Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: individualism

33 Individualism/Collectivism and Extended Theory of Planned Behavior

Authors: Ela Ari, Aysi̇ma Findikoglu

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Consumers’ switching GSM operators’ has been an important research issue since the rise of their competitive offers. Recent research has looked at consumer switching behavior through the theory of planned behavior, but not yet extended the theory with identity, psycho-social and cultural influences within the service context. This research explores an extended version of the theory of planned behavior including social and financial risks and brand loyalty. Moreover, the role of individualism and collectivism at the individual level is investigated in a collectivistic culture that moves toward to individualism due to changing family relationships, use of technology and education. Our preliminary analysis showed that financial risk and vertical individualism prove to be a significant determinant of intention to switch. The study also investigates social risk and intention, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control relationship. The effect of individualism and collectivism and attitudes relationship has been also examined within a service industry. Implications for marketing managers and scholars are also discussed.

Keywords: attitude, individualism, intention, subjective norm

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32 Teacher Culture Inquiry of Classroom Observation at an Elementary School in Taiwan

Authors: Tsai-Hsiu Lin

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Three dimensions of teacher culture hinder educational improvement: individualism, conservatism and presentism. To promote the professional development of teachers, these three aspects in teacher culture should be eliminated. Classroom observation may be a useful method of eliminating individualism. The Ministry of Education in Taiwan has attempted to reduce the isolation of teachers to promote their professional growth. Because classroom observation discourse varies, teachers are generally unwilling to allow their teaching to be observed. However, classroom observations take place in the country in the form of school evaluations. The main purpose of this study was to explore the differences in teachers’ conservatism, individualism and presentism after classroom observations had been conducted at an elementary school in Taiwan. The research method was a qualitative case study involving interviews with the school principal, the director of academic affairs, and two classroom teachers. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) Educators in different positions viewed classroom observations differently; (2) The classroom teachers did not highly value classroom observation; (3) There was little change in the teachers’ conservatism, individualism and presentism after classroom observation.

Keywords: classroom observation, Lortie’s Trinity, teacher culture, teacher professional development

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31 The Suffering Other and the Deserving Self; When Humanitarianism Intersects with Individualism and Neo-Liberalism

Authors: Irene Bruna Seu

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This paper draws on a three-year research project investigating everyday moral reasoning in relation to donations and prosocial behaviour in the humanitarian context. The analysis focuses on the principle of deservingness by which members of the public decide who and under which conditions to help and illustrates how the speakers engage in ideological dilemmas. The paper focuses on the theme ‘Something for nothing’ to examine how the position of ‘deserving’ and the speaker’s rights and duties in relation to victims of humanitarian crises are negotiated. Discursive analyses of this dilemmatic storyline of deservingness illuminate the cultural and ideological resources buttressing this construction. They also illustrate how humanitarianism intersects and clashes with other ideologies and value systems. The presentation will focus on the role of Individualism underpinned by Neo-liberalism ideology. The data propose that neo-liberal ideology, which endorses self-gratification, materialistic and individualistic ethics play an important role in decisions regarding humanitarian helping. The paper argues for the need for psychological research to engage more actively with the dilemmatic nature of moral reasoning in the humanitarian context, and to contextualize decisions about giving and helping within the socio-cultural and ideological landscape in which the helpers operate.

Keywords: humanitarianism, individualism, ideological dilemmas, discourse, neo-liberalism, prosocial behaviour

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30 The Impact of School Education, Islamic Studies in Specific on the Student Identity Development

Authors: Lina Khashogji

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This study highlights on analysing the educational experience of female Saudi Arabian students in private schools in Islamic studies subjects. Exploring how school environment, teachers’ authority and textbooks could influence the level of individuality. Considering the complex interaction between religious is social and political power in Saudi Arabia. The study draws on phenomenology as a guiding theoretical framework using multi methods. It includes a vertical/horizontal individualism measurement tool “survey” used on 120 students of two age groups (9-12) and (13-15). Semi-structured interviews with eight school teachers, observational notes in the classroom, and textbook analysis. The study links the interactions between the student mind, the teacher, the classroom and the curriculum.

Keywords: education, individualism, identity development, Islamic studies, Saudi Arabia

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29 Cultural Disposition and Implicit Dehumanization of Sexualized Females by Women

Authors: Hong Im Shin

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Previous research demonstrated that self-objectification (women view themselves as objects for use) is related to system-justification. Three studies investigated whether cultural disposition as its system-justifying function could have an impact on self-objectification and dehumanization of sexualized women and men. Study 1 (N = 91) employed a survey methodology to examine the relationship between cultural disposition (collectivism vs. individualism), trait of system-justification, and self-objectification. The results showed that the higher tendency of collectivism was related to stronger system-justification and self-objectification. Study 2 (N = 60 females) introduced a single category implicit association task (SC-IAT) to assess the extent to which sexually objectified women were associated with uniquely human attributes (i.e., culture) compared to animal-related attributes (i.e., nature). According to results, female participants associated sexually objectified female targets less with human attributes compared to animal-related attributes. Study 3 (N = 46) investigated whether priming to individualism or collectivism was associated to system justification and sexual objectification of men and women with the use of a recognition task involving upright and inverted pictures of sexualized women and men. The results indicated that the female participants primed to individualism showed an inversion effect for sexualized women and men (person-like recognition), whereas there was no inversion effect for sexualized women in the priming condition of collectivism (object-like recognition). This implies that cultural disposition plays a mediating role for rationalizing the gender status, implicit dehumanization of sexualized females and self-objectification. Future research directions are discussed.

