Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: Lata Upadhyay

47 Biosurfactant-Mediated Nanoparticle Synthesis by Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Satya Eswari Jujjavarapu, Swasti Dhagat, Lata Upadhyay, Reecha Sahu

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles have a broad range of antimicrobial and antifungal properties ranging from soaps, pastes to sterilization and drug delivery systems. These can be synthesized by physical, chemical and biological methods; biological methods being the most popular owing to their non-toxic nature and reduced energy requirements. Microbial surfactants, produced on the microbial cell surface or excreted extracellularly are an alternative to synthetic surfactants for the production of silver nanoparticles. Hence, they are also called as green molecules. Microbial lipopeptide surfactants (biosurfactant) exhibit anti-tumor and anti-microbial properties and can be used as drug delivery agents. In this study, biosurfactant was synthesized by using a strain of acillus subtilis. The biosurfactant thus produced was analysed by emulsification assay, oil spilling test, and haemolytic test. Biosurfactant-mediated silver nanoparticles were synthesised by microwave irradiation of the culture supernatant and further characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy for a range of 400-600 nm. The UV–vis spectra showed a surface plasmon resonance vibration band at 410 nm corresponding to the peak of silver nanoparticles.

Keywords: biosurfactant, Bacillus subtilis, silver nano particle, lipopeptide

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46 Influence of Physicochemical Water Quality Parameters on Abundance of Aquatic Insects in Rivers of Perak, Malaysia

Authors: Nur Atirah Hasmi, Nadia Nisha Musa, Hasnun Nita Ismail, Zulfadli Mahfodz

Abstract:

The effect of water quality parameters on the abundance of aquatic insects has been studied in Batu Berangkai, Dipang, Kuala Woh and Lata Kinjang Rivers, Perak, northern peninsular Malaysia. The focuses are to compare the abundance of aquatic insects in each sampling areas and to investigate the physical and chemical factors (water temperature, depth of water, canopy, water velocity, pH value, and dissolved oxygen) on the abundance of aquatic insects. The samples and data were collected by using aquatic net and multi-probe parameter. Physical parameters; water velocity, water temperature, depth, canopy cover, and two chemical parameters; pH value and dissolved oxygen have been measured in situ and recorded. A total of 631 individuals classified into 6 orders and 18 families of aquatic insects were identified from four sampling sites. The largest percentage of samples collected is from order Plecoptera 35.8%, followed by Ephemeroptera 32.6%, Trichoptera 17.0%, Hemiptera 8.1%, Coleoptera 4.8%, and the least is Odonata 1.7%. The aquatic insects collected from Dipang River have the highest abundance of 273 individuals from 6 orders and 13 families and the least insects trapped at Lata Kinjang which only have 64 individuals from 5 orders and 6 families. There is significant association between different sampling areas and abundance of aquatic insects (p<0.05). High abundance of aquatic insects was found in higher water temperature, low water velocity, deeper water, low pH, high amount of dissolved oxygen, and the area that is not covered by canopy.

Keywords: Water Quality, river, aquatic insect, physicochemical parameter

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45 Rheological Evaluation of Various Indigenous Gums

Authors: Satish Kumar Dewangan, Yogita Weikey, Shobha Lata Sinha

Abstract:

In the present investigation, rheology of the three different natural gums has been evaluated experimentally using MCR 102 rheometer. Various samples based on the variation of the concentration of the solid gum powder have been prepared. Their non-Newtonian behavior has been observed by the consistency plots and viscosity variation plots with respect to different solid concentration. The viscosity-shear rate curves of gums are similar and the behavior is shear thinning. Gums are showing pseudoplastic behavior. The value of k and n are calculated by using various models. Results show that the Herschel–Bulkley rheological model is reliable to describe the relationship of shear stress as a function of shear rate. R² values are also calculated to support the choice of gum selection.

Keywords: Rheology, bentonite, Indian gum, non-Newtonian model

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44 Frequency Reconfigurable Multiband Patch Antenna Using PIN-Diode for ITS Applications

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, Shivesh Tripathi, V. S. Tripathi

Abstract:

A frequency reconfigurable multiband antenna for intelligent transportation system (ITS) applications is proposed in this paper. A PIN-diode is used for reconfigurability. Centre frequencies are 1.38, 1.98, 2.89, 3.86, and 4.34 GHz in “ON” state of Diode and 1.56, 2.16, 2.88, 3.91 and 4.45 GHz in “OFF” state. Achieved maximum bandwidth is 18%. The maximum gain of the proposed antenna is 2.7 dBi in “ON” state and 3.95 dBi in “OFF” state of the diode. The antenna is simulated, fabricated, and tested in the lab. Measured and simulated results are in good confirmation.

