Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3728

Search results for: correlation coefficients

3728 Multivariate Rainfall Disaggregation Using MuDRain Model: Malaysia Experience

Authors: Ibrahim Suliman Hanaish

Abstract:

Disaggregation daily rainfall using stochastic models formulated based on multivariate approach (MuDRain) is discussed in this paper. Seven rain gauge stations are considered in this study for different distances from the referred station starting from 4 km to 160 km in Peninsular Malaysia. The hourly rainfall data used are covered the period from 1973 to 2008 and July and November months are considered as an example of dry and wet periods. The cross-correlation among the rain gauges is considered for the available hourly rainfall information at the neighboring stations or not. This paper discussed the applicability of the MuDRain model for disaggregation daily rainfall to hourly rainfall for both sources of cross-correlation. The goodness of fit of the model was based on the reproduction of fitting statistics like the means, variances, coefficients of skewness, lag zero cross-correlation of coefficients and the lag one auto correlation of coefficients. It is found the correlation coefficients based on extracted correlations that was based on daily are slightly higher than correlations based on available hourly rainfall especially for neighboring stations not more than 28 km. The results showed also the MuDRain model did not reproduce statistics very well. In addition, a bad reproduction of the actual hyetographs comparing to the synthetic hourly rainfall data. Mean while, it is showed a good fit between the distribution function of the historical and synthetic hourly rainfall. These discrepancies are unavoidable because of the lowest cross correlation of hourly rainfall. The overall performance indicated that the MuDRain model would not be appropriate choice for disaggregation daily rainfall.

Keywords: rainfall disaggregation, multivariate disaggregation rainfall model, correlation, stochastic model

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3727 Statistical Correlation between Ply Mechanical Properties of Composite and Its Effect on Structure Reliability

Authors: S. Zhang, L. Zhang, X. Chen

Abstract:

Due to the large uncertainty on the mechanical properties of FRP (fibre reinforced plastic), the reliability evaluation of FRP structures are currently receiving much attention in industry. However, possible statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties has been so far overlooked, and they are mostly assumed to be independent random variables. In this study, the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties of uni-directional and plain weave composite is firstly analyzed by a combination of Monte-Carlo simulation and finite element modeling of the FRP unit cell. Large linear correlation coefficients between the in-plane mechanical properties are observed, and the correlation coefficients are heavily dependent on the uncertainty of the fibre volume ratio. It is also observed that the correlation coefficients related to Poisson’s ratio are negative while others are positive. To experimentally achieve the statistical correlation coefficients between in-plane mechanical properties of FRP, all concerned in-plane mechanical properties of the same specimen needs to be known. In-plane shear modulus of FRP is experimentally derived by the approach suggested in the ASTM standard D5379M. Tensile tests are conducted using the same specimens used for the shear test, and due to non-uniform tensile deformation a modification factor is derived by a finite element modeling. Digital image correlation is adopted to characterize the specimen non-uniform deformation. The preliminary experimental results show a good agreement with the numerical analysis on the statistical correlation. Then, failure probability of laminate plates is calculated in cases considering and not considering the statistical correlation, using the Monte-Carlo and Markov Chain Monte-Carlo methods, respectively. The results highlight the importance of accounting for the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties to achieve accurate failure probability of laminate plates. Furthermore, it is found that for the multi-layer laminate plate, the statistical correlation between the ply elastic properties significantly affects the laminate reliability while the effect of statistical correlation between the ply strength is minimal.

Keywords: failure probability, FRP, reliability, statistical correlation

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3726 Effects of Video Games and Online Chat on Mathematics Performance in High School: An Approach of Multivariate Data Analysis

Authors: Lina Wu, Wenyi Lu, Ye Li

Abstract:

Regarding heavy video game players for boys and super online chat lovers for girls as a symbolic phrase in the current adolescent culture, this project of data analysis verifies the displacement effect on deteriorating mathematics performance. To evaluate correlation or regression coefficients between a factor of playing video games or chatting online and mathematics performance compared with other factors, we use multivariate analysis technique and take gender difference into account. We find the most important reason for the negative sign of the displacement effect on mathematics performance due to students’ poor academic background. Statistical analysis methods in this project could be applied to study internet users’ academic performance from the high school education to the college education.

Keywords: correlation coefficients, displacement effect, multivariate analysis technique, regression coefficients

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3725 Statistical Correlation between Logging-While-Drilling Measurements and Wireline Caliper Logs

Authors: Rima T. Alfaraj, Murtadha J. Al Tammar, Khaqan Khan, Khalid M. Alruwaili

