Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 671

Search results for: array

671 The Design of Broadband 8x2 Phased Array 5G Antenna MIMO 28 GHz for Base Station

Authors: Muhammad Saiful Fadhil Reyhan, Yusnita Rahayu, Fadhel Muhammadsyah


This paper proposed a design of 16 elements, 8x2 linear fed patch antenna array with 16 ports, for 28 GHz, mm-wave band 5G for base station. The phased array covers along the azimuth plane to provide the coverage to the users in omnidirectional. The proposed antenna is designed RT Duroid 5880 substrate with the overall size of 85x35.6x0.787 mm3. The array is operating from 27.43 GHz to 28.34 GHz with a 910 MHz impedance bandwidth. The gain of the array is 18.3 dB, while the suppression of the side lobes is -1.0 dB. The main lobe direction of the array is 15 deg. The array shows a high array gain throughout the impedance bandwidth with overall of VSWR is below 1.12. The design will be proposed in single element and 16 elements antenna.

Keywords: 5G antenna, 28 GHz, MIMO, omnidirectional, phased array, base station, broadband

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670 Photovoltaic Array Cleaning System Design and Evaluation

Authors: Ghoname Abdullah, Hidekazu Nishimura


Dust accumulation on the photovoltaic module's surface results in appreciable loss and negatively affects the generated power. Hence, in this paper, the design of a photovoltaic array cleaning system is presented. The cleaning system utilizes one drive motor, two guide rails, and four sweepers during the cleaning process. The cleaning system was experimentally implemented for one month to investigate its efficiency on PV array energy output. The energy capture over a month for PV array cleaned using the proposed cleaning system is compared with that of the energy capture using soiled PV array. The results show a 15% increase in energy generation from PV array with cleaning. From the results, investigating the optimal scheduling of the PV array cleaning could be an interesting research topic.

Keywords: cleaning system, dust accumulation, PV array, PV module, soiling

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
669 A CMOS Capacitor Array for ESPAR with Fast Switching Time

Authors: Jin-Sup Kim, Se-Hwan Choi, Jae-Young Lee


A 8-bit CMOS capacitor array is designed for using in electrically steerable passive array radiator (ESPAR). The proposed capacitor array shows the fast response time in rising and falling characteristics. Compared to other works in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) or silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) technologies, it shows a comparable tuning range and switching time with low power consumption. Using the 0.18um CMOS, the capacitor array features a tuning range of 1.5 to 12.9 pF at 2.4GHz. Including the 2X4 decoder for control interface, the Chip size is 350um X 145um. Current consumption is about 80 nA at 1.8 V operation.

Keywords: CMOS capacitor array, ESPAR, SOI, SOS, switching time

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668 An Automated Sensor System for Cochlear Implants Electrode Array Insertion

Authors: Lei Hou, Xinli Du, Nikolaos Boulgouris


A cochlear implant, referred to as a CI, is a small electronic device that can provide direct electrical stimulation to the auditory nerve. During cochlear implant surgery, atraumatic electrode array insertion is considered to be a crucial step. However, during implantation, the mechanical behaviour of an electrode array inside the cochlea is not known. The behaviour of an electrode array inside of the cochlea is hardly identified by regular methods. In this study, a CI electrode array capacitive sensor system is proposed. It is able to automatically determine the array state as a result of the capacitance variations. Instead of applying sensors to the electrode array, the capacitance information from the electrodes will be gathered and analysed. Results reveal that this sensing method is capable of recognising different states when fed into a pre-shaped model.

Keywords: cochlear implant, electrode, hearing preservation, insertion force, capacitive sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
667 Thinned Elliptical Cylindrical Antenna Array Synthesis Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Rajesh Bera, Durbadal Mandal, Rajib Kar, Sakti P. Ghoshal


This paper describes optimal thinning of an Elliptical Cylindrical Array (ECA) of uniformly excited isotropic antennas which can generate directive beam with minimum relative Side Lobe Level (SLL). The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method, which represents a new approach for optimization problems in electromagnetic, is used in the optimization process. The PSO is used to determine the optimal set of ‘ON-OFF’ elements that provides a radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction. Optimization is done without prefixing the value of First Null Beam Width (FNBW). The variation of SLL with element spacing of thinned array is also reported. Simulation results show that the number of array elements can be reduced by more than 50% of the total number of elements in the array with a simultaneous reduction in SLL to less than -27dB.