Keywords: cultural disposition, dehumanization, implicit test, self-objectification

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28 Cross Cultural Challenges in International Projects: A Comparative Study between Indian and French

Authors: Niranjani Ruba Pandian

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In today’s multicultural global business community, most of the businesses and industries are linked with various countries in which different nationalities have different roles and responsibilities throughout the project. The purpose of this research is to examine the cross-cultural challenges between Indian and French and the ways to minimize these challenges to manage effectively the cross-cultural aspect of human resources for the success of global business in an automotive industry. The conducted study utilized quantitative methodology to analyze the data on Indian and French employees' perceptions of 6 cultural dimensions such as power versus distance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, uncertainty versus avoidance, pragmatic versus normative and indulgence versus restraint. Employees of 4 multinational companies filled in the questionnaire based on the 5-point Likert scale to present quantitative results. The data was analysed with the correlation and multiple regression statistical analyses. It was found that Indian and French have major gap in uncertainty versus avoidance followed by individualism versus collectivism. However, this article highlights the way to minimize these gaps by adopting certain sequenced methodologies.

Keywords: automotive industry, cross cultural challenges, globalization, global business

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27 Cultural Orientation as a Moderator between Social Support Needs and Psychological Well-Being among Canadian University Students

Authors: Allison Streutker, Josephine Tan

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Universities across Canada have experienced unprecedented growth in international student enrollment from across the world. As cultural diversity in Canada and other countries increases, understanding the social support needs of all students is important for providing them with the assistance they need to thrive psychologically and academically. Those from individualistic cultural orientations tend to seek explicit social support, which involves expressly asking for assistance in times of stress. However, those from collectivistic cultural orientations are more likely to seek implicit social support, where encouragement is obtained from spending time among valued social groups without explicitly talking about problems. This study explored whether the relationship between the type of social support needs (implicit or explicit) and psychological and academic functioning might be moderated by cultural orientations (individualistic, collectivistic) among university students. Participants were 110 university students (70 women, 40 men; mean age = 24.8 years, SD = 6.6). They completed the Individualism and Collectivism Scale (ICS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL) which assesses implicit and explicit social support, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) which yields positive and negative experience scores, Flourishing Scale (FS), and reported their grade point average (GPA) as a measure of academic performance. Moderated regression analysis demonstrated that, for those scoring lower on individualism, reporting lower level of implicit support predicted higher levels of perceived stress. For those scoring higher on individualism, lower levels of explicit social support predicted higher levels of perceived stress and a greater number of negative experiences. Generally, higher levels of implicit support were associated with greater satisfaction with life for all students, with the association becoming stronger among students with higher collectivism scores. No other significant findings were found. The results point to the value of considering the cultural orientations of students when designing programs to maintain and improve their sense of well-being.

Keywords: cultural orientation, social support, university students, well-being

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26 The Impact of Motivation, Trust, and National Cultural Differences on Knowledge Sharing within the Context of Electronic Mail

Authors: Said Abdullah Al Saifi

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The goal of this research is to examine the impact of trust, motivation, and national culture on knowledge sharing within the context of electronic mail. This study is quantitative and survey based. In order to conduct the research, 200 students from a leading university in New Zealand were chosen randomly to participate in a questionnaire survey. Motivation and trust were found to be significantly and positively related to knowledge sharing. The research findings illustrated that face saving, face gaining, and individualism positively moderates the relationship between motivation and knowledge sharing. In addition, collectivism culture negatively moderates the relationship between motivation and knowledge sharing. Moreover, the research findings reveal that face saving, individualism, and collectivism culture positively moderate the relationship between trust and knowledge sharing. In addition, face gaining culture negatively moderates the relationship between trust and knowledge sharing. This study sets out several implications for researchers and practitioners. The study produces an integrative model that shows how attributes of national culture impact knowledge sharing through the use of emails. A better understanding of the relationship between knowledge sharing and trust, motivation, and national culture differences will increase individuals’ ability to make wise choices when sharing knowledge with those from different cultures.

Keywords: knowledge sharing, motivation, national culture, trust

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25 The Concept of Development: A Normative Restructured Model in the Light of Indian Political Thought and Classical Liberalism

Authors: Sarthak S. Salunke

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Development, as a notion, is seen in perspective of western philosophical conceptions, and the western developed nations have become a yardstick for setting up development goals for developing and underdeveloped nations around the world. This blanket term of development becomes superficial and materialistic in context of the vast geopolitical, territorial, cultural and behavioral diversities existing in countries of the Africa and the Asia, and tends to undermine the atomistic aspect of development. Indian political theories, which are often seen as religious philosophies, have inherent structure of development of human being as an individual and as a part of the society, and, in result, development of the State. These theories, primarily individualistic in nature, have a combination of altruism and rationalism which guides human beings towards constructing a collectively developed and morally sustainable society. This research focuses on the application of this Indian thought in combination of classical liberal thought to tackle the issues of development in diverse societies. The proposed restructured model of development is based on molecular individualism, instead of atomic individual approach of liberalists, which lets development modelers to target meaningful clusters for designating goals for development based on the particular needs based on geopolitical, cultural and ethical requirements, and making it meaningful in conjunction with global development to establish a harmony between western and eastern worlds.

Keywords: Indian political thought, development, liberalism, molecular individualism

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24 Artificial Intelligence and Personhood : An African Perspective

Authors: Meshandren Naidoo, Amy Gooden

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The concept of personhood extending from the moral status of an artificial intelligence system has been explored – but predominantly from a Western conception of personhood. African personhood, however, is distinctly different from Western personhood in that communitarianism is central rather than individualism. Given the decolonization projects happening in Africa, it’s paramount to consider these views. This research demonstrates that the African notion of personhood may extend for an artificial intelligent system where the pre-conditions are met.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, ethics, law, personhood, policy

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23 Effect of Culture and Parenting Styles on Ambivalent Sexism in Mexican Population