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE/SCOPE (25-75): Caliper logging data provides critical information about wellbore shape and deformations, such as stress-induced borehole breakouts or washouts. Multiarm mechanical caliper logs are often run using wireline, which can be time-consuming, costly, and/or challenging to run in certain formations. To minimize rig time and improve operational safety, it is valuable to develop analytical solutions that can estimate caliper logs using available Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) data without the need to run wireline caliper logs. As a first step, the objective of this paper is to perform statistical analysis using an extensive datasetto identify important physical parameters that should be considered in developing such analytical solutions. METHODS, PROCEDURES, PROCESS (75-100): Caliper logs and LWD data of eleven wells, with a total of more than 80,000 data points, were obtained and imported into a data analytics software for analysis. Several parameters were selected to test the relationship of the parameters with the measured maximum and minimum caliper logs. These parameters includegamma ray, porosity, shear, and compressional sonic velocities, bulk densities, and azimuthal density. The data of the eleven wells were first visualized and cleaned.Using the analytics software, several analyses were then preformed, including the computation of Pearson’s correlation coefficients to show the statistical relationship between the selected parameters and the caliper logs. RESULTS, OBSERVATIONS, CONCLUSIONS (100-200): The results of this statistical analysis showed that some parameters show good correlation to the caliper log data. For instance, the bulk density and azimuthal directional densities showedPearson’s correlation coefficients in the range of 0.39 and 0.57, which wererelatively high when comparedto the correlation coefficients of caliper data with other parameters. Other parameters such as porosity exhibited extremely low correlation coefficients to the caliper data. Various crossplots and visualizations of the data were also demonstrated to gain further insights from the field data. NOVEL/ADDITIVE INFORMATION (25-75): This study offers a unique and novel look into the relative importance and correlation between different LWD measurements and wireline caliper logs via an extensive dataset. The results pave the way for a more informed development of new analytical solutions for estimating the size and shape of the wellbore in real-time while drilling using LWD data.

Keywords: LWD measurements, caliper log, correlations, analysis

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3724 Development of Generalized Correlation for Liquid Thermal Conductivity of N-Alkane and Olefin

Authors: A. Ishag Mohamed, A. A. Rabah

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to develop a generalized correlation for the prediction of thermal conductivity of n-Alkanes and Alkenes. There is a minority of research and lack of correlation for thermal conductivity of liquids in the open literature. The available experimental data are collected covering the groups of n-Alkanes and Alkenes.The data were assumed to correlate to temperature using Filippov correlation. Nonparametric regression of Grace Algorithm was used to develop the generalized correlation model. A spread sheet program based on Microsoft Excel was used to plot and calculate the value of the coefficients. The results obtained were compared with the data that found in Perry's Chemical Engineering Hand Book. The experimental data correlated to the temperature ranged "between" 273.15 to 673.15 K, with R2 = 0.99.The developed correlation reproduced experimental data that which were not included in regression with absolute average percent deviation (AAPD) of less than 7 %. Thus the spread sheet was quite accurate which produces reliable data.

Keywords: N-Alkanes, N-Alkenes, nonparametric, regression

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3723 Gray Level Image Encryption

Authors: Roza Afarin, Saeed Mozaffari

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is image encryption using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed encryption method consists of two phases. In modification phase, pixels locations are altered to reduce correlation among adjacent pixels. Then, pixels values are changed in the diffusion phase to encrypt the input image. Both phases are performed by GA with binary chromosomes. For modification phase, these binary patterns are generated by Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator while for diffusion phase binary chromosomes are obtained by Bit Plane Slicing (BPS). Initial population in GA includes rows and columns of the input image. Instead of subjective selection of parents from this initial population, a random generator with predefined key is utilized. It is necessary to decrypt the coded image and reconstruct the initial input image. Fitness function is defined as average of transition from 0 to 1 in LBP image and histogram uniformity in modification and diffusion phases, respectively. Randomness of the encrypted image is measured by entropy, correlation coefficients and histogram analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast enough and can be used effectively for image encryption.

Keywords: correlation coefficients, genetic algorithm, image encryption, image entropy

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3722 The Relationship between Basic Human Needs and Opportunity Based on Social Progress Index

Authors: Ebru Ozgur Guler, Huseyin Guler, Sera Sanli

Abstract:

Social Progress Index (SPI) whose fundamentals have been thrown in the World Economy Forum is an index which aims to form a systematic basis for guiding strategy for inclusive growth which requires achieving both economic and social progress. In this research, it has been aimed to determine the relations among “Basic Human Needs” (BHN) (including four variables of ‘Nutrition and Basic Medical Care’, ‘Water and Sanitation’, ‘Shelter’ and ‘Personal Safety’) and “Opportunity” (OPT) (that is composed of ‘Personal Rights’, ‘Personal Freedom and Choice’, ‘Tolerance and Inclusion’, and ‘Access to Advanced Education’ components) dimensions of 2016 SPI for 138 countries which take place in the website of Social Progress Imperative by carrying out canonical correlation analysis (CCA) which is a data reduction technique that operates in a way to maximize the correlation between two variable sets. In the interpretation of results, the first pair of canonical variates pointing to the highest canonical correlation has been taken into account. The first canonical correlation coefficient has been found as 0.880 indicating to the high relationship between BHN and OPT variable sets. Wilk’s Lambda statistic has revealed that an overall effect of 0.809 is highly large for the full model in order to be counted as statistically significant (with a p-value of 0.000). According to the standardized canonical coefficients, the largest contribution to BHN set of variables has come from ‘shelter’ variable. The most effective variable in OPT set has been detected to be ‘access to advanced education’. Findings based on canonical loadings have also confirmed these results with respect to the contributions to the first canonical variates. When canonical cross loadings (structure coefficients) are examined, for the first pair of canonical variates, the largest contributions have been provided by ‘shelter’ and ‘access to advanced education’ variables. Since the signs for structure coefficients have been found to be negative for all variables; all OPT set of variables are positively related to all of the BHN set of variables. In case canonical communality coefficients which are the sum of the squares of structure coefficients across all interpretable functions are taken as the basis; amongst all variables, ‘personal rights’ and ‘tolerance and inclusion’ variables can be said not to be useful in the model with 0.318721 and 0.341722 coefficients respectively. On the other hand, while redundancy index for BHN set has been found to be 0.615; OPT set has a lower redundancy index with 0.475. High redundancy implies high ability for predictability. The proportion of the total variation in BHN set of variables that is explained by all of the opposite canonical variates has been calculated as 63% and finally, the proportion of the total variation in OPT set that is explained by all of the canonical variables in BHN set has been determined as 50.4% and a large part of this proportion belongs to the first pair. The results suggest that there is a high and statistically significant relationship between BHN and OPT. This relationship is generally accounted by ‘shelter’ and ‘access to advanced education’.