Keywords: thinned array, Particle Swarm Optimization, Elliptical Cylindrical Array, Side Lobe Label.

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666 60 GHz Multi-Sector Antenna Array with Switchable Radiation-Beams for Small Cell 5G Networks

Authors: N. Ojaroudi Parchin, H. Jahanbakhsh Basherlou, Y. Al-Yasir, A. M. Abdulkhaleq, R. A. Abd-Alhameed, P. S. Excell


A compact design of multi-sector patch antenna array for 60 GHz applications is presented and discussed in details. The proposed design combines five 1×8 linear patch antenna arrays, referred to as sectors, in a multi-sector configuration. The coaxial-fed radiation elements of the multi-sector array are designed on 0.2 mm Rogers RT5880 dielectrics. The array operates in the frequency range of 58-62 GHz and provides switchable directional/omnidirectional radiation beams with high gain and high directivity characteristics. The designed multi-sector array exhibits good performances and could be used in the fifth generation (5G) cellular networks.

Keywords: mm-wave communications, multi-sector array, patch antenna, small cell networks

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665 PIN-Diode Based Slotted Reconfigurable Multiband Antenna Array for Vehicular Communication

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, Shivesh Tripathi, V. S. Tripathi


In this paper, a patch antenna array design is proposed for vehicular communication. The antenna consists of 2-element patch array. The antenna array is operating at multiple frequency bands. The multiband operation is achieved by use of slots at proper locations at the patch. The array is made reconfigurable by use of two PIN-diodes. The antenna is simulated and measured in four states of diodes i.e. ON-ON, ON-OFF, OFF-ON, and OFF-OFF. In ON-ON state of diodes, the resonant frequencies are 4.62-4.96, 6.50-6.75, 6.90-7.01, 7.34-8.22, 8.89-9.09 GHz. In ON-OFF state of diodes, the measured resonant frequencies are 4.63-4.93, 6.50-6.70 and 7.81-7.91 GHz. In OFF-ON states of diodes the resonant frequencies are 1.24-1.46, 3.40-3.75, 5.07-5.25 and 6.90-7.20 GHz and in the OFF-OFF state of diodes 4.49-4.75 and 5.61-5.98 GHz. The maximum bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 16.29%. The peak gain of the antenna is 3.4 dB at 5.9 GHz, which makes it suitable for vehicular communication.

Keywords: antenna, array, reconfigurable, vehicular

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
664 Hybrid Antenna Array with the Bowtie Elements for Super-Resolution and 3D Scanning Radars

Authors: Somayeh Komeylian


The antenna arrays for the entire 3D spherical coverage have been developed for their potential use in variety of applications such as radars and body-worn devices of the body area networks. In this study, we have rigorously revamped the hybrid antenna array using the optimum geometry of bowtie elements for achieving a significant improvement in the angular discrimination capability as well as in separating two adjacent targets. In this scenario, we have analogously investigated the effectiveness of increasing the virtual array length in fostering and enhancing the directivity and angular resolution in the 10 GHz frequency. The simulation results have extensively verified that the proposed antenna array represents a drastic enhancement in terms of size, directivity, side lobe level (SLL) and, especially resolution compared with the other available geometries. We have also verified that the maximum directivities of the proposed hybrid antenna array represent the robustness to the all  variations, which is accompanied by the uniform 3D scanning characteristic.

