chen, Xinwei Liao, Shanfa Tang, Shaojing Jiang, Ruijia Tang, Rui Wang, Shu Yun Feng, Si Yao Wang


Tight oil reservoirs have poor physical properties, insufficient formation energy, and low natural productivity; it is necessary to effectively improve their crude oil recovery. CO₂ flooding is an important technical means to enhance oil recovery and achieve effective CO₂ storage in tight oil reservoirs, but its heterogeneity is strong, which makes CO₂ flooding prone to gas channeling and poor recovery. Aiming at the problem of gas injection channeling, combined with the excellent performance of low interfacial tension viscoelastic fluid (GOBTK), the research on CO₂-low interfacial tension viscoelastic fluid synergistic oil displacement in tight reservoirs was carried out, and the synergy of CO₂ and low interfacial tension viscoelastic fluid was discussed. Oil displacement mechanism. Experiments show that GOBTK has good injectability in tight oil reservoirs (Kg=0.141~0.793mD); CO₂-0.4% GOBTK synergistic flooding can improve the recovery factor of low permeability layers (31.41%) under heterogeneous (gradient difference of 10) conditions the) effect is better than that of CO₂ flooding (0.56%) and 0.4% GOBT-water flooding (20.99%); CO₂-GOBT synergistic oil displacement mechanism includes: 1) The formation of CO₂ foam increases the flow resistance of viscoelastic fluid, forcing the displacement fluid to flow 2) GOBTK can emulsify and disperse residual oil into small oil droplets, and smoothly pass through narrow pores to produce; 3) CO₂ dissolved in GOBTK synergistically enhances the water wettability of the core, and the use of viscosity Elastomeric fluid injection and stripping of residual oil; 4) CO₂-GOBTK synergy superimposes multiple mechanisms, effectively improving the swept volume and oil washing efficiency of the injected fluid to the reservoir.

Keywords: tight oil reservoir, CO₂ flooding, low interfacial tension viscoelastic fluid flooding, synergistic oil displacement, EOR mechanism

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347 On Chvátal’s Conjecture for the Hamiltonicity of 1-Tough Graphs and Their Complements

Authors: Shin-Shin Kao, Yuan-Kang Shih, Hsun Su


In this paper, we show that the conjecture of Chv tal, which states that any 1-tough graph is either a Hamiltonian graph or its complement contains a specific graph denoted by F, does not hold in general. More precisely, it is true only for graphs with six or seven vertices, and is false for graphs with eight or more vertices. A theorem is derived as a correction for the conjecture.

Keywords: complement, degree sum, hamiltonian, tough

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346 Research on Low interfacial Tension Viscoelastic Fluid Oil Displacement System in Unconventional Reservoir

Authors: Long Long Chen, Xinwei Liao, Shanfa Tang, Shaojing Jiang, Ruijia Tang, Rui Wang, Shu Yun Feng, Si Yao Wang


Unconventional oil reservoirs have the characteristics of strong heterogeneity and poor injectability, and traditional chemical flooding technology is not effective in such reservoirs; polymer flooding in the production of heavy oil reservoirs is difficult to handle produced fluid and easy to block oil wells, etc. Therefore, a viscoelastic fluid flooding system with good adaptability, low interfacial tension, plugging, and diverting capabilities was studied. The viscosity, viscoelasticity, surface/interfacial activity, wettability, emulsification, and oil displacement performance of the anionic Gemini surfactant flooding system were studied, and the adaptability of the system to the reservoir environment was evaluated. The oil displacement effect of the system in low-permeability and high-permeability (heavy oil) reservoirs was investigated, and the mechanism of the system to enhance water flooding recovery was discussed. The results show that the system has temperature resistance and viscosity increasing performance (65℃, 4.12mPa•s), shear resistance and viscoelasticity; at a lower concentration (0.5%), the oil-water interfacial tension can be reduced to ultra-low (10-3mN/m); has good emulsifying ability for heavy oil, and is easy to break demulsification (4.5min); has good adaptability to reservoirs with high salinity (30000mg/L). Oil flooding experiments show that this system can increase the water flooding recovery rate of low-permeability homogeneous and heterogeneous cores by 13% and 15%, respectively, and can increase the water-flooding recovery rate of high-permeability heavy oil reservoirs by 40%. The anionic Gemini surfactant flooding system studied in this paper is a viscoelastic fluid, has good emulsifying and oil washing ability, can effectively improve sweep efficiency, reduce injection pressure, and has broad application in unconventional reservoirs to enhance oil recovery prospect.