Keywords: canonical communality coefficient, canonical correlation analysis, redundancy index, social progress index

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3721 Correlation Mapping for Measuring Platelet Adhesion

Authors: Eunseop Yeom

Abstract:

Platelets can be activated by the surrounding blood flows where a blood vessel is narrowed as a result of atherosclerosis. Numerous studies have been conducted to identify the relation between platelets activation and thrombus formation. To measure platelet adhesion, this study proposes an image analysis technique. Blood samples are delivered in the microfluidic channel, and then platelets are activated by a stenotic micro-channel with 90% severity. By applying proposed correlation mapping, which visualizes decorrelation of the streaming blood flow, the area of adhered platelets (APlatelet) was estimated without labeling platelets. In order to evaluate the performance of correlation mapping on the detection of platelet adhesion, the effect of tile size was investigated by calculating 2D correlation coefficients with binary images obtained by manual labeling and the correlation mapping method with different sizes of the square tile ranging from 3 to 50 pixels. The maximum 2D correlation coefficient is observed with the optimum tile size of 5×5 pixels. As the area of the platelet adhesion increases, the platelets plug the channel and there is only a small amount of blood flows. This image analysis could provide new insights for better understanding of the interactions between platelet aggregation and blood flows in various physiological conditions.

Keywords: platelet activation, correlation coefficient, image analysis, shear rate

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3720 The Impact of Undisturbed Flow Speed on the Correlation of Aerodynamic Coefficients as a Function of the Angle of Attack for the Gyroplane Body

Authors: Zbigniew Czyz, Krzysztof Skiba, Miroslaw Wendeker

Abstract:

This paper discusses the results of aerodynamic investigation of the Tajfun gyroplane body designed by a Polish company, Aviation Artur Trendak. This gyroplane has been studied as a 1:8 scale model. Scaling objects for aerodynamic investigation is an inherent procedure in any kind of designing. If scaling, the criteria of similarity need to be satisfied. The basic criteria of similarity are geometric, kinematic and dynamic. Despite the results of aerodynamic research are often reduced to aerodynamic coefficients, one should pay attention to how values of coefficients behave if certain criteria are to be satisfied. To satisfy the dynamic criterion, for example, the Reynolds number should be focused on. This is the correlation of inertial to viscous forces. With the multiplied flow speed by the specific dimension as a numerator (with a constant kinematic viscosity coefficient), flow speed in a wind tunnel research should be increased as many times as an object is decreased. The aerodynamic coefficients specified in this research depend on the real forces that act on an object, its specific dimension, medium speed and variations in its density. Rapid prototyping with a 3D printer was applied to create the research object. The research was performed with a T-1 low-speed wind tunnel (its diameter of the measurement volume is 1.5 m) and a six-element aerodynamic internal scales, WDP1, at the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw. This T-1 wind tunnel is low-speed continuous operation with open space measurement. The research covered a number of the selected speeds of undisturbed flow, i.e. V = 20, 30 and 40 m/s, corresponding to the Reynolds numbers (as referred to 1 m) Re = 1.31∙106, 1.96∙106, 2.62∙106 for the angles of attack ranging -15° ≤ α ≤ 20°. Our research resulted in basic aerodynamic characteristics and observing the impact of undisturbed flow speed on the correlation of aerodynamic coefficients as a function of the angle of attack of the gyroplane body. If the speed of undisturbed flow in the wind tunnel changes, the aerodynamic coefficients are significantly impacted. At speed from 20 m/s to 30 m/s, drag coefficient, Cx, changes by 2.4% up to 9.9%, whereas lift coefficient, Cz, changes by -25.5% up to 15.7% if the angle of attack of 0° excluded or by -25.5% up to 236.9% if the angle of attack of 0° included. Within the same speed range, the coefficient of a pitching moment, Cmy, changes by -21.1% up to 7.3% if the angles of attack -15° and -10° excluded or by -142.8% up to 618.4% if the angle of attack -15° and -10° included. These discrepancies in the coefficients of aerodynamic forces definitely need to consider while designing the aircraft. For example, if load of certain aircraft surfaces is calculated, additional correction factors definitely need to be applied. This study allows us to estimate the discrepancies in the aerodynamic forces while scaling the aircraft. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: aerodynamics, criteria of similarity, gyroplane, research tunnel