Keywords: Reconfigurable, ITS, Pin-diode, multiband antenna

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43 Mind-Wandering and Attention: Evidence from Behavioral and Subjective Perspective

Authors: Riya Mishra, Trayambak Tiwari, Anju Lata Singh, I. L. Singh, Tara Singh

Abstract:

Decrement in vigilance task performance echoes impediment in effortful attention; here attention fluctuated in the realm of external and internal milieu of a person. To examine this fluctuation across time period, we employed two experiments of vigilance task with variation in thought probing rate, which was embedded in the task. The thought probe varies in terms of <2 minute per thought probe and <4 minute per thought probe during vigilance task. A 2x4 repeated measure factorial design was used. 15 individuals participated in this study with an age range of 20-26 years. It was found that thought probing rate has a negative trend with vigilance task performance whereas the subjective measures of mind-wandering have a positive relation with thought probe rate.

Keywords: Mind-Wandering, vigilance, criterion response, mental status, thought probe

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42 Effect of Welding Processes on Tensile Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Joints

Authors: Chaitanya Sharma, Vikas Upadhyay, A. Tripathi

Abstract:

Friction stir welding and tungsten inert gas welding techniques were employed to weld armor grade aluminum alloy to investigate the effect of welding processes on tensile behavior of weld joints. Tensile tests, Vicker microhardness tests and optical microscopy were performed on developed weld joints and base metal. Welding process influenced tensile behavior and microstructure of weld joints. Friction stir welded joints showed tensile behavior better than tungsten inert gas weld joints.

Keywords: Microstructure, Friction Stir Welding, tensile properties, fracture locations

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
41 Poly(Lactic Acid) Based Flexible Films

Authors: Jamarosliza Jamaluddin, Arun Kumar Upadhyay, Fathilahbinti Ali

Abstract:

Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer which has good mechanical properties, however, its brittleness limits its usage especially in packaging materials. Therefore, in this work, PLA based polyurethane films were prepared by synthesizing with different types of isocyanates; methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanates (HDI). For this purpose, PLA based polyurethane must have good strength and flexibility. Therefore, polycaprolactone which has better flexibility were prepared with PLA. An effective way to endow polylactic acid with toughness is through chain-extension reaction of the polylactic acid pre-polymer with polycaprolactone used as chain extender. Polyurethane prepared from MDI showed brittle behaviour, while, polyurethane prepared from HDI showed flexibility at same concentrations.

Keywords: flexible, polyurethane, biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic acid)

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40 Idea of International Criminal Justice in the Function of Prosecution International Crimes

Authors: Vanda Božić, Željko Nikač

Abstract:

The wars and armed conflicts have often resulted in violations of international humanitarian law, and often commit the most serious international crimes such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, aggression and genocide. However, only in the XX century the rule was articulated idea of establishing a body of international criminal justice in order to prosecute these crimes and their perpetrators. The first steps in this field have been made by establishing the International military tribunals for war crimes at Nuremberg and Tokyo, and the formation of ad hoc tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. In the end, The International Criminal Court was established in Rome in 1998 with the aim of justice and in order to give satisfaction the victims of crimes and their families. The aim of the paper was to provide a historical and comparative analysis of the institutions of international criminal justice based on which these institutions de lege lata fulfilled the goals of individual criminal responsibility and justice. Furthermore, the authors suggest de lege ferenda that the Permanent International Criminal Tribunal, in addition to the prospective case, also takes over the current ICTY and ICTR cases.

Keywords: International criminal justice, international crimes, prosecution of crimes, ad hoc tribunal, the international criminal court

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39 Anxiety and Stress as a Function of Dental Disfigurement

Authors: Lata Rathi, N. R. Mrinal

Abstract:

Dental Disfigurement is a major problem for a person who is suffering from Malocclusion. Malocclusion, is a technical name given to crowded, irregular or protruded teeth. In the present investigation the Anxiety and Stress are studied with reference to Dental Disfigurement among Adolescents. The 8 SQ Questionnaire (Cattell,1976)was administered to 50 Male(age range 12-20 years) and 50 Female(age range 12-20 years) patients to investigate anxiety and stress with an equal number of normal’s having no dental disfigurement of teeth. Both the groups, experimental and control were matched on age and sex. It was found that experimental group, i. e. orthodontic patients (M=14.34,s= 4.99) have significantly greater anxiety than their normal counterparts (M=11.8,s= 4.20) F=15.04,p=<.01. The sex differences were not observed. However, with reference to stress it was observed that it was significantly greater in orthodontic patients (M=15.11,s= 4.93 )as compared to normal’s (M=12.83, s=4.87). The gender differences on stress were also observed. The females showed greater stress (M=15.06) as compared to males (M=12.88),F=11.55,p.<1. Overall Malocclusion was found to have significant effect on anxiety and stress.