Keywords: bowtie antenna, hybrid antenna array, array signal processing, body area networks

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663 Study on Discontinuity Properties of Phased-Array Ultrasound Transducer Affecting to Sound Pressure Fields Pattern

Authors: Tran Trong Thang, Nguyen Phan Kien, Trinh Quang Duc


The phased-array ultrasound transducer types are utilities for medical ultrasonography as well as optical imaging. However, their discontinuity characteristic limits the applications due to the artifacts contaminated into the reconstructed images. Because of the effects of the ultrasound pressure field pattern to the echo ultrasonic waves as well as the optical modulated signal, the side lobes of the focused ultrasound beam induced by discontinuity of the phased-array ultrasound transducer might the reason of the artifacts. In this paper, a simple method in approach of numerical simulation was used to investigate the limitation of discontinuity of the elements in phased-array ultrasound transducer and their effects to the ultrasound pressure field. Take into account the change of ultrasound pressure field patterns in the conditions of variation of the pitches between elements of the phased-array ultrasound transducer, the appropriated parameters for phased-array ultrasound transducer design were asserted quantitatively.

Keywords: phased-array ultrasound transducer, sound pressure pattern, discontinuous sound field, numerical visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
662 Angle of Arrival Estimation Using Maximum Likelihood Method

Authors: Olomon Wu, Hung Lu, Nick Wilkins, Daniel Kerr, Zekeriya Aliyazicioglu, H. K. Hwang


Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar has received increasing attention in recent years. MIMO radar has many advantages over conventional phased array radar such as target detection, resolution enhancement, and interference suppression. In this paper, the results are presented from a simulation study of MIMO Uniformly-Spaced Linear Array (ULA) antennas. The performance is investigated under varied parameters, including varied array size, Pseudo Random (PN) sequence length, number of snapshots, and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). The results of MIMO are compared to a traditional array antenna.

Keywords: MIMO radar, phased array antenna, target detection, radar signal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
661 Mathematical Model for Progressive Phase Distribution of Ku-band Reflectarray Antennas

Authors: M. Y. Ismail, M. Inam, A. F. M. Zain, N. Misran


Progressive phase distribution is an important consideration in reflect array antenna design which is required to form a planar wave in front of the reflect array aperture. This paper presents a detailed mathematical model in order to determine the required reflection phase values from individual element of a reflect array designed in Ku-band frequency range. The proposed technique of obtaining reflection phase can be applied for any geometrical design of elements and is independent of number of array elements. Moreover the model also deals with the solution of reflect array antenna design with both centre and off-set feed configurations. The theoretical modeling has also been implemented for reflect arrays constructed on 0.508 mm thickness of different dielectric substrates. The results show an increase in the slope of the phase curve from 4.61°/mm to 22.35°/mm by varying the material properties.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, progressive phase distribution, reflect array antenna, reflection phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
660 Performance Evaluation of a Millimeter-Wave Phased Array Antenna Using Circularly Polarized Elements

Authors: Rawad Asfour, Salam Khamas, Edward A. Ball


This paper is focused on the design of an mm-wave phased array. To date, linear polarization is adapted in the reported designs of phased arrays. However, linear polarization faces several well-known challenges. As such, an advanced design for phased array antennas is required that offers circularly polarized (CP) radiation. A feasible solution for achieving CP phased array antennas is proposed using open-circular loop antennas. To this end, a 3-element circular loop phased array antenna is designed to operate at 28GHz. In addition, the array ability to control the direction of the main lobe is investigated. The results show that the highest achievable field of view (FOV) is 100°, i.e., 50° to the left and 50° to the right-hand side directions. The results are achieved with a CP bandwidth of 15%. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that a high broadside gain of circa 11 dBi can be achieved for the steered beam. Besides, a radiation efficiency of 97 % can also be achieved based on the proposed design.

Keywords: loop antenna, phased array, beam steering, wide bandwidth, circular polarization, CST

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
659 Ankh Key Broadband Array Antenna for 5G Applications

Authors: Noha M. Rashad, W. Swelam, M. H. Abd ElAzeem


A simple design of array antenna is presented in this paper, supporting millimeter wave applications which can be used in short range wireless communications such as 5G applications. This design enhances the use of V-band, according to IEEE standards, as the antenna works in the 70 GHz band with bandwidth more than 11 GHz and peak gain more than 13 dBi. The design is simulated using different numerical techniques achieving a very good agreement.