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3719 Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Depth and Correlation Analysis of PM2.5 Based on GF-1 Wide Field of View Images

Authors: Bo Wang

Abstract:

This paper proposes a method that can estimate PM2.5 by the images of GF-1 Satellite that called WFOV images (Wide Field of View). AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) over land surfaces was retrieved in Shanghai area based on DDV (Dark Dense Vegetation) method. PM2.5 information, gathered from ground monitoring stations hourly, was fitted with AOD using different polynomial coefficients, and then the correlation coefficient between them was calculated. The results showed that, the GF-1 WFOV images can meet the requirement of retrieving AOD, and the correlation coefficient between the retrieved AOD and PM2.5 was high. If more detailed and comprehensive data is provided, the accuracy could be improved and the parameters can be more precise in the future.

Keywords: remote sensing retrieve, PM 2.5, GF-1, aerosol optical depth

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3718 Choosing between the Regression Correlation, the Rank Correlation, and the Correlation Curve

Authors: Roger L. Goodwin

Abstract:

This paper presents a rank correlation curve. The traditional correlation coefficient is valid for both continuous variables and for integer variables using rank statistics. Since the correlation coefficient has already been established in rank statistics by Spearman, such a calculation can be extended to the correlation curve. This paper presents two survey questions. The survey collected non-continuous variables. We will show weak to moderate correlation. Obviously, one question has a negative effect on the other. A review of the qualitative literature can answer which question and why. The rank correlation curve shows which collection of responses has a positive slope and which collection of responses has a negative slope. Such information is unavailable from the flat, "first-glance" correlation statistics.

Keywords: Bayesian estimation, regression model, rank statistics, correlation, correlation curve

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3717 Evaluation of the Adsorption Adaptability of Activated Carbon Using Dispersion Force

Authors: Masao Fujisawa, Hirohito Ikeda, Tomonori Ohata, Miho Yukawa, Hatsumi Aki, Takayoshi Kimura

Abstract:

We attempted to predict adsorption coefficients by utilizing dispersion energies. We performed liquid-phase free energy calculations based on gas-phase geometries of organic compounds using the DFT and studied the relationship between the adsorption of organic compounds by activated carbon and dispersion energies of the organic compounds. A linear correlation between absorption coefficients and dispersion energies was observed.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, prediction, dispersion energy

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3716 Stigma and Discrimination toward Mental Illness: Translation and Validation of the Attribution Questionnaire-27 (AQ-27)

Authors: Gokcen Akyurek, Hulya Kayihan, Deniz Yuce, Selen Yilmaz

Abstract:

The stigma towards mental illness is still very rooted in our society, despite the number of studies, campaigns, and anti-stigma programs developed in recent years. Stigma represents a serious obstacle to recovery and social integration for people who experience a mental illness, affecting directly their well-being and quality of life. It implies that these persons have to deal with many other barriers apart from the disease symptoms (1-5). Convergent, recent literature suggests that less positive attitudes by mental health professionals interfere with the self-determination and recovery process (4-10).The aim of this study was to translate the Attribution Questionnaire-27 (AQ-27) to the Turkish language (AQ-27-T), and to examine the reliability and validity of this new Turkish version. Cultural adaptation was implemented according to the internationally suggested method. To determine the understandability and appropriateness of this measure for the Turkish culture, a pretest was administered and the final form was generated. Then, 424 randomly chosen people took part in the study. Participant’s mean age was 36.9±12.7 years and %52 of them female. Cronbach's alpha and intra-class coefficients were used to estimate instrument reliability. The AQ-27-T was assessed again 14 days later for test retest reliability. The AQ-27-T demonstrated acceptable internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.88 for the total scale and ranging between 0.86 and 0.89 for the items. The test-retest reliability was good, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.79 for the total scale and ranging between 0.35 and 0.77 for the items (p<0.05). Correlation between subscales was moderate-good, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.18-0.88 (p<0.05). Fit indices of the model supported the factor structure and paths. The AQ-27-T is a reliable measure to assess stigmatizing attitudes in Turkish.

Keywords: attribution questionnaire, validity, reliability, stigma

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3715 Estimation of Pressure Loss Coefficients in Combining Flows Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Shahzad Yousaf, Imran Shafi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method for calculation of pressure loss coefficients by use of the artificial neural network (ANN) in tee junctions. Geometry and flow parameters are feed into ANN as the inputs for purpose of training the network. Efficacy of the network is demonstrated by comparison of the experimental and ANN based calculated data of pressure loss coefficients for combining flows in a tee junction. Reynolds numbers ranging from 200 to 14000 and discharge ratios varying from minimum to maximum flow for calculation of pressure loss coefficients have been used. Pressure loss coefficients calculated using ANN are compared to the models from literature used in junction flows. The results achieved after the application of ANN agrees reasonably to the experimental values.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, combining flow, pressure loss coefficients, solar collector tee junctions

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3714 Attention Deficit Disorders (ADD) among Stressed Pre-NCE Students in Federal College of Education, Kano-Nigeria

Authors: A. S. Haruna, M. L. Mayanchi

Abstract:

Pre Nigeria Certificate in Education otherwise called Pre-NCE is an intensive two semester course designed to assist candidates who could not meet the requirements for admission into NCE programme. The task of coping with the stressors in the course can interfere with the students’ ability to regulate attention skills and stay organized. The main objectives of the study were to find out the prevalence of stress; determine the association between stress and ADD and reveal gender difference in the prevalence of ADD among stressed pre-NCE students. Cross–Sectional Correlation Design was employed in which 333 (Male=65%; Female=35%) students were proportionately sampled and administered Stress Assessment Scale [SAS r=0.74) and those identified with stress were thereafter rated with Cognitive Processing Inventory [CPI]. Data collected was used to analyze the three null hypotheses through One-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) Z-score, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients (PPMCC) and t-test statistics respectively at 0.05 confidence level. Results revealed significant prevalence of stress [Z-calculated =2.24; Z-critical = ±1.96], and a positive relationship between Stress and ADD among Pre-NCE students [r-calculated =0.450; r-critical =0.138]. However, there was no gender difference in the prevalence of ADD among stressed Pre-NCE students in the college [t-calculated =1.49; t-critical =1.645]. The study concludes that while stress and ADD prevail among pre-NCE students, there was no gender difference in the prevalence of ADD. Recommendations offered suggest the use of Learners Assistance Programs (LAP) for stress management, and Teacher-Students ratio of 1:25 be adopted in order to cater for stressed pre-NCE students with ADD.

Keywords: attention deficit disorder, pre-NCE students, stress, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients (PPMCC)

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3713 Determination of Chemical and Adsorption Kinetics: An Investigation of a Petrochemical Wastewater Treatment Utilizing GAC

Authors: Leila Vafajoo, Feria Ghanaat, Alireza Mohmadi Kartalaei, Amin Ghalebi

Abstract:

Petrochemical industries are playing an important role in producing wastewaters. Nowadays different methods are employed to treat these materials. The goal of the present research was to reduce the COD of a petrochemical wastewater via adsorption technique using a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) as adsorbent. In the current study, parameters of kinetic models as well as; adsorption isotherms were determined through utilizing the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The key parameters of KL= 0.0009 and qm= 33.33 for the former and nf=0.5 and Kf= 0.000004 for the latter isotherms resulted. Moreover, a correlation coefficient of above 90% for both cases proved logical use of such isotherms. On the other hand, pseudo-first and -second order kinetics equations were implemented. These resulted in coefficients of k1=0.005 and qe=2018 as well as; K2=0.009 and qe=1250; respectively. In addition, obtaining the correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.68 for these 1st and 2nd order kinetics; respectively indicated advantageous use of the former model. Furthermore, a significant experimental reduction of the petrochemical wastewater COD revealed that, using GAC for the process undertaken was an efficient mean of treatment. Ultimately, the current investigation paved down the road for predicting the system’s behavior on industrial scale.

Keywords: petrochemical wastewater, adsorption, granular activated carbon, equilibrium isotherm, kinetic model

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3712 Selection of Rayleigh Damping Coefficients for Seismic Response Analysis of Soil Layers

Authors: Huai-Feng Wang, Meng-Lin Lou, Ru-Lin Zhang

Abstract:

One good analysis method in seismic response analysis is direct time integration, which widely adopts Rayleigh damping. An approach is presented for selection of Rayleigh damping coefficients to be used in seismic analyses to produce a response that is consistent with Modal damping response. In the presented approach, the expression of the error of peak response, acquired through complete quadratic combination method, and Rayleigh damping coefficients was set up and then the coefficients were produced by minimizing the error. Two finite element modes of soil layers, excited by 28 seismic waves, were used to demonstrate the feasibility and validity.

Keywords: Rayleigh damping, modal damping, damping coefficients, seismic response analysis

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3711 Second Order Statistics of Dynamic Response of Structures Using Gamma Distributed Damping Parameters

Authors: Badreddine Chemali, Boualem Tiliouine

Abstract:

This article presents the main results of a numerical investigation on the uncertainty of dynamic response of structures with statistically correlated random damping Gamma distributed. A computational method based on a Linear Statistical Model (LSM) is implemented to predict second order statistics for the response of a typical industrial building structure. The significance of random damping with correlated parameters and its implications on the sensitivity of structural peak response in the neighborhood of a resonant frequency are discussed in light of considerable ranges of damping uncertainties and correlation coefficients. The results are compared to those generated using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The numerical results obtained show the importance of damping uncertainty and statistical correlation of damping coefficients when obtaining accurate probabilistic estimates of dynamic response of structures. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the LSM model to efficiently predict uncertainty propagation for structural dynamic problems with correlated damping parameters is demonstrated.

Keywords: correlated random damping, linear statistical model, Monte Carlo simulation, uncertainty of dynamic response

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3710 Developing a Multidimensional Adjustment Scale

Authors: Nadereh Sohrabi Shegefti, Siamak Samani

Abstract:

Level of adjustment is the first index to check mental health. The aim of this study was developing a valid and reliable Multidimensional Adjustment Scale (MAS). The sample consisted of 150 college students. Multidimensional adjustment scale and Depression, Anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) were used in this study. Principle factor analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Cornbach's Alpha were used to check the validity and reliability of the MAS. Principle component factor analysis showed a 5 factor solution for the MAS. Alpha coefficients for the MAS sub scales were ranged between .69 to .83. Test-retest reliability for MAS was .88 and the mean of sub scales- total score correlation was .88. All these indexes revealed an acceptable reliability and validity for the MAS. The MAS is a short assessment instrument with good acceptable psychometric properties to use in clinical filed.