Keywords: Anxiety, stress, Malocclusion, orthodontic patients

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38 PIN-Diode Based Slotted Reconfigurable Multiband Antenna Array for Vehicular Communication

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, Shivesh Tripathi, V. S. Tripathi

Abstract:

In this paper, a patch antenna array design is proposed for vehicular communication. The antenna consists of 2-element patch array. The antenna array is operating at multiple frequency bands. The multiband operation is achieved by use of slots at proper locations at the patch. The array is made reconfigurable by use of two PIN-diodes. The antenna is simulated and measured in four states of diodes i.e. ON-ON, ON-OFF, OFF-ON, and OFF-OFF. In ON-ON state of diodes, the resonant frequencies are 4.62-4.96, 6.50-6.75, 6.90-7.01, 7.34-8.22, 8.89-9.09 GHz. In ON-OFF state of diodes, the measured resonant frequencies are 4.63-4.93, 6.50-6.70 and 7.81-7.91 GHz. In OFF-ON states of diodes the resonant frequencies are 1.24-1.46, 3.40-3.75, 5.07-5.25 and 6.90-7.20 GHz and in the OFF-OFF state of diodes 4.49-4.75 and 5.61-5.98 GHz. The maximum bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 16.29%. The peak gain of the antenna is 3.4 dB at 5.9 GHz, which makes it suitable for vehicular communication.

Keywords: Reconfigurable, Antenna, array, vehicular

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37 Exploring Relationship between Attention and Consciousness

Authors: Trayambak Tiwari, Tara Singh, Aarushi Agarwal, Anju Lata Singh, Indramani Lal Singh

Abstract:

The existing interdependent relationship between attention and consciousness has been put to debate since long. To testify the nature, dual-task paradigm has been used to simultaneously manipulate awareness and attention. With central discrimination task which is attentional demanding, participants also perform simple discrimination task in the periphery in near absence of attention. Individual-based analysis of performance accuracy in single and dual condition showed and above chance level performance i.e. more than 80%. In order to widen the understanding of extent of discrimination carried in near absence of attention, natural image and its geometric equivalent shape were presented in the periphery; synthetic objects accounted to lower level of performance than natural objects in dual condition. The gaze plot and heatmap indicate that peripheral performance do not necessarily involve saccade every time, verifying the discrimination in the periphery was in near absence of attention. Thus our studies show an interdependent nature of attention and awareness.

Keywords: Attention, awareness, dual task paradigm, natural and geometric images

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36 Antioxidant Effects of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) on Brain

Authors: Manju Lata Sharma

Abstract:

Damage to cells caused by free radicals is believed to play a central role in the ageing process and in disease progression. Withania somnifera is widely used in ayurvedic medicine, and it is one of the ingredients in many formulations to increase energy, improve overall health and longevity and prevent disease. Withania somnifera possesses antioxidative properties. The antioxdant activity of Withania somnifera consisting of an equimolar concentration of active principles of sitoindoside VII-X and withaferin A. The antioxidant effect of Withania somnifera extract was investigated on lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in mice. Aim: To study the antioxidant activity of an extract of Withania somnifera leaf against a mice model of chronic stress. Healthy swiss albino mice (3-4 months old) selected from an inbred colony were divided in to 6 groups. Biochemical estimation revealed that stress induced a significant change in SOD, LPO, CAT AND GPX. These stress induced perturbations were attenuated Withania somnifera (50 and 100 mg/kg BW). Result: Withania somnifera tended to normalize the augmented SOD and LPO activities and enhanced the activities of CAT and GPX. The result indicates that treatment with an alcoholic extract of Withania somnifera produced a significant decrease in LPO ,and an increase in both SOD and CAT in brain mice. This indicates that Withania somnifera extract possesses free radical scavenging activity .

Keywords: Brain, Lipid Peroxidation, antioxidant, Withania somnifera

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35 Development and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Based Nanocomposites for Local Drug Delivery to Periodontal Pockets

Authors: Preeti K. Suresh, Indu Lata Kanwar

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to fabricate hydroxyapatite based nanocomposites for local drug delivery in periodontal pockets. Hydroxyapatite is chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues in mammals. Synthetic biocompatibility and bioactivity with human teeth and bone, making it very attractive for biomedical applications. Nanocomposite is a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 nanometres (nm), or structures having nano­scale repeat distances between the different phases that make up the material. Nanostructured calcium phosphate materials play an important role in the formation of hard tissues in nature. It is reported that calcium phosphates materials in nano-size can mimic the dimensions of constituent components of calcified tissues. Nano-sized materials offer improved performances compared with conventional materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratios. The specific biological properties of the nanocomposites, as well as their interaction with cells, include the use of bioactive molecules. The approach of periodontal tissue engineering is considered promising to restore bone defect through the use of engineered materials with the aim that they will prohibit the invasion of fibrous connective tissue and help repair the function during bone regeneration.