Keywords: 5G technology, array antenna, microstrip, millimeter wave

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658 Efficient Antenna Array Beamforming with Robustness against Random Steering Mismatch

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ching-Wei Liao, Kun-Che Lee


This paper deals with the problem of using antenna sensors for adaptive beamforming in the presence of random steering mismatch. We present an efficient adaptive array beamformer with robustness to deal with the considered problem. The robustness of the proposed beamformer comes from the efficient designation of the steering vector. Using the received array data vector, we construct an appropriate correlation matrix associated with the received array data vector and a correlation matrix associated with signal sources. Then, the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of the constructed signal correlation matrix is designated as an appropriate estimate of the steering vector. Finally, the adaptive weight vector required for adaptive beamforming is obtained by using the estimated steering vector and the constructed correlation matrix of the array data vector. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: adaptive beamforming, antenna array, linearly constrained minimum variance, robustness, steering vector

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657 Detection Characteristics of the Random and Deterministic Signals in Antenna Arrays

Authors: Olesya Bolkhovskaya, Alexey Davydov, Alexander Maltsev


In this paper approach to incoherent signal detection in multi-element antenna array are researched and modeled. Two types of useful signals with unknown wavefront were considered. First one is deterministic (Barker code), the second one is random (Gaussian distribution). The derivation of the sufficient statistics took into account the linearity of the antenna array. The performance characteristics and detecting curves are modeled and compared for different useful signals parameters and for different number of elements of the antenna array. Results of researches in case of some additional conditions can be applied to a digital communications systems.

Keywords: antenna array, detection curves, performance characteristics, quadrature processing, signal detection

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656 Investigation of the Unbiased Characteristic of Doppler Frequency to Different Antenna Array Geometries

Authors: Somayeh Komeylian


Array signal processing techniques have been recently developing in a variety application of the performance enhancement of receivers by refraining the power of jamming and interference signals. In this scenario, biases induced to the antenna array receiver degrade significantly the accurate estimation of the carrier phase. Owing to the integration of frequency becomes the carrier phase, we have obtained the unbiased doppler frequency for the high precision estimation of carrier phase. The unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the power jamming and the other interference signals allows achieving the highly accurate estimation of phase carrier. In this study, we have rigorously investigated the unbiased characteristic of Doppler frequency to the variation of the antenna array geometries. The simulation results have efficiently verified that the Doppler frequency remains also unbiased and accurate to the variation of antenna array geometries.

Keywords: array signal processing, unbiased doppler frequency, GNSS, carrier phase, and slowly fluctuating point target

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655 An Eigen-Approach for Estimating the Direction-of Arrival of Unknown Number of Signals

Authors: Dia I. Abu-Al-Nadi, M. J. Mismar, T. H. Ismail


A technique for estimating the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of unknown number of source signals is presented using the eigen-approach. The eigenvector corresponding to the minimum eigenvalue of the autocorrelation matrix yields the minimum output power of the array. Also, the array polynomial with this eigenvector possesses roots on the unit circle. Therefore, the pseudo-spectrum is found by perturbing the phases of the roots one by one and calculating the corresponding array output power. The results indicate that the DOAs and the number of source signals are estimated accurately in the presence of a wide range of input noise levels.

Keywords: array signal processing, direction-of-arrival, antenna arrays, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, Lagrange multiplier

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
654 Design of an Acoustic Imaging Sensor Array for Mobile Robots

Authors: Dibyendu Roy, V. Ramu Reddy, Parijat Deshpande, Ranjan Dasgupta


Imaging of underwater objects is primarily conducted by acoustic imagery due to the severe attenuation of electro-magnetic waves in water. Acoustic imagery underwater has varied range of significant applications such as side-scan sonar, mine hunting sonar. It also finds utility in other domains such as imaging of body tissues via ultrasonography and non-destructive testing of objects. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of using active acoustic imagery in air and simulate phased array beamforming techniques available in literature for various array designs to achieve a suitable acoustic sensor array design for a portable mobile robot which can be applied to detect the presence/absence of anomalous objects in a room. The multi-path reflection effects especially in enclosed rooms and environmental noise factors are currently not simulated and will be dealt with during the experimental phase. The related hardware is designed with the same feasibility criterion that the developed system needs to be deployed on a portable mobile robot. There is a trade of between image resolution and range with the array size, number of elements and the imaging frequency and has to be iteratively simulated to achieve the desired acoustic sensor array design. The designed acoustic imaging array system is to be mounted on a portable mobile robot and targeted for use in surveillance missions for intruder alerts and imaging objects during dark and smoky scenarios where conventional optic based systems do not function well.