Keywords: psychological adjustment, psychometric properties, validity, Pearson correlation

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3709 Evaluating the Feasibility of Chemical Dermal Exposure Assessment Model

Authors: P. S. Hsi, Y. F. Wang, Y. F. Ho, P. C. Hung

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to explore the dermal exposure assessment model of chemicals that have been developed abroad and to evaluate the feasibility of chemical dermal exposure assessment model for manufacturing industry in Taiwan. We conducted and analyzed six semi-quantitative risk management tools, including UK - Control of substances hazardous to health ( COSHH ) Europe – Risk assessment of occupational dermal exposure ( RISKOFDERM ), Netherlands - Dose related effect assessment model ( DREAM ), Netherlands – Stoffenmanager ( STOFFEN ), Nicaragua-Dermal exposure ranking method ( DERM ) and USA / Canada - Public Health Engineering Department ( PHED ). Five types of manufacturing industry were selected to evaluate. The Monte Carlo simulation was used to analyze the sensitivity of each factor, and the correlation between the assessment results of each semi-quantitative model and the exposure factors used in the model was analyzed to understand the important evaluation indicators of the dermal exposure assessment model. To assess the effectiveness of the semi-quantitative assessment models, this study also conduct quantitative dermal exposure results using prediction model and verify the correlation via Pearson's test. Results show that COSHH was unable to determine the strength of its decision factor because the results evaluated at all industries belong to the same risk level. In the DERM model, it can be found that the transmission process, the exposed area, and the clothing protection factor are all positively correlated. In the STOFFEN model, the fugitive, operation, near-field concentrations, the far-field concentration, and the operating time and frequency have a positive correlation. There is a positive correlation between skin exposure, work relative time, and working environment in the DREAM model. In the RISKOFDERM model, the actual exposure situation and exposure time have a positive correlation. We also found high correlation with the DERM and RISKOFDERM models, with coefficient coefficients of 0.92 and 0.93 (p<0.05), respectively. The STOFFEN and DREAM models have poor correlation, the coefficients are 0.24 and 0.29 (p>0.05), respectively. According to the results, both the DERM and RISKOFDERM models are suitable for performance in these selected manufacturing industries. However, considering the small sample size evaluated in this study, more categories of industries should be evaluated to reduce its uncertainty and enhance its applicability in the future.

Keywords: dermal exposure, risk management, quantitative estimation, feasibility evaluation

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3708 Generalized Correlation for the Condensation and Evaporation Heat Transfer Coefficients of Propane (R290), Butane (R600), R134a, and R407c in Porous Horizontal Tubes: Experimental Investigation

Authors: M. Tarawneh

Abstract:

This work is an experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of different refrigerants during the condensation and evaporation processes in porous media. Four different refrigerants (R134a, R407C, 600a, R290), with different porosities were used to reach a real understanding of the actual heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop when using porous material inside the condenser and evaporator. Steel balls were used as porous media with different porosities (38%, 43%, 48%). The main goal of this project is to enhance the heat transfer coefficient during the condensation and evaporation processes when using different refrigerants and different porosities. Different correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop of the different refrigerants were developed. Also a generalized empirical correlation was developed for the different refrigerants. The experimental and predicted heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops were compared. It was found that, the Absolute standard deviation for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop not exceeded values of 15% and 20%, respectively.

Keywords: condensation, evaporation, porous media, horizontal tubes, heat transfer coefficient, propane, butane

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
3707 Estimation of Constant Coefficients of Bourgoyne and Young Drilling Rate Model for Drill Bit Wear Prediction

Authors: Ahmed Z. Mazen, Nejat Rahmanian, Iqbal Mujtaba, Ali Hassanpour

Abstract:

In oil and gas well drilling, the drill bit is an important part of the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA), which is installed and designed to drill and produce a hole by several mechanisms. The efficiency of the bit depends on many drilling parameters such as weight on bit, rotary speed, and mud properties. When the bit is pulled out of the hole, the evaluation of the bit damage must be recorded very carefully to guide engineers in order to select the bits for further planned wells. Having a worn bit for hole drilling may cause severe damage to bit leading to cutter or cone losses in the bottom of hole, where a fishing job will have to take place, and all of these will increase the operating cost. The main factor to reduce the cost of drilling operation is to maximize the rate of penetration by analyzing real-time data to predict the drill bit wear while drilling. There are numerous models in the literature for prediction of the rate of penetration based on drilling parameters, mostly based on empirical approaches. One of the most commonly used approaches is Bourgoyne and Young model, where the rate of penetration can be estimated by the drilling parameters as well as a wear index using an empirical correlation, provided all the constants and coefficients are accurately determined. This paper introduces a new methodology to estimate the eight coefficients for Bourgoyne and Young model using the gPROMS parameters estimation GPE (Version 4.2.0). Real data collected form similar formations (12 ¼’ sections) in two different fields in Libya are used to estimate the coefficients. The estimated coefficients are then used in the equations and applied to nearby wells in the same field to predict the bit wear.