Authors: Ilse Gonzalez-Rivera, Rolando Diaz-Loving

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Family, and parents in particular, are the main agents of socialization of children since they transmit values, beliefs, and cultural norms based on their own guidelines, so that children acquire the knowledge on how to interact with others in terms of the interaction with their parents. One way to measure socialization parenting is through parenting styles. Parenting styles are the set of parental behaviors that have a direct effect on the development of specific behaviors of children. The ideal parenting style depends on the cultural characteristics where people develop. In Mexico, the hierarchical structure of the family is built on a model in which men are dominant over women and their power is legitimized. This research explores the effect of parenting styles and the culture of the ambivalent sexism in the Mexican population. 150 men and 150 women participated. The instrument of individualism-collectivism was used to measure culture; participants also answered the instrument of ambivalent sexism and the parenting styles questionnaire. Regression analyses were done using sexism as the dependent variable and individualism-collectivism and parenting styles as independent variables. In addition, an analysis of variance between parental styles and gender of the participants was performed. The results indicate that the permissive style and authoritarian style are predictors of ambivalent sexism and higher levels of collectivism predict higher levels of sexism in both men and women. It is also found that parents tend to use authoritarian parenting style with women and permissive style with males. These results confirm the findings of other studies that indicate that parenting is an important variable that influences the interaction of adults. On the other hand, the effect of collectivism on sexism may be related to the fact that gender Mexican rules are rigid and for people with higher levels of collectivism, the social rules are more important than individual interests. In conclusion, these results indicate that both culture and parenting styles contribute to the maintenance of the status quo and prejudice towards women. Therefore, it is necessary to create proposals that break with this cultural paradigm and to further develop democratic styles of parenting with the aim of reducing prejudice and the legitimization of gender roles.

Keywords: culture, gender, parenting style, sexism

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22 Effect of Long Term Orientation and Indulgence on Earnings Management: The Moderating Role of Legal Tradition

Authors: I. Martinez-Conesa, E. Garcia-Meca, M. Barradas-Quiroz

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The objective of this study is to assess the impact on earnings management of latest two Hofstede cultural dimensions: long-term orientation and indulgence. Long-term orientation represents the alignment of a society towards the future and indulgence expresses the extent to which a society exhibits willingness, or restrain, to realise their impulses. Additionally, this paper tests if there are relevant differences by testing the moderating role of the legal tradition, Continental versus Anglo-Saxon. Our sample comprises 15 countries: Belgium, Canada, Germany, Spain, France, Great Britain, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, Philippines, Portugal, Sweden, and Thailand, with a total of 12,936 observations from 2003 to 2013. Our results show that managers in countries with high levels of long-term orientation reduce their levels of discretionary accruals. The findings do not confirm the effect of indulgence on earnings management. In addition, our results confirm previous literature regarding the effect of individualism, noting that firms in countries with high levels of collectivism might be more inclined to use earnings discretion to protect the welfare of the collective group of firm stakeholders. Uncertainty avoidance results in downwards earnings management as well as high disclosure, suggesting that less manipulation takes place when transparency is higher. Indulgence is the cultural dimension that confronts wellbeing versus survival; dimension is formulated including happiness, the perception of live control and the importance of leisure. Indulgence shows a weak negative correlation with power distance indicating a slight tendency for more hierarchical societies to be less indulgent. Anglo-Saxon countries are a positive effect of individualism and a negative effect of masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, and disclosure. With respect to continental countries, we can see a significant and positive effect of individualism and a significant and negative effect of masculinity, long-term orientation, and indulgence. Therefore, we observe the negative effect on earnings management provoked by higher disclosure and uncertainty avoidance only happens in Anglo-Saxon countries. Meanwhile, the improvement in reporting quality motivated by higher long-term orientation and higher indulgence is dominant in Continental countries. Our results confirm that there is a moderating effect of the legal system in the association between culture and earnings management. This effect is especially relevant in the dimensions related to uncertainty avoidance, long term orientation, indulgence, and disclosure. The negative effect of long-term orientation on earnings management only happens in those countries set in continental legal systems because of the Anglo-Saxon legal systems is supported by the decisions of the courts and the traditions, so it already has long-term orientation. That does not occur in continental systems, depending mainly of contend of the law. Sensitivity analysis used with Jones modified CP model, Jones Standard model and Jones Standard CP model confirm the robustness of these results. This paper collaborates towards a better understanding on how earnings management, culture and legal systems relate to each other, and contribute to previous literature by examining the influence of the two latest Hofstede’s dimensions not previously studied in papers.

Keywords: Hofstede, long-term-orientation, earnings management, indulgence

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21 K-Pop Fandom: A Sub-Cultural Influencer on K-Pop Brand Attitude

Authors: Patricia P. M. C. Lourenco, Sang Yong Kim, Anaisa D. A. De Sena

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K-Pop fandom is a paradoxical dichotomy of two conceptual contexts: the Korean single fandom and the international fandom; both strongly influence K-Pop brand attitude. Collectivist, South Korea’s fans showcase their undivided support to one artist comeback towards earning a triple-crown in domestic music charts. In contrast, individualist international fans collectively ship a plethora of artists and collaborate amongst themselves to the continuous expansion of K-Pop into a mainstream cultural glocalization in international music charts. The distinct idiosyncrasies between the two groups creates a heterogeneous K-Pop brand attitude that is challenging to tackle marketing wise for lack of homogeneity in the sub-cultural K-Pop fandom.