Keywords: Bioactive, hydroxyapatite, nanocomposities, periondontal

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34 Dynamics of the Coupled Fitzhugh-Rinzel Neurons

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar Sharma, Ranjit Kumar Upadhyay, Arnab Mondal

Abstract:

Excitable cells often produce different oscillatory activities that help us to understand the transmitting and processing of signals in the neural system. We consider a FitzHugh-Rinzel (FH-R) model and studied the different dynamics of the model by considering the parameter c as the predominant parameter. The model exhibits different types of neuronal responses such as regular spiking, mixed-mode bursting oscillations (MMBOs), elliptic bursting, etc. Based on the bifurcation diagram, we consider the three regimes (MMBOs, elliptic bursting, and quiescent state). An analytical treatment for the occurrence of the supercritical Hopf bifurcation is studied. Further, we extend our study to a network of a hundred neurons by considering the bi-directional synaptic coupling between them. In this article, we investigate the alternation of spiking propagation and bursting phenomena of an uncoupled and coupled FH-R neurons. We explore that the complete graph of heterogenous desynchronized neurons can exhibit different types of bursting oscillations for certain coupling strength. For higher coupling strength, all the neurons in the network show complete synchronization.

Keywords: excitable neuron model, spiking-bursting, stability and bifurcation, synchronization networks

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33 Penalization of Transnational Crimes in the Domestic Legal Order: The Case of Poland

Authors: Magda Olesiuk-Okomska

Abstract:

The degree of international interdependence has grown significantly. Poland is a party to nearly 1000 binding multilateral treaties, including international legal instruments devoted to criminal matters and obliging the state to penalize certain crimes. The paper presents results of a theoretical research conducted as a part of doctoral research. The main hypothesis assumed that there was a separate category of crimes to penalization of which Poland was obliged under international legal instruments; that a catalogue of such crimes and a catalogue of international legal instruments providing for Poland’s international obligations had never been compiled in the domestic doctrine, thus there was no mechanism for monitoring implementation of such obligations. In the course of the research, a definition of transnational crimes was discussed and confronted with notions of international crimes, treaty crimes, as well as cross-border crimes. A list of transnational crimes penalized in the Polish Penal Code as well as in non-code criminal law regulations was compiled; international legal instruments, obliging Poland to criminalize and penalize specific conduct, were enumerated and catalogued. It enabled the determination whether Poland’s international obligations were implemented in domestic legislation, as well as the formulation of de lege lata and de lege ferenda postulates. Implemented research methods included inter alia a dogmatic and legal method, an analytical method and desk research.

Keywords: International Criminal Law, transnational crimes, transnational criminal law, treaty crimes

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
32 Design and Optimization of Flow Field for Cavitation Reduction of Valve Sleeves

Authors: Kamal Upadhyay, Zhou Hua, Yu Rui

Abstract:

This paper aims to improve the streamline linked with the flow field and cavitation on the valve sleeve. We observed that local pressure fluctuation produces a low-pressure zone, central to the formation of vapor volume fraction within the valve chamber led to air-bubbles (or cavities). Thus, it allows simultaneously to a severe negative impact on the inner surface and lifespan of the valve sleeves. Cavitation reduction is a vitally important issue to pressure control valves. The optimization of the flow field is proposed in this paper to reduce the cavitation of valve sleeves. In this method, the inner wall of the valve sleeve is changed from a cylindrical surface to the conical surface, leading to the decline of the fluid flow velocity and the rise of the outlet pressure. Besides, the streamline is distributed inside the sleeve uniformly. Thus, the bubble generation is lessened. The fluid models are built and analysis of flow field distribution, pressure, vapor volume and velocity was carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and numerical technique. The results indicate that this structure can suppress the cavitation of valve sleeves effectively.

Keywords: Optimization, Computational Fluid Dynamics, cavitation, streamline

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31 Classification of Random Doppler-Radar Targets during the Surveillance Operations

Authors: G. C. Tikkiwal, Mukesh Upadhyay

Abstract:

During the surveillance operations at war or peace time, the Radar operator gets a scatter of targets over the screen. This may be a tracked vehicle like tank vis-à-vis T72, BMP etc, or it may be a wheeled vehicle like ALS, TATRA, 2.5Tonne, Shaktiman or moving the army, moving convoys etc. The radar operator selects one of the promising targets into single target tracking (STT) mode. Once the target is locked, the operator gets a typical audible signal into his headphones. With reference to the gained experience and training over the time, the operator then identifies the random target. But this process is cumbersome and is solely dependent on the skills of the operator, thus may lead to misclassification of the object. In this paper, we present a technique using mathematical and statistical methods like fast fourier transformation (FFT) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the random objects. The process of classification is based on transforming the audible signature of target into music octave-notes. The whole methodology is then automated by developing suitable software. This automation increases the efficiency of identification of the random target by reducing the chances of misclassification. This whole study is based on live data.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, dsp, FFT, eigenvector, radar target, octave-notes

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
30 Effect of the Birth Order and Arrival of Younger Siblings on the Development of a Child: Evidence from India

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay

Abstract:

Using longitudinal data from three waves of Young Lives Study and Ordinary Least Square methods, study has investigated the effect of birth order and arrival of younger siblings on child development in India. Study used child’s height for age z-score, weight for age z-score, BMI for age z-score, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-Score)c, maths score, Early Grade Reading Assessment Test (ERGA) score, and memory score to measure the physical and cognitive development of child during wave-3. Findings suggest that having a high birth order is detrimental for child development and the gap between adjacent siblings is larger for children late in the birth sequences than early in the birth sequences. Study also reported that not only older siblings but arrival of younger siblings before assessment of test also reduces the development of a child. The effects become stronger in case of female children than male children.

Keywords: India, Siblings, birth order, young lives study, height for age z-score, weight for age z-score, BMI for z-score, PPVT score, math score, EGRA score, memory score

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
29 The Notion of International Criminal Law: Between Criminal Aspects of International Law and International Aspects of Criminal Law

Authors: Magda Olesiuk-Okomska

Abstract:

Although international criminal law has grown significantly in the last decades, it still remains fragmented and lacks doctrinal cohesiveness. Its concept is described in the doctrine as highly disputable. There is no concrete definition of the term. In the domestic doctrine, the problem of criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise within the national criminal law, is underdeveloped both theoretically and practically. To the best of author’s knowledge, there are no studies describing international aspects of criminal law in a comprehensive manner, taking a more expansive view of the subject. This paper presents results of a part of the doctoral research, undertaking a theoretical framework of the international criminal law. It aims at sorting out the existing terminology on international aspects of criminal law. It demonstrates differences between the notions of international criminal law, criminal law international and law international criminal. It confronts the notion of criminal law with related disciplines and shows their interplay. It specifies the scope of international criminal law. It diagnoses the current legal framework of international aspects of criminal law, referring to both criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise in the context of national criminal law. Finally, de lege lata postulates were formulated and direction of changes in international criminal law was proposed. The adopted research hypothesis assumed that the notion of international criminal law was inconsistent, not understood uniformly, and there was no conformity as to its place within the system of law, objective and subjective scopes, while the domestic doctrine did not correspond with international standards and differed from the worldwide doctrine. Implemented research methods included inter alia a dogmatic and legal method, an analytical method, a comparative method, as well as desk research.

Keywords: Criminal Law, International Law, International Criminal Law, international crimes

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
28 Application of Principle Component Analysis for Classification of Random Doppler-Radar Targets during the Surveillance Operations

Authors: G. C. Tikkiwal, Mukesh Upadhyay

Abstract:

During the surveillance operations at war or peace time, the Radar operator gets a scatter of targets over the screen. This may be a tracked vehicle like tank vis-à-vis T72, BMP etc, or it may be a wheeled vehicle like ALS, TATRA, 2.5Tonne, Shaktiman or moving army, moving convoys etc. The Radar operator selects one of the promising targets into Single Target Tracking (STT) mode. Once the target is locked, the operator gets a typical audible signal into his headphones. With reference to the gained experience and training over the time, the operator then identifies the random target. But this process is cumbersome and is solely dependent on the skills of the operator, thus may lead to misclassification of the object. In this paper we present a technique using mathematical and statistical methods like Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify the random objects. The process of classification is based on transforming the audible signature of target into music octave-notes. The whole methodology is then automated by developing suitable software. This automation increases the efficiency of identification of the random target by reducing the chances of misclassification. This whole study is based on live data.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, dsp, FFT, eigenvector, radar target, octave-notes

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
27 Evaluation of Promoter Hypermethylation in Tissue and Blood of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients and Association with Survival

Authors: Kriti Upadhyay, Ashraf Ali, Puja Sohal, Randeep Guleria, Anant Mohan

Abstract:

Background: Gene silencing by aberrant promoter hypermethylation is common in lung cancer and is an initiating event in its development. Aim: To evaluate the gene promoter hypermethylation frequency in serum and tissue of lung cancer patients. Method: 95 newly diagnosed untreated advance stage lung cancer patients and 50 cancer free matched controls were studied. Bisulfite modification of tissue and serum DNA was done; modified DNA was used as a template for methylation-specific PCR analysis. Survival was assessed for one year. Results: Of 95 patients, 82% were non-small cell lung cancer (34% squamous cell carcinoma, 34% non-small cell lung cancer and 14% adenocarcinoma) and 18% were small cell lung cancer. Biopsy revealed that tissue of 89% and 75% of lung cancer patients and 85% and 52% of controls had promoter hypermethylated for MGMT (p=0.35) and p16(p<0.001) gene, respectively. In serum, 33% and 49% of lung cancer patients and 28% and 43% controls were positive for MGMT and p16 gene. No significant correlation was found between survival and clinico-pathological parameters. Conclusion: High gene promoter methylation frequency of p16 gene in tissue biopsy may be linked with early stages of carcinogenesis. Appropriate follow-up is required for confirmation of this finding.

Keywords: Molecular Biology, Lung cancer, methylation, MS- PCR

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26 Recovery of Copper from Edge Trims of Printed Circuit Boards Using Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans: Bioleaching

Authors: Shashi Arya, Nand L. Singh, Samiksha Singh, Pradeep K. Mishra, Siddh N. Upadhyay

Abstract:

The enormous generation of E- waste and its recycling have greater environmental concern especially in developing countries like India. A major part of this waste comprises printed circuit boards (PCBs). Edge trims of PCBs have high copper content ranging between 25-60%. The extraction of various metals out of these PCBs is more or less a proven technology, wherein various hazardous chemicals are being used in the resource recovery, resulting into secondary pollution. The current trend of extracting of valuable metals is the utilization of microbial strains to eliminate the problem of a secondary pollutant. Keeping the above context in mind, this work aims at the enhanced recovery of copper from edge trims, through bioleaching using bacterial strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The raw material such as motherboards, hard drives, floppy drives and DVD drives were obtained from the warehouse of the University. More than 90% copper could be extracted through bioleaching using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Inoculate concentration has merely insignificant effect over copper recovery above 20% inoculate concentration. Higher concentration of inoculation has the only initial advantage up to 2-4 days. The complete recovery has been obtained between 14- 24 days.

Keywords: E-Waste, Printed Circuit Boards, Bioleaching, acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

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25 Parallel Processing in near Absence of Attention: A Study Using Dual-Task Paradigm

Authors: Trayambak Tiwari, Anju Lata Singh, Tara Singh, Aarushi Agarwal, I.L Singh

Abstract:

Simple discrimination in near absence of attention has been widely observed. Dual-task studies with natural scenes studies have been claimed as being preattentive in nature that facilitated categorization simultaneously with the attentional demanding task. So in this study, multiple images at the periphery are presented, initiating parallel processing in near absence of attention. For the central demanding task rotated letters were presented in both conditions, while in periphery natural and animal images were presented. To understand the breakpoint of ability to perform in near absence of attention one, two and three peripheral images were presented simultaneously with central task and subjects had to respond when all belong to the same category. Individual participant performance did not show a significant difference in both conditions central and peripheral task when the single peripheral image was shown. In case of two images high-level parallel processing could take place with little attentional resources. The eye tracking results supports the evidence as no major saccade was made in a large number of trials. Three image presentations proved to be a breaking point of the capacities to perform outside attentional assistance as participants showed a confused eye gaze pattern which failed to make the natural and animal image discriminations. Thus, we can conclude attention and awareness being independent mechanisms having limited capacities.

Keywords: Attention, Parallel Processing, dual task pardigm, break point, saccade

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24 PLC Based Automatic Railway Crossing System for India

Authors: Tapan Upadhyay, Aqib Siddiqui, Sameer Khan

Abstract:

Railway crossing system in India is a manually operated level crossing system, either manned or unmanned. The main aim is to protect pedestrians and vehicles from colliding with trains, which pass at regular intervals, as India has the largest and busiest railway network. But because of human error and negligence, every year thousands of lives are lost due to accidents at railway crossings. To avoid this, we suggest a solution, by using Programmable Logical Controller (PLC) based automatic system, which will automatically control the barrier as well as roadblocks to stop people from crossing while security warning is given. Often people avoid security warning, and pass two-wheelers from beneath the barrier, while the train is at a distance away. This paper aims at reducing the fatality and accident rate by controlling barrier and roadblocks using sensors which sense the incoming train and vehicles and sends a signal to PLC. The PLC in return sends a signal to barrier and roadblocks. Once the train passes, the barrier and roadblocks retrieve back, and the passage is clear for vehicles and pedestrians to cross. PLC’s are used because they are very flexible, cost effective, space efficient, reduces complexity and minimises errors. Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) is used to monitor the functioning.