Keywords: Bourgoyne and Young model, bit wear, gPROMS, rate of penetration

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3706 Correlation between Electromyographic and Textural Parameters for Different Textured Indian Foods Using Principal Component Analysis

Authors: S. Rustagi, N. S. Sodhi, B. Dhillon, T. Kaur

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to check whether there is any relationship between electromyographic (EMG) and textural parameters during food texture evaluation. In this study, a total of eighteen mastication variables were measured for entire mastication, per chew mastication and three different stages of mastication (viz. early, middle and late) by EMG for five different foods using eight human subjects. Cluster analysis was used to reduce the number of mastication variables from 18 to 5, so that principal component analysis (PCA) could be applied on them. The PCA further resulted in two meaningful principal components. The principal component scores for each food were measured and correlated with five textural parameters (viz. hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness, gumminess and adhesiveness). Correlation coefficients were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.10) for cohesiveness and adhesiveness while if we reduce the significance level (p < 0.20) then chewiness also showed correlation with mastication parameters.

Keywords: electromyography, mastication, sensory, texture

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3705 Roasting Process of Sesame Seeds Modelling Using Gene Expression Programming: A Comparative Analysis with Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Alime Cengiz, Talip Kahyaoglu

Abstract:

Roasting process has the major importance to obtain desired aromatic taste of nuts. In this study, two kinds of roasting process were applied to hulled sesame seeds - vacuum oven and hot air roasting. Efficiency of Gene Expression Programming (GEP), a new soft computing technique of evolutionary algorithm that describes the cause and effect relationships in the data modelling system, and response surface methodology (RSM) were examined in the modelling of roasting processes over a range of temperature (120-180°C) for various times (30-60 min). Color attributes (L*, a*, b*, Browning Index (BI)), textural properties (hardness and fracturability) and moisture content were evaluated and modelled by RSM and GEP. The GEP-based formulations and RSM approach were compared with experimental results and evaluated according to correlation coefficients. The results showed that both GEP and RSM were found to be able to adequately learn the relation between roasting conditions and physical and textural parameters of roasted seeds. However, GEP had better prediction performance than the RSM with the high correlation coefficients (R2 >0.92) for the all quality parameters. This result indicates that the soft computing techniques have better capability for describing the physical changes occuring in sesame seeds during roasting process.

Keywords: genetic expression programming, response surface methodology, roasting, sesame seed

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3704 Benchmarking Electric Light versus Sunshine

Authors: Courret Gilles, Pidoux Damien

Abstract:

Considering that sunshine is the ultimate reference in lighting, we have examined the spectral correlation between a series of electric light sources and sunlight. As the latter is marked by fluctuations, we have taken two spectra of reference: on the one hand, the CIE daylight standard illuminant, and on the other hand, the global illumination by the clear sky with the sun at 30° above the horizon. We determined the coefficients of correlation between the spectra filtered by the sensitivity of the CIE standard observer for photopic vision. We also calculated the luminous efficiency of the radiation in order to compare the ideal energy performances as well as the CIE color indexes Ra, Ra14, and Rf, since the choice of a light source requires a trade-off between color rendering and luminous efficiency. The benchmarking includes the most commonly used bulbs, various white LED (Lighting Emitting Diode) of warm white or cold white types, incandescent halogen as well as two HID lamps (High-Intensity Discharge) and two plasma lamps of different types, a solar simulator and a new version of the sulfur lamp. The latter obtains the best correlation, whether in comparison with the solar spectrum or that of the standard illuminant.

Keywords: electric light sources, plasma lamp, daylighting, sunlight, spectral correlation

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3703 The Comparison and Optimization of the Analytic Method for Canthaxanthin, Food Colorants

Authors: Hee-Jae Suh, Kyung-Su Kim, Min-Ji Kim, Yeon-Seong Jeong, Ok-Hwan Lee, Jae-Wook Shin, Hyang-Sook Chun, Chan Lee

Abstract:

Canthaxanthin is keto-carotenoid produced from beta-carotene and it has been approved to be used in many countries as a food coloring agent. Canthaxanthin has been analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system with various ways of pretreatment methods. Four official methods for verification of canthaxanthin at FSA (UK), AOAC (US), EFSA (EU) and MHLW (Japan) were compared to improve its analytical and the pretreatment method. The Linearity, the limit of detection (LOD), the limit of quantification (LOQ), the accuracy, the precision and the recovery ratio were determined from each method with modification in pretreatment method. All HPLC methods exhibited correlation coefficients of calibration curves for canthaxanthin as 0.9999. The analysis methods from FSA, AOAC, and MLHW showed the LOD of 0.395 ppm, 0.105 ppm, and 0.084 ppm, and the LOQ of 1.196 ppm, 0.318 ppm, 0.254 ppm, respectively. Among tested methods, HPLC method of MHLW with modification in pretreatments was finally selected for the analysis of canthaxanthin in lab, because it exhibited the resolution factor of 4.0 and the selectivity of 1.30. This analysis method showed a correlation coefficients value of 0.9999 and the lowest LOD and LOQ. Furthermore, the precision ratio was lower than 1 and the accuracy was almost 100%. The method presented the recovery ratio of 90-110% with modification in pretreatment method. The cross-validation of coefficient variation was 5 or less among tested three institutions in Korea.