Keywords: K-Pop fandom, single-fandom, multi-fandom, individualism, collectivism, brand attitude, sub-culture

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20 Parents’ Perspectives on After-School Educational Service from a Cross-Cultural Background: A Comparative Semi-Structured Interview Approach Based in China and Ireland

Authors: Xining Wang

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After-school educational service has been proven that it could benefit children’s academic performance, socio-emotional skills, and physical health level. However, there is little research demonstrating parents’ perspectives on the choice of after-school educational service from a level of cross-cultural backgrounds. China and Ireland are typical representatives of collectivist countries (e.g., estimated individualism score is 20) and individualist countries (e.g., estimated individualism score is 70) according to Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory. Living in countries with distinguished cultural backgrounds, there is an evident discrepancy in parents’ attitudes towards domestic after-school education and parents’ motivations for choosing after-school educational services. Through conducting a semi-structured interview with 15 parents from China and 15 parents from Ireland, using thematic analysis software (ATLAS) to extract the key information, and applying a comparative approach to process data analysis; results present polarization of Chinese and Irish parents' perspectives and motivations on after-school educational service. For example, Chinese parents tend to view after-school education as a complement to school education. It is a service they purchased for their children to acquire extra knowledge and skills so that they could adapt to the highly competitive educational setting. Given the fact that children’s education is a priority for Chinese families, most parents believe that their children would succeed in the future through massive learning. This attitude reflects that Chinese parents are more likely to apply authoritarian parenting methods and having a strong expectations for their children. Conversely, Irish parents' choice of after-school educational service is a consideration that primarily based on their own situation, secondly, for their family. For instance, with the expansion of the labor market, there is a change in household structure. Irish mothers are more likely to seek working opportunities instead of looking after the family. Irish parents view that after-school educational service is an essential need for themselves and a beneficial component for their family due to the external pressure (e.g., the growing work intensity and extended working hours, increasing numbers of separated families, as well as parents’ pursuit of higher education and promotion). These factors are fundamental agents that encourage Irish parents to choose after-school educational services. To conclude, the findings could provide readers with a better understanding of parents’ disparate and contrasting perspectives on after-school educational services from a multi-culture level.

Keywords: after-school, China, family studies, Ireland, parents

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19 Cultural Effects on the Performance of Non- Profit and For-Profit Microfinance Institutions

Authors: Patrick M. Stanton, William R. McCumber

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Using a large dataset of more than 2,400 individual microfinance institutions (MFIs) from 120 countries from 1999 to 2016, this study finds that nearly half of the international MFIs operate as for-profit institutions. Formal institutions (business regulatory environment, property rights, social protection, and a developed financial sector) impact the likelihood of MFIs being for-profit across countries. Cultural differences across countries (power distance, individualism, masculinity, and indulgence) seem to be a factor in the legal status of the MFI (non-profit or for-profit). MFIs in countries with stronger formal institutions, a greater degree of power distance, and a higher degree of collectivism experience better financial and social performance.

Keywords: Hofstede cultural dimensions, international finance, microfinance institutions, non-profite

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18 Cultural Cognition and Voting: Understanding Values and Perceived Risks in the Colombian Population

Authors: Andrea N. Alarcon, Julian D. Castro, Gloria C. Rojas, Paola A. Vaca, Santiago Ortiz, Gustavo Martinez, Pablo D. Lemoine

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Recently, electoral results across many countries have shown to be inconsistent with rational decision theory, which states that individuals make decisions based on maximizing benefits and reducing risks. An alternative explanation has emerged: Fear and rage-driven vote have been proved to be highly effective for political persuasion and mobilization. This phenomenon has been evident in the 2016 elections in the United States, 2006 elections in Mexico, 1998 elections in Venezuela, and 2004 elections in Bolivia. In Colombia, it has occurred recently in the 2016 plebiscite for peace and 2018 presidential elections. The aim of this study is to explain this phenomenon using cultural cognition theory, referring to the psychological predisposition individuals have to believe that its own and its peer´s behavior is correct and, therefore, beneficial to the entire society. Cultural cognition refers to the tendency of individuals to fit perceived risks, and factual beliefs into group shared values; the Cultural Cognition Worldview Scales (CCWS) measures cultural perceptions through two different dimensions: Individualism-communitarianism and hierarchy-egalitarianism. The former refers to attitudes towards social dominance based on conspicuous and static characteristics (sex, ethnicity or social class), while the latter refers to attitudes towards a social ordering in which it is expected from individuals to guarantee their own wellbeing without society´s or government´s intervention. A probabilistic national sample was obtained from different polls from the consulting and public opinion company Centro Nacional de Consultoría. Sociodemographic data was obtained along with CCWS scores, a subjective measure of left-right ideological placement and vote intention for 2019 Mayor´s elections were also included in the questionnaires. Finally, the question “In your opinion, what is the greatest risk Colombia is facing right now?” was included to identify perceived risk in the population. Preliminary results show that Colombians are highly distributed among hierarchical communitarians and egalitarian individualists (30.9% and 31.7%, respectively), and to a less extent among hierarchical individualists and egalitarian communitarians (19% and 18.4%, respectively). Males tended to be more hierarchical (p < .000) and communitarian (p=.009) than females. ANOVA´s revealed statistically significant differences between groups (quadrants) for the level of schooling, left-right ideological orientation, and stratum (p < .000 for all), and proportion differences revealed statistically significant differences for groups of age (p < .001). Differences and distributions for vote intention and perceived risks are still being processed and results are yet to be analyzed. Results show that Colombians are differentially distributed among quadrants in regard to sociodemographic data and left-right ideological orientation. These preliminary results indicate that this study may shed some light on why Colombians vote the way they do, and future qualitative data will show the fears emerging from the identified values in the CCWS and the relation this has with vote intention.

Keywords: communitarianism, cultural cognition, egalitarianism, hierarchy, individualism, perceived risks

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17 The Effects of Self-Efficacy on Life Satisfaction

Authors: Gao ya

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This present study aims to find the relationship between self-efficacy and life satisfaction and the effects of self-efficacy on life satisfaction among Chinese people whose age is from 27-32, born between 1990 and 1995. People who were born between 1990 and 1995 are worthy to receive more attention now because the 90s was always received a lot of focus and labeled negatively as soon as they were born. And a large number of researches study people in individualism society more. So we chose the specific population whose age is from 27 to 32 live in a collectivist society. Demographic information was collected, including age, gender, education level, marital status, income level, number of children. We used the general self-efficacy scale(GSC) and the satisfaction with Life Scale(SLS) to collect data. A total of 350 questionnaires were distributed in and collected from mainland China, then 261 valid questionnaires were returned in the end, making a response rate of 74.57 percent. Some statistics techniques were used, like regression, correlation, ANOVA, T-test and general linear model, to measure variables. The findings were that self-efficacy positively related to life satisfaction. And self-efficacy influences life satisfaction significantly. At the same time, the relationship between demographic information and life satisfaction was analyzed.