Keywords: acoustic sensor array, acoustic imagery, anomaly detection, phased array beamforming

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653 Electromagnetic Source Direction of Arrival Estimation via Virtual Antenna Array

Authors: Meiling Yang, Shuguo Xie, Yilong Zhu


Nowadays, due to diverse electric products and complex electromagnetic environment, the localization and troubleshooting of the electromagnetic radiation source is urgent and necessary especially on the condition of far field. However, based on the existing DOA positioning method, the system or devices are complex, bulky and expensive. To address this issue, this paper proposes a single antenna radiation source localization method. A single antenna moves to form a virtual antenna array combined with DOA and MUSIC algorithm to position accurately, meanwhile reducing the cost and simplify the equipment. As shown in the results of simulations and experiments, the virtual antenna array DOA estimation modeling is correct and its positioning is credible.

Keywords: virtual antenna array, DOA, localization, far field

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652 Gan Nanowire-Based Sensor Array for the Detection of Cross-Sensitive Gases Using Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Ashfaque Hossain Khan, Brian Thomson, Ratan Debnath, Abhishek Motayed, Mulpuri V. Rao


Though the efforts had been made, the problem of cross-sensitivity for a single metal oxide-based sensor can’t be fully eliminated. In this work, a sensor array has been designed and fabricated comprising of platinum (Pt), copper (Cu), and silver (Ag) decorated TiO2 and ZnO functionalized GaN nanowires using industry-standard top-down fabrication approach. The metal/metal-oxide combinations within the array have been determined from prior molecular simulation study using first principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The gas responses were obtained for both single and mixture of NO2, SO2, ethanol, and H2 in the presence of H2O and O2 gases under UV light at room temperature. Each gas leaves a unique response footprint across the array sensors by which precise discrimination of cross-sensitive gases has been achieved. An unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA) technique has been implemented on the array response. Results indicate that each gas forms a distinct cluster in the score plot for all the target gases and their mixtures, indicating a clear separation among them. In addition, the developed array device consumes very low power because of ultra-violet (UV) assisted sensing as compared to commercially available metal-oxide sensors. The nanowire sensor array, in combination with PCA, is a potential approach for precise real-time gas monitoring applications.

Keywords: cross-sensitivity, gas sensor, principle component analysis (PCA), sensor array

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
651 Linear Array Geometry Synthesis with Minimum Sidelobe Level and Null Control Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Amara Prakasa Rao, N. V. S. N. Sarma


This paper describes the synthesis of linear array geometry with minimum sidelobe level and null control using the Taguchi method. Based on the concept of the orthogonal array, Taguchi method effectively reduces the number of tests required in an optimization process. Taguchi method has been successfully applied in many fields such as mechanical, chemical engineering, power electronics, etc. Compared to other evolutionary methods such as genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and particle swarm optimization, the Taguchi method is much easier to understand and implement. It requires less computational/iteration processing to optimize the problem. Different cases are considered to illustrate the performance of this technique. Simulation results show that this method outperforms the other evolution algorithms (like GA, PSO) for smart antenna systems design.

Keywords: array factor, beamforming, null placement, optimization method, orthogonal array, Taguchi method, smart antenna system

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650 Simulation of Photovoltaic Array for Specified Ratings of Converter

Authors: Smita Pareek, Ratna Dahiya


The power generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) module depends on surrounding irradiance, temperature, shading conditions, and shading pattern. This paper presents a simulation of photovoltaic module using Matlab/Simulink. PV Array is also simulated by series and parallel connections of modules and their characteristics curves are given. Further PV module topology/configuration are proposed for 5.5kW inverter available in the literature. Shading of a PV array either complete or partial can have a significant impact on its power output and energy yield; therefore, the simulated model characteristics curves (I-V and P-V) are drawn for uniform shading conditions (USC) and then output power, voltage and current are calculated for variation in insolation for shading conditions. Additionally the characteristics curves are also given for a predetermined shadowing condition.