Keywords: analytic method, canthaxanthin, food colorants, pretreatment method

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3702 Estimation of Synchronous Machine Synchronizing and Damping Torque Coefficients

Authors: Khaled M. EL-Naggar

Abstract:

Synchronizing and damping torque coefficients of a synchronous machine can give a quite clear picture for machine behavior during transients. These coefficients are used as a power system transient stability measurement. In this paper, a crow search optimization algorithm is presented and implemented to study the power system stability during transients. The algorithm makes use of the machine responses to perform the stability study in time domain. The problem is formulated as a dynamic estimation problem. An objective function that minimizes the error square in the estimated coefficients is designed. The method is tested using practical system with different study cases. Results are reported and a thorough discussion is presented. The study illustrates that the proposed method can estimate the stability coefficients for the critical stable cases where other methods may fail. The tests proved that the proposed tool is an accurate and reliable tool for estimating the machine coefficients for assessment of power system stability.

Keywords: optimization, estimation, synchronous, machine, crow search

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3701 Evaluation of Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) Genotypes, in modern method of Agriculture, using correlation and path coefficient Analyses

Authors: T. S. Bubuche, L. Abubakar, N.D. Ibrahim, A. A. Aliero, H. M. Sama, B. S. Haliru

Abstract:

A two-year study was conducted at the Fadama farm of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria. Correlations and path coefficients analysis were used to determine the interrelationship and importance of various characters as components of yield in sugarcane during 20011-012 and 2012-013 growing seasons. Fourteen sugarcane hybrids and a local check were evaluated. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Significant and positive correlation were recorded between total cane weight/ha and single stalk weight, between single stalk weight and final brix and between stalk girth and stalk length while final brix and number of milliable cane/ha recorded no significant correlation. Traits that had high direct contribution to the final yield were number of stalk/stool, number of milliable cane/ha, single stalk weight and brix content while high indirect positive contributions were observed in growth habit, number of internode per stalk and stalk length..

Keywords: correlation, path analysis, sugarcane, yield components

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
3700 Similar Correlation of Meat and Sugar to Global Obesity Prevalence

Authors: Wenpeng You, Maciej Henneberg

Abstract:

Background: Sugar consumption has been overwhelmingly advocated as a major dietary offender to obesity prevalence. Meat intake has been hypothesized as an obesity contributor in previous publications, but a moderate amount of meat to be included in our daily diet still has been suggested in many dietary guidelines. Comparable sugar and meat exposure data were obtained to assess the difference in relationships between the two major food groups and obesity prevalence at population level. Methods: Population level estimates of obesity and overweight rates, per capita per day exposure of major food groups (meat, sugar, starch crops, fibers, fats and fruits) and total calories, per capita per year GDP, urbanization and physical inactivity prevalence rate were extracted and matched for statistical analysis. Correlation coefficient (Pearson and partial) comparisons with Fisher’s r-to-z transformation and β range (β ± 2 SE) and overlapping in multiple linear regression (Enter and Stepwise) were used to examine potential differences in the relationships between obesity prevalence and sugar exposure and meat exposure respectively. Results: Pearson and partial correlations (controlled for total calories, physical inactivity prevalence, GDP and urbanization) analyses revealed that sugar and meat exposures correlated to obesity and overweight prevalence significantly. Fisher's r-to-z transformation did not show statistically significant difference in Pearson correlation coefficients (z=-0.53, p=0.5961) or partial correlation coefficients (z=-0.04, p=0.9681) between obesity prevalence and both sugar exposure and meat exposure. Both Enter and Stepwise models in multiple linear regression analysis showed that sugar and meat exposure were most significant predictors of obesity prevalence. Great β range overlapping in the Enter (0.289-0.573) and Stepwise (0.294-0.582) models indicated statistically sugar and meat exposure correlated to obesity without significant difference. Conclusion: Worldwide sugar and meat exposure correlated to obesity prevalence at the same extent. Like sugar, minimal meat exposure should also be suggested in the dietary guidelines.

Keywords: meat, sugar, obesity, energy surplus, meat protein, fats, insulin resistance

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3699 The Combination of the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC), Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP), JITTER and SHIMMER Coefficients for the Improvement of Automatic Recognition System for Dysarthric Speech

Authors: Brahim-Fares Zaidi, Malika Boudraa, Sid-Ahmed Selouani

Abstract:

Our work aims to improve our Automatic Recognition System for Dysarthria Speech (ARSDS) based on the Hidden Models of Markov (HMM) and the Hidden Markov Model Toolkit (HTK) to help people who are sick. With pronunciation problems, we applied two techniques of speech parameterization based on Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC's) and Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP's) and concatenated them with JITTER and SHIMMER coefficients in order to increase the recognition rate of a dysarthria speech. For our tests, we used the NEMOURS database that represents speakers with dysarthria and normal speakers.

Keywords: hidden Markov model toolkit (HTK), hidden models of Markov (HMM), Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), perceptual linear prediction (PLP’s)

Procedia PDF Downloads 61