Keywords: marital status, life satisfaction, number of children, self-efficacy, income level

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16 Shifting Paradigms of Culture: Rise of Secular Sensibility in Indian Literature

Authors: Nidhi Chouhan

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Burgeoning demand of ‘Secularism’ has shaken the pillars of cultural studies in the contemporary literature. The perplexity of the culturally estranged term ‘secular’ gives rise to temporal ideologies across the world. Hence, it is high time to scan this concept in the context of Indian lifestyle which is a blend of assimilated cultures woven in multiple religious fabrics. The infliction of such secular taste is depicted in literary productions like ‘Satanic Verses’ and ‘An Area of Darkness’. The paper conceptually makes a cross-cultural analysis of anti-religious Indian literary texts, assessing its revitalization in current times. Further, this paper studies the increasing popularity of secular sensibility in the contemporary times. The mushrooming elements of secularism such as abstraction, spirituality, liberation, individualism give rise to a seemingly newer idea i.e. ‘Plurality’ making the literature highly hybrid. This approach has been used to study Indian modernity reflected in its literature. Seminal works of stalwarts are used to understand the consequence of this cultural synthesis. Conclusively, this theoretical research inspects the efficiency of secular culture, intertwined with internal coherence and throws light on the plurality of texts in Indian literature.

Keywords: culture, indian, literature, plurality, secular, secularism

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15 Shia School of Thought and the Experience of Political Order in Contemporary Era

Authors: Abdulvahab Forati

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Religious intellectualism is the only stream of consciousness in Iran that its religious theories formed Democracy. The theory of Religious intellectualism was utilized in Constitutional Revolution and Islamic Revolution. To instate Democracy in Iran, in compare with West and sunnis, the theory of Religious Intellectualism is being used differently. Unlike Democracy in the west that has started with the concept of Individualism and Natural Rights or in Sunni world that has started with the concept of consultation, it has started in Iran with mima-la-nas-fih (what we don’t have any proof for)or mantaqa-alfiraq-altashri’ (area of vacuum from reason). Shia scholars first acquainted with the concept of Democracy through theories of Sheikh Mortiza Ansari, and later some of his followers, including Akhund-e-khorasani and Mirzaye naeini, regarding Sheikh Ansari’s thoughts, began to analyze its Constitutional system and Democratic elements. But Imam Khomeini, the great founder of Islamic Republic of Iran, with respect to RAKHS (religious permission for having a choice)could make connection between Islam and Democracy. Instead of focusing on Civil contracts, he relied on Sirah Ughala (Tradition) and accepted many of the current conducts, e.g. Democracy and Political Parties and acknowledged the authority (Hujiat) of them even in absence of Infallibles. These two are the most notable experiences of shia political thoughts about Democracy within the last 100 years. In this article, the author tries to explain the second experience in Imam Khomeini’s thoughts and Sirah.

Keywords: Shia school, Islamic revolution, democracy, political order

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14 Fashion Blogging as a Marketing Tool: A Cross-Cultural Investigation to Help the Emerging Fashion Markets

Authors: Rubab Ashiq, Bazaz Pinky

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Over the last decade, the emerging phenomenon of fashion blogging has altered the fashion landscape by providing new avenues of marketing to the fashion brands and designers. Given the growing popularity of this trend, there is a potential research scope within the developing fashion markets in South Asia as the majority of the previous studies have been centralized in the context of an established fashion industry. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide an insight on how these newly established marketplaces can benefit by incorporating fashion blogging as a marketing tool in a cross-cultural context. For this reason, the established fashion industry of UK and emerging fashion market of Pakistan was chosen to address the impact of cross-cultural differences on blogging based on the idea of individualism and collectivism. The study used a qualitative approach, using the semi-structured interviews with the fashion industry professionals including PR experts, fashion designers and fashion bloggers Additionally, a questionnaire was designed to gauge consumer’s perception of the blogging from the chosen fashion industries. It is established through the research findings that blogging has evolved from a trend to a strategic public relations and marketing tool in the established fashion industry, which is progressively growing its roots in the new emerging fashion markets. Furthermore, it is evaluated from the research that the cross-cultural differences have a positive impact on fashion blogging. Thus, this research paper serves as the guideline for the emerging fashion markets to incorporate fashion blogging as a marketing tool which can facilitate effective cross-cultural communication.

Keywords: blogging, digital marketing, cross-cultural, social media

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13 Analyzing Microblogs: Exploring the Psychology of Political Leanings

Authors: Meaghan Bowman

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Microblogging has become increasingly popular for commenting on current events, spreading gossip, and encouraging individualism--which favors its low-context communication channel. These social media (SM) platforms allow users to express opinions while interacting with a wide range of populations. Hashtags allow immediate identification of like-minded individuals worldwide on a vast array of topics. The output of the analytic tool, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC)--a program that associates psychological meaning with the frequency of use of specific words--may suggest the nature of individuals’ internal states and general sentiments. When applied to groupings of SM posts unified by a hashtag, such information can be helpful to community leaders during periods in which the forming of public opinion happens in parallel with the unfolding of political, economic, or social events. This is especially true when outcomes stand to impact the well-being of the group. Here, we applied the online tools, Google Translate and the University of Texas’s LIWC, to a 90-posting sample from a corpus of Colombian Spanish microblogs. On translated disjoint sets, identified by hashtag as being authored by advocates of voting “No,” advocates voting “Yes,” and entities refraining from hashtag use, we observed the value of LIWC’s Tone feature as distinguishing among the categories and the word “peace,” as carrying particular significance, due to its frequency of use in the data.