Keywords: array, series, parallel, photovoltaic, partial shading

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649 Fabrication of Immune-Affinity Monolithic Array for Detection of α-Fetoprotein and Carcinoembryonic Antigen

Authors: Li Li, Li-Ru Xia, He-Ye Wang, Xiao-Dong Bi


In this paper, we presented a highly sensitive immune-affinity monolithic array for detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Firstly, the epoxy functionalized monolith arrays were fabricated using UV initiated copolymerization method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showed that the poly(BABEA-co-GMA) monolith exhibited a well-controlled skeletal and well-distributed porous structure. Then, AFP and CEA immune-affinity monolithic arrays were prepared by immobilization of AFP and CEA antibodies on epoxy functionalized monolith arrays. With a non-competitive immune response format, the presented AFP and CEA immune-affinity arrays were demonstrated as an inexpensive, flexible, homogeneous and stable array for detection of AFP and CEA.

Keywords: chemiluminescent detection, immune-affinity, monolithic copolymer array, UV-initiated copolymerization

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648 Mutual Coupling Reduction between Patch Antenna Array Elements Using Metamaterial Z Shaped Resonators

Authors: Oossama Tabbabi, Mondher Labidi, Fethi Choubani, J. David


Modern wireless communication systems require compact design, low cost and simple structure antennas to insure reliability, agility, and high efficiency characteristics. This paper presents a microstrip antenna array designed for 8 GHz applications. To reduce the mutual coupling effects, a Z shape metamaterial structure was imprinted in the microstrip antenna array composed of two elements. Simulation results show the improvement of mutual coupling by adding Z shape metamaterial structure to the antenna substrate. The proposed structure reduces mutual coupling by 19 dB. The simulation has been performed by using HFSS simulator.

Keywords: antenna array, compact design, modern wireless communication, mutual coupling effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
647 Minimum Half Power Beam Width and Side Lobe Level Reduction of Linear Antenna Array Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Saeed Ur Rahman, Naveed Ullah, Muhammad Irshad Khan, Quensheng Cao, Niaz Muhammad Khan


In this paper the optimization performance of non-uniform linear antenna array is presented. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is presented to minimize Side Lobe Level (SLL) and Half Power Beamwidth (HPBW). The purpose of using the PSO algorithm is to get the optimum values for inter-element spacing and excitation amplitude of linear antenna array that provides a radiation pattern with minimum SLL and HPBW. Various design examples are considered and the obtain results using PSO are confirmed by comparing with results achieved using other nature inspired metaheuristic algorithms such as real coded genetic algorithm (RGA) and biogeography (BBO) algorithm. The comparative results show that optimization of linear antenna array using the PSO provides considerable enhancement in the SLL and HPBW.

Keywords: linear antenna array, minimum side lobe level, narrow half power beamwidth, particle swarm optimization

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646 Plate-Laminated Slotted-Waveguide Fed 2×3 Planar Inverted F Antenna Array

Authors: Badar Muneer, Waseem Shabir, Faisal Karim Shaikh


Substrate Integrated waveguide based 6-element array of Planar Inverted F antenna (PIFA) has been presented and analyzed parametrically in this paper. The antenna is fed with coupled transverse slots on a plate laminated waveguide cavity to ensure wide bandwidth and simplicity of feeding network. The two-layer structure has one layer dedicated for feeding network and the top layer dedicated for radiating elements. It has been demonstrated that the presented feeding technique for feeding such class of array antennas can be far simple in structure and miniaturized in size when it comes to designing large phased array antenna systems. A good return loss and standing wave ratio of 2:1 has been achieved while maintaining properties of typical PIFA.