Keywords: oil displacement system, recovery factor, rheology, interfacial activity, environmental adaptability

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345 Plasma Treatment in Conjunction with EGM-2 Medium Can Enhance Endothelial and Osteogenic Marker Expressions of Bone Marrow MSCs

Authors: Chih-Hsin Lin, Shyh-Yuan Lee, Yuan-Min Lin


For many tissue engineering applications, an important goal is to create functional tissues in-vitro, and such tissues to be viable, they have to be vascularized. Endothelial cells (EC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are promising candidates for vascularization. However, both of them have limited expansion capacity and autologous cells currently do not exist for either ECs or EPCs. Therefore, we use bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as a source material for ECs. Growth supplements are commonly used to induce MSC differentiation, and further improvements in differentiation conditions can be made by modifying the cell's growth environment. An example is pre-treatment of the growth dish with gas plasma, in order to modify the surface functional groups of the material that the cells are seeded on. In this work, we compare the effects of different gas plasmas on the growth and differentiation of MSCs. We treat the dish with different plasmas (CO2, N2, and O2) and then induce MSC differentiation with endothelial growth medium-2 (EGM-2). We find that EGM-2 by itself upregulates EC marker CD31 mRNA expression, but not VEGFR2, CD34, or vWF. However, these additional EC marker expressions were increased for cells seeded on plasma treated substrates. Specifically, for EC markers, we found that N2 plasma treatment upregulated CD31 and VEGFR-2 mRNA expressions; CO2 plasma treatment upregulated CD34 and vWF mRNA expressions. The osteogenic markers ALP and osteopontin mRNA expressions were markedly enhanced on all plasma-treated dishes. We also found that plasma treatment in conjunction with EGM-2 growth medium can enhance MSCs differentiation into endothelial-like cells and osteogenic-like cells. Our work shows that the effect of the growth medium (EGM-2) on MSCs differentiation is influenced by the plasma modified surface chemistry of the substrate. In conclusion, plasma surface modification can enhance EGM-2 effectiveness and induced both endothelial and osteogenic differentiation. Our findings provide a method to enhance EGM-2 based cell differentiation, with consequences for tissue engineering and stem cell biology applications.

Keywords: endothelial differentiation, EGM-2, osteogenesis, plasma treatment, surface modification

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344 Constructing Digital Memory for Chinese Ancient Village: A Case on Village of Gaoqian

Authors: Linqing Ma, Huiling Feng, Jihong Liang, Yi Qian


In China, some villages have survived in the long history of changes and remain until today with their unique styles and featured culture developed in the past. Those ancient villages, usually aged for hundreds or thousands of years, are the mirror for traditional Chinese culture, especially the farming-studying culture represented by the Confucianism. Gaoqian, an ancient village with a population of 3,000 in Zhejiang province, is such a case. With a history dating back to Yuan Dynasty, Gaoqian Village has 13 well-preserved traditional Chinese houses with a courtyard, which were built in the Ming and Qing Dynasty. It is a fine specimen to study traditional rural China. In China, some villages have survived in the long history of changes and remain until today with their unique styles and featured culture developed in the past. Those ancient villages, usually aged for hundreds or thousands of years, are the mirror for traditional Chinese culture, especially the farming-studying culture represented by the Confucianism. Gaoqian, an ancient village with a population of 3,000 in Zhejiang province, is such a case. With a history dating back to Yuan Dynasty, Gaoqian Village has 13 well-preserved traditional Chinese houses with a courtyard, which were built in the Ming and Qing Dynasty. It is a fine specimen to study traditional rural China. Then a repository for the memory of the Village will be completed by doing arrangement and description for those multimedia resources such as texts, photos, videos and so on. Production of Creative products with digital technologies is also possible based a thorough understanding of the culture feature of Gaoqian Village using research tools for literature and history studies and a method of comparative study. Finally, the project will construct an exhibition platform for the Village and its culture by telling its stories with completed structures and treads.

Keywords: ancient villages, digital exhibition, multimedia, traditional culture

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343 Monitoring the Fiscal Health of Taiwan’s Local Government: Application of the 10-Point Scale of Fiscal Distress

Authors: Yuan-Hong Ho, Chiung-Ju Huang


This article presents a monitoring indicators system that predicts whether a local government in Taiwan is heading for fiscal distress and identifies a suitable fiscal policy that would allow the local government to achieve fiscal balance in the long run. This system is relevant to stockholders’ interest, simple for national audit bodies to use, and provides an early warning of fiscal distress that allows preventative action to be taken.

Keywords: fiscal health, fiscal distress, monitoring signals, 10-point scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 379