Keywords: Colombia peace referendum, FARC, hashtags, linguistics, microblogging, social media

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12 Chinese Leaders Abroad: Case in the Netherlands

Authors: Li Lin, Hein Roelfsema

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To achieve aggressive expansion goals, many Chinese companies are seeking resources and market around the world. To an increasing extent, Chinese enterprises recognized the Netherlands as their gateway to Europe Market. Yet, large cultural gaps (e.g. individualism/collectivism, power distance) may influence expat leaders’ influencing process, in turn affect intercultural teamwork. Lessons and suggestions from Chinese expat leaders could provide profound knowledge for managerial practice and future research. The current research focuses on the cultural difference between China and the Netherlands, along with leadership tactics for coping and handling differences occurring in the international business work. Exclusive 47 in-depth interviews with Chinese expat leaders were conducted. Within each interview, respondents were asked what were the main issues when working with Dutch employees, and what they believed as the keys to successful leadership in Dutch-Chinese cross-cultural workplaces. Consistent with previous research, the findings highlight the need to consider the cultural context within which leadership adapts. In addition, the findings indicated the importance of recognizing and applying the cultural advantages from which leadership originates. The results address observation ability as a crucial key for Chinese managers to lead Dutch/international teams. Moreover, setting a common goal help a leader to overcome the challenges due to cultural differences. Based on the analysis, we develop a process model to illustrate the dynamic mechanisms. Our study contributes to the better understanding of transference of management practices, and has important practical implications for managing Dutch employees.

Keywords: Chinese managers, Dutch employees, leadership, interviews

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11 Bringing Feminist Critical Pedagogy to the ESP Higher Education Classes: Feasibility and Challenges

Authors: Samira Essabari

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What, unfortunately, governs the Moroccan educational philosophy and policy today is a concerning neoliberal discourse with its obsession with market logics and individualism. Critical education has been advocated to resist the neoliberal hegemony since it holds the promise to reclaim the social function of education. Significantly, the mounting forms of sexism and discrimination against women combined with hegemonic educational practices are jeopardizing the social function of teaching and learning, hence the relevance of feminist critical pedagogy. A substantial body of research worldwide has explored the ways in which feminist pedagogy can develop feminist consciousness and examine power relations in different educational contexts. In Morocco, however, the feasibility of feminist pedagogy has not been researched despite the overwhelming interest in gender issues in different educational settings. The research on critical pedagogies in Morocco remains very promising. Yet, most studies were conducted in contexts which are already engaged with issues of theory, discourse, and discourse analysis. The field of ESP ( English for Specific Purposes) is pragmatic by nature, and priority in research has been given to questions that adhere to the mainstream concerns of need analysis and study skills and ignore issues of power, gender power relations, and intersectional forms of oppression. To address these gaps in the existing literature, this participatory action research seeks to investigate the feasibility of Feminist pedagogy in ESP higher education and how it can foster feminist critical consciousness among ESP students without compromising their language learning needs. The findings of this research will contribute to research on critical applied linguistics and critical ESP more specifically and add to the practice of critical pedagogies in Moroccan higher education by providing in-depth insights into the enablers and barriers to the implementation of feminist critical pedagogy, which is still feeling its way into the educational scene in Morocco.

Keywords: feminist pedagogy, critical pedagogy, power relations, gender, ESP, intersectionality

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10 Ba'albakī's Influence on 1950s and 1960s Lebanese Women Writers

Authors: Khaled Igbaria

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While Ba'albakī ceased writing or publishing since 1964, it is considerable and significant to investigate Ba'albakī's influence on others. This paper examines her influence on three Lebanese women writers: Emily Nasrallah, Muná Jabbūr, and Hanan al-Shaykh. However, the aim is not simply to examine the influence of the writer on these three authors, but rather to note similarities and differences in the challenges they faced and the agendas they followed in their fiction writing. For each of these writers, this article will describe elements of their literature, and then sketch out the influence which Ba'albakī has had on them. This paper relies on material from Sidawi because it includes interviews with the female writers discussed that are relevant to the current discussion. Sidawi asked them about Ba'albakī and her influence on them, the challenges they faced, and how they coped with them. This paper points out their comments using their own words. To be clear, examining these writers' notes and works is beyond the scope of this paper. To sum up, there are significant parallels between the life and work of Ba'albakī, and other Lebanese women writers such as Nasrallah, Jabbūr and al-Shaykh. Like Ba'albakī, Nasrallah and al-Shaykh also suffered in their struggle against their families. Nasrallah and al-Shaykh, like Ba'albakī, suffered because their society did not trust in their abilities and creativity. Ba'albakī opted for isolation because of her conflict with patriarchal society including the Lebanese women’s groups, while Nasrallah's isolation was because she preferred individualism and autonomy, and Jabbūr, as could be speculated, was not able to cope with the suffering caused by her role as a woman writer within Lebanese society. Whereas Ba'albakī isolated herself from the Lebanese women’s groups, focusing instead on her feminist writing and joining the Shi'r group, Al-Shaykh and the Lebanese women’s groups are able to cooperate in harmony. Furthermore, while Nasrallah and Al-Shaykh continued to publish fiction, Ba'albakī stopped publishing fiction in 1964. All of the above confirms not only that it is worthy to investigate deeply and academically both the biography and the works of Ba'albakī, but also that she deserves to include her throughout the top great Arab female writers, at the time, like Al-Shaykh and Nawal El Saadawi.