Keywords: feeding network, laminated waveguide, PIFA, transverse slots

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645 Evaluation of DNA Oxidation and Chemical DNA Damage Using Electrochemiluminescent Enzyme/DNA Microfluidic Array

Authors: Itti Bist, Snehasis Bhakta, Di Jiang, Tia E. Keyes, Aaron Martin, Robert J. Forster, James F. Rusling


DNA damage from metabolites of lipophilic drugs and pollutants, generated by enzymes, represents a major toxicity pathway in humans. These metabolites can react with DNA to form either 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), which is the oxidative product of DNA or covalent DNA adducts, both of which are genotoxic and hence considered important biomarkers to detect cancer in humans. Therefore, detecting reactions of metabolites with DNA is an effective approach for the safety assessment of new chemicals and drugs. Here we describe a novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) sensor array which can detect DNA oxidation and chemical DNA damage in a single array, facilitating a more accurate diagnostic tool for genotoxicity screening. Layer-by-layer assembly of DNA and enzyme are assembled on the pyrolytic graphite array which is housed in a microfluidic device for sequential detection of two type of the DNA damages. Multiple enzyme reactions are run on test compounds using the array, generating toxic metabolites in situ. These metabolites react with DNA in the films to cause DNA oxidation and chemical DNA damage which are detected by ECL generating osmium compound and ruthenium polymer, respectively. The method is further validated by the formation of 8-oxodG and DNA adduct using similar films of DNA/enzyme on magnetic bead biocolloid reactors, hydrolyzing the DNA, and analyzing by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Hence, this combined DNA/enzyme array/LC-MS approach can efficiently explore metabolic genotoxic pathways for drugs and environmental chemicals.

Keywords: biosensor, electrochemiluminescence, DNA damage, microfluidic array

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644 Effects of Array Electrode Placement on Identifying Localised Muscle Fatigue

Authors: Mohamed R. Al-Mulla, Bader Al-Bader, Firouz K. Ghaaedi, Francisco Sepulveda


Surface electromyography (sEMG) is utilised in numerous studies on muscle activity. In the beginning, single electrodes were utilised; however, the newest approach is to use an array of electrodes or a grid of electrodes to improve the accuracy of the recorded reading. This research focuses on electrode placement on the biceps brachii, using an array of electrodes placed longitudinal and diagonally on the muscle belly. Trials were conducted on four healthy males, with sEMG signal acquisition from fatiguing isometric contractions. The signal was analysed using the power spectrum density. The separation between the two classes of fatigue (non-fatigue and fatigue) was calculated using the Davies-Bouldin Index (DBI). Results show that higher separability between the fatigue content of the sEMG signal when placed longitudinally, in the same direction as the muscle fibers.

Keywords: array electrodes, biceps brachii, electrode placement, EMG, isometric contractions, muscle fatigue

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
643 Subarray Based Multiuser Massive MIMO Design Adopting Large Transmit and Receive Arrays

Authors: Tetsiki Taniguchi, Yoshio Karasawa


This paper describes a subarray based low computational design method of multiuser massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system. In our previous works, use of large array is assumed only in transmitter, but this study considers the case both of transmitter and receiver sides are equipped with large array antennas. For this aim, receive arrays are also divided into several subarrays, and the former proposed method is modified for the synthesis of a large array from subarrays in both ends. Through computer simulations, it is verified that the performance of the proposed method is degraded compared with the original approach, but it can achieve the improvement in the aspect of complexity, namely, significant reduction of the computational load to the practical level.

Keywords: large array, massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO), multiuser, singular value decomposition, subarray, zero forcing

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642 Comparative Analysis of Two Approaches to Joint Signal Detection, ToA and AoA Estimation in Multi-Element Antenna Arrays

Authors: Olesya Bolkhovskaya, Alexey Davydov, Alexander Maltsev


In this paper two approaches to joint signal detection, time of arrival (ToA) and angle of arrival (AoA) estimation in multi-element antenna array are investigated. Two scenarios were considered: first one, when the waveform of the useful signal is known a priori and, second one, when the waveform of the desired signal is unknown. For first scenario, the antenna array signal processing based on multi-element matched filtering (MF) with the following non-coherent detection scheme and maximum likelihood (ML) parameter estimation blocks is exploited. For second scenario, the signal processing based on the antenna array elements covariance matrix estimation with the following eigenvector analysis and ML parameter estimation blocks is applied. The performance characteristics of both signal processing schemes are thoroughly investigated and compared for different useful signals and noise parameters.

Keywords: antenna array, signal detection, ToA, AoA estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 371