Keywords: Sensors, PLC, SCADA, level crossing

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23 Population Dynamics in Aquatic Environments: Spatial Heterogeneity and Optimal Harvesting

Authors: sarita kumari, Ranjit Kumar Upadhyay

Abstract:

This paper deals with plankton-fish dynamics where the fish population is growing logistically and nonlinearly harvested. The interaction between phytoplankton and zooplankton population is considered to be Crowley-Martin type functional response. It has been assumed that phytoplankton grows logistically and is affected by a space-dependent growth rate. Conditions for the existence of a positive equilibrium point and their stability analysis (both local and global) have been discussed for the non-spatial system. We have discussed maximum sustainable yields as well as optimal harvesting policy for maximizing the economic gain. The stability and existence of Hopf –bifurcation analysis have been discussed for the spatial system. Different conditions for turning pattern formation have been established through diffusion-driven instability analysis. Numerical simulations have been carried out for both non-spatial and spatial models. Phase plane analysis, the largest Lyapunov exponent, and bifurcation theory are used to numerically analyzed the non-spatial system. Our study shows that spatial heterogeneity, the mortality rate of phytoplankton, and constant harvesting of the fish population each play an important role in the dynamical behavior of the marine system.

Keywords: Pattern Formation, optimal harvesting, spatial heterogeneity, Crowley-Martin functional response

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22 Linking Remittances and Household Level Development in India: An Analysis of NSSO 64th Round Data

Authors: Rajni Singh, Rakesh Mishra, Mukunda Upadhyay

Abstract:

This paper attempts to link remittances sent by internal as well as international out-migrants and its domestic preferences of usage in three different dimension of Household level development in India and its states. Investment of remittances in these sectors reveals for mixed choices of preferential among the states from where people have out-migrated. The multivariate analysis implies that among all three indicators of human development, health (Investment in Food and Health) is the one that attracts the major investment followed by capital formation and least on Education. Usage of the remittances has been found to be varying across all the states in India as far as usage in health, capital formation and education are concerned. Orissa, Nagaland, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Gujarat, D & H Haweli are some of the states and union territory that contributes highest of its international remittances on health, while most of the usage of the internal remittances has second or third preferences of investment on the health except for Uttar Pradesh, D & H Haweli, Arunachal Pradesh and A & N Is. This paper tries to access usage of international remittances as well as internal remittances on the flow of remittances at the micro level and its implications across three basic determinants of Human Development that is Health, Capital formation and Education coupled with the preferences of usage in presence of Several Socio economic and Demographic variable.

Keywords: Multivariate analysis, remittances, household development, internal and international migration

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21 Magnetic Field Induced Tribological Properties of Magnetic Fluid

Authors: Kinjal Trivedi, Ramesh V. Upadhyay

Abstract:

Magnetic fluid as a nanolubricant is a most recent field of study due to its unusual properties that can be tuned by applying a magnetic field. In present work, four ball tester has been used to investigate the tribological properties of the magnetic fluid having a 4 wt% of nanoparticles. The structural characterization of fluid shows crystallite size of particle is 11.7 nm and particles are nearly spherical in nature. The magnetic characterization shows the fluid saturation magnetization is 2.2 kA/m. The magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet (0 to 1.6 mT) on the faces of the lock nut and fixing a solenoid (0 to 50 mT) around a shaft, such that shaft rotates freely. The magnetic flux line for both the systems analyzed using finite elemental analysis. The coefficient of friction increases with the application of magnetic field using permanent strip magnet compared to zero field value. While for the solenoid, it decreases at 20 mT. The wear scar diameter is lower for 1.1 mT and 20 mT when the magnetic field applied using permanent strip magnet and solenoid, respectively. The coefficient of friction and wear scar reduced by 29 % and 7 % at 20 mT using solenoid. The worn surface analysis carried out using Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope to understand the wear mechanism. The results are explained on the basis of structure formation in a magnetic fluid upon application of magnetic field. It is concluded that the tribological properties of magnetic fluid depend on magnetic field and its applied direction.

Keywords: Tribology, Magnetic fluid, four ball tester, nanolubricant

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20 Biodegradation of Direct Red 23 by Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Dye Contaminated Soil Using Sequential Air-lift Bioreactor

Authors: Lata Kumari Dhanesh Tiwary, Pradeep Kumar Mishra

Abstract:

The effluent coming from various industries such as textile, carpet, food, pharmaceutical and many other industries is big challenge due to its recalcitrant and xenobiotiocs in nature. Recently, biodegradation of dye wastewater through biological means was widely used due to eco-friendly and cost effective with the higher percentage of removal of dye from wastewater. The present study deals with the biodegradation and decolourization of Direct Red 23 dye using indigenously isolated bacterial consortium. The bacterial consortium was isolated from soil sample from dye contaminated site near a cluster of Carpet industries of Bhadohi, Uttar Pradesh, India. The bacterial strain formed consortia were identified and characterized by morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The bacterial strain mainly Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain BHUSS X3 (KJ439576), Microbacterium sp. BHUMSp X4 (KJ740222) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain BHUSS X5 (KJ439576) were used as consortia for further studies of dye decolorization. Experimental investigations were made in a Sequencing Air- lift bioreactor using the synthetic solution of Direct Red 23 dye by optimizing various parameters for efficient degradation of dye. The effect of several operating parameters such as flow rate, pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and inoculums size on removal of dye was investigated. The efficiency of isolated bacterial consortia from dye contaminated area in Sequencing Air- lift Bioreactor with different concentration of dye between 100-1200 mg/l at different hydraulic rate (HRTs) 26h and 10h. The maximum percentage of dye decolourization 98% was achieved when operated at HRT of 26h. The percentage of decolourization of dye was confirmed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and HPLC.

Keywords: carpet industry, bacterial consortia, sequencing air-lift bioreactor

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19 Performance Evaluation of Pilot Rotating Biological Contactor for Decentralised Management of Domestic Sewage in Delhi

Authors: T. R. Sreekrishnan, Mukesh Khare, Dinesh Upadhyay

Abstract:

In a Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), the biological film responsible for removal of pollutants is formed on the surface of discs. Evaluation studies of a pilot RBC designed to treat sewage of 150 persons with BOD Loading Rate: 8.2–26.7 g/m2/d, Discharge: 57.6 – 115.2 m3/day, HRT 1.25 – 2.5 hrs, at STP Yamuna Vihar Delhi. Removal of organic materials through use of fixed film reactors such as RBC is accomplished by means of a biological film on the fixed media. May and June in Delhi are dry summer months where the ambient temperature is in the range of 35oC to 45oC. July is a wet monsoon month that receives occasional precipitation, cloud cover, high humidity, with ambient temperature in the range of 30oC to 35oC. The organic and inorganic loads to the RBC employed in this study are actual city sewage conditions. Average in fluent BOD concentrations have been 330 mg/l, 245 mg/l and 160 mg/l and the average COD concentrations have been 670 mg/l, 500 mg/l, and 275 mg/l. The city sewage also has high concentration of ammonia, phosphorous, total suspended solids (TSS). pH of the city sewage is near neutral. Overall, the substrate conditions of city sewage are conducive for biological treatment though aerobic process. The presentation is a part of the ongoing collaborative research initiative between IIT Delhi and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany which is going on for last 15 years or so in the treatment of sewage waste of Delhi using semi-decentralized treatment system based on Rotating Biological Contactor.

Keywords: HRT, COD, Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), BOD, STP

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18 Information Literacy among Faculty and Students of Medical Colleges of Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh

Authors: SANJEEV SHARMA, Suman Lata

Abstract:

With the availability of diverse printed, electronic literature and web sites on medical and health related information, it is impossible for the medical professional to get the information he seeks in the shortest possible time. For all these problems information literacy is the only solution. Thus, information literacy is recognized as an important aspect of medical education. In the present study, an attempt has been made to know the information literacy skills of the faculty and students at medical colleges of Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh. The scope of the study was confined to the 12 selected medical colleges of three States (Haryana, Punjab, and Chandigarh). The findings of the study were based on the data collected through 1018 questionnaires filled by the respondents of the medical colleges. It was found that Online Medical Websites (such as WebMD, eMedicine and Mayo Clinic etc.) were frequently used by 63.43% of the respondents of Chandigarh which is slightly more than Haryana (61%) and Punjab (55.65%). As well, 30.86% of the respondents of Chandigarh, 27.41% of Haryana and 27.05% of Punjab were familiar with the controlled vocabulary tool; 25.14% respondents of Chandigarh, 23.80% of Punjab, 23.17% of Haryana were familiar with the Boolean operators; 33.05% of the respondents of Punjab, 28.19% of Haryana and 25.14% of Chandigarh were familiar with the use and importance of the keywords while searching an electronic database; and 51.43% of the respondents of Chandigarh, 44.52% of Punjab and 36.29% of Haryana were able to make effective use of the retrieved information. For accessing information in electronic format, 47.74% of the respondents rated their skills high, while the majority of respondents (76.13%) were unfamiliar with the basic search technique i.e. Boolean operator used for searching information in an online database. On the basis of the findings, it was suggested that a comprehensive training program based on medical professionals information needs should be organized frequently. Furthermore, it was also suggested that information literacy may be included as a subject in the health science curriculum so as to make the medical professionals information literate and independent lifelong learners.

Keywords: Information, Information literacy, medical professionals, medical colleges

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