Keywords: feminist writing, Hanan Al-Shaykh, Laylá Ba'albakī, Lebanese women writers, Muná Jabbūr

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9 Personality Traits and Starting a Romantic Relationship on Social Media in a Turkish Sample

Authors: Ates Gul Ergun, Melda Tacyildiz

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The current study focuses on the relationship between the personality traits and starting a romantic relationship on social media. It is interested in the study whether there are any personality trait differences between individuals who started their romantic relationships on social media platforms or through circle of friends in daily life. Sixty five participants between the ages of 18-30 filled out a three-question-survey about romantic relationships and social media, with the Big Five Inventory. Four separate independent samples t tests comparing agreeableness and extraversion scores on the environment of participants first interacted (online vs. real-life) and where they fırst meet without interaction (online vs. real-life) were carried out. The results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between people who had the first interaction with their partner online vs. real-life in terms of extraversion and agreeableness traits. The more extrovert and agreeable traits reported the more people were likely to interact with their partner through circle of friends in real-life. Furthermore, it was found that people who are less agreeable have a tendency to interact with their partners in social media for the first time. However, there was no statistically significant difference between how participants met with their partners without interaction (online vs. real-life) in terms of extraversion and agreeableness traits. This study has shown the relationships between personality traits and starting a romantic relationship on social media versus in real-life but not the reasons behind it. Further research could examine such reasons. In addition, the data only includes Turkish sample. By virtue of the cultural restriction in the present study, it is suggested that the future research should also include different cultures to investigate how people spend time with their friends and also in social media which can be changed according to individualism levels of countries. Overall, the study emphasizes the importance and the role of social media in individual’s lives, and it opens the ways associated with personal traits and social media relationships for further researches.

Keywords: agreeableness, big five, extraversion, romantic relationships, social media

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8 Speaking of Genocide: Lithuanian 'Occupation’ Museums and Foucault's Discursive Formation

Authors: Craig Wight

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Tourism visits to sites associated to varying degrees with death and dying have for some time inspired academic debate and research into what has come to be popularly described as ‘dark tourism’. Research to date has been based on the mobilisation of various social scientific methodologies to understand issues such as the motivations of visitors to consume dark tourism experiences and visitor interpretations of the various narratives that are part of the consumption experience. This thesis offers an alternative conceptual perspective for carrying out research into dark tourism by presenting a discourse analysis of Lithuanian occupation-themed museums using Foucault’s concept of ‘discursive formation’ from ‘Archaeology of Knowledge’. A constructivist methodology is therefore applied to locate the rhetorical representations of Lithuanian and Jewish subject positions and to identify the objects of discourse that are produced in five museums that interpret a historical era defined by occupation, the persecution of people and genocide. The discourses and consequent cultural function of these museums are examined, and the key finding of the research proposes that they authorise a particular Lithuanian individualism which marginalises the Jewish subject position and its related objects of discourse into abstraction. The thesis suggests that these museums create the possibility to undermine the ontological stability of Holocaust and the Jewish-Lithuanian subject which is produced as an anomalous, ‘non-Lithuanian’ cultural reference point. As with any Foucauldian archaeological research, it cannot be offered as something that is ‘complete’ since it captures only a partial field, or snapshot of knowledge, bound to a specific temporal and spatial context. The discourses that have been identified are perhaps part of a more elusive ‘positivity’ which is salient across a number of cultural and political surfaces which are ripe for a similar analytical approach in future. It is hoped that the study will motivate others to follow a discourse-analytical approach to research in order to further understand the critical role of museums in public culture when it comes to shaping knowledge about ‘inconvenient’ pasts.

Keywords: genocide heritage, foucault, Lithuanian tourism, discursive formatoin

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7 Organizational Culture of a Public and a Private Hospital in Brazil

Authors: Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi Rocha, Thamiris Cavazzani Vegro, Silvia Helena Henriques Camelo, Carmen Silvia Gabriel, Andrea Bernardes

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Introduction: Organizations are cultural, symbolic and imaginary systems composed by values and norms. These values and norms represent the organizational culture, which determines the behavior of the workers, guides the work practices and impacts the quality of care and the safety culture of health services worldwide. Objective: To analyze the organizational culture of a public and a private hospital in Brazil. Method: Descriptive study with quantitative approach developed in a public and in a private hospital of Brazil. Sample was composed by 281 nursing workers, of which 73 nurses and 208 nursing auxiliaries and technicians. The data collection instrument comprised the Brazilian Instrument for Assessing Organizational Culture. Data were collected from March to December 2013. Results: At the public hospital, the results showed an average score of 2.85 for the values concerning cooperative professionalism (CP); 3.02 for values related to hierarchical rigidity and the centralization of power (HR); 2.23 for individualistic professionalism and competition at work (IP); 2.22 for values related to satisfaction, well-being and motivation of workers (SW); 3.47 for external integration (EI); 2.03 for rewarding and training practices (RT); 2.75 for practices related to the promotion of interpersonal relationships (IR) About the private hospital, the results showed an average score of 3.24 for the CP; 2.83 for HR; 2.69 for IP; 2.71 for SW; 3.73 for EI; 2.56 for RT; 2.83 for IR at the hospital. Discussion: The analysis of organizational values of the studied hospitals shows that workers find the existence of hierarchical rigidity and the centralization of power in the institutions; believed there was cooperation at workplace, though they perceived individualism and competition; believed that values associated with the workers’ well-being, satisfaction and motivation were seldom acknowledged by the hospital; believed in the adoption of strategic planning actions within the institution, but considered interpersonal relationship promotion, continuous education and the rewarding of workers to be little valued by the institution. Conclusion: This work context can lead to professional dissatisfaction, compromising the quality of care and contributing to the occurrence of occupational diseases.

Keywords: nursing management, organizational culture, quality of care, interpersonal relationships

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6 Impact of Cultural Intelligence on Decision Making Styles of Managers: A Turkish Case

Authors: Fusun Akdag

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Today, as business becomes increasingly global, managers/leaders of multinational companies or local companies work with employees or customers from a variety of cultural backgrounds. To do this effectively, they need to develop cultural competence. Therefore, cultural intelligence (CQ) becomes a vitally important aptitude and skill, especially for leaders. The organizational success or failure depends upon the way, the kind of leadership which has been provided to its members. The culture we are born into deeply effects our values, beliefs, and behavior. Cultural intelligence (CQ) focuses on how well individuals can relate and work across cultures. CQ helps minimize conflict and maximize performance of a diverse workforce. The term 'decision,' refers to a commitment to a course of action that is intended to serve the interests and values of particular people. One dimension of culture that has received attention is individualism-collectivism or, independence-interdependence. These dimensions are associated with different conceptualizations of the 'self.' Individualistic cultures tend to value personal goal pursuit as opposed to pursuit of others’ goals. Collectivistic cultures, by contrast, view the 'self' as part of a whole. Each person is expected to work with his or her in-group toward goals, generally pursue group harmony. These differences underlie cross-cultural variation in decision-making, such as the decision modes people use, their preferences, negotiation styles, creativity, and more. The aim of this study is determining the effect of CQ on decision making styles of male and female managers in Turkey, an emergent economy framework. The survey is distributed to gather data from managers at various companies. The questionnaire consists of three parts: demographics, The Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) to measure the four dimensions of cultural intelligence and General Decision Making Style (GMDS) Inventory to measure the five subscales of decision making. The results will indicate the Turkish managers’ score at metacognitive, cognitive, motivational and behavioral aspects of cultural intelligence and to what extent these scores affect their rational, avoidant, dependent, intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles since business leaders make dozens of decisions every day that influence the success of the company and also having an impact on employees, customers, shareholders and the market.

Keywords: cultural intelligence, decision making, gender differences, management styles,

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5 Postfeminism, Femvertising and Inclusion: An Analysis of Changing Women's Representation in Contemporary Media

Authors: Saveria Capecchi

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In this paper, the results of qualitative content research on postfeminist female representation in contemporary Western media (advertising, television series, films, social media) are presented. Female role models spectacularized in media culture are an important part of the development of social identities and could inspire new generations. Postfeminist cultural texts have given rise to heated debate between gender and media studies scholars. There are those who claim they are commercial products seeking to sell feminism to women, a feminism whose political and subversive role is completely distorted and linked to the commercial interests of the cosmetics, fashion, fitness and cosmetic surgery industries, in which women’s ‘power’ lies mainly in their power to seduce. There are those who consider them feminist manifestos because they represent independent ‘modern women’ free from male control who aspire to achieve professionally and overcome gender stereotypes like that of the ‘housewife-mother’. Major findings of the research show that feminist principles have been gradually absorbed by the cultural industry and adapted to its commercial needs, resulting in the dissemination of contradictory values. On the one hand, in line with feminist arguments, patriarchal ideology is condemned and the concepts of equality and equal opportunity between men and women are promoted. On the other hand, feminist principles and demands are ascribed to individualism, which translates into the slogan: women are free to decide for themselves, even to objectify their own bodies. In particular, it is observed that femvertising trend in media industry is changing female representation moving away from classic stereotypes: the feminine beauty ideal of slenderness, emphasized in the media since the seventies, is ultimately challenged by the ‘curvy’ body model, which is considered to be more inclusive and based on the concept of ‘natural beauty’. Another aspect of change is the ‘anti-romantic’ revolution performed by some heroines, who are not in search of Prince Charming, in television drama and in the film industry. In conclusion, although femvertising tends to simplify and trivialize the concepts characterizing fourth-wave feminism (‘intersectionality’ and ‘inclusion’), it is also a tendency that enables the challenging of media imagery largely based on male viewpoints, interests and desires.

Keywords: feminine beauty ideal, femvertising, gender and media, postfeminism

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4 Archaic Ontologies Nowadays: Music of Rituals

Authors: Luminiţa Duţică, Gheorghe Duţică

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Many of the interrogations or dilemmas of the contemporary world found the answer in what was generically called the appeal to matrix. This genuine spiritual exercise of re-connection of the present to origins, to the primary source, revealed the ontological condition of timelessness, ahistorical, immutable (epi)phenomena, of those pure essences concentrated in the archetypal-referential layer of the human existence. The musical creation was no exception to this trend, the impasse generated by the deterministic excesses of the whole serialism or, conversely, by some questionable results of the extreme indeterminism proper to the avant-garde movements, stimulating the orientation of many composers to rediscover a universal grammar, as an emanation of a new ‘collective’ order (reverse of the utopian individualism). In this context, the music of oral tradition and therefore the world of the ancient modes represented a true revelation for the composers of the twentieth century, who were suddenly in front of some unsuspected (re)sources, with a major impact on all levels of edification of the musical work: morphology, syntax, timbrality, semantics etc. For the contemporary Romanian creators, the music of rituals, existing in the local archaic culture, opened unsuspected perspectives for which it meant to be a synthetic, inclusive and recoverer vision, where the primary (archetypal) genuine elements merge with the latest achievements of language of the European composers. Thus, anchored in a strong and genuine modal source, the compositions analysed in this paper evoke, in a manner as modern as possible, the atmosphere of some ancestral rituals such as: the invocation of rain during the drought (Paparudele, Scaloianul), funeral ceremony (Bocetul), traditions specific to the winter holidays and new year (Colinda, Cântecul de stea, Sorcova, Folklore traditional dances) etc. The reactivity of those rituals in the sound context of the twentieth century meant potentiating or resizing the archaic spirit of the primordial symbolic entities, in terms of some complexity levels generated by the technique of harmonies of chordal layers, of complex aggregates (gravitational or non-gravitational, geometric), of the mixture polyphonies and with global effect (group, mass), by the technique of heterophony, of texture and cluster, leading to the implementation of some processes of collective improvisation and instrumental theatre.

Keywords: archetype, improvisation, polyphony, ritual, instrumental theatre

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