Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: remittances

18 Linking Remittances and Household Level Development in India: An Analysis of NSSO 64th Round Data

Authors: Rakesh Mishra, Mukunda Upadhyay, Rajni Singh

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This paper attempts to link remittances sent by internal as well as international out-migrants and its domestic preferences of usage in three different dimension of Household level development in India and its states. Investment of remittances in these sectors reveals for mixed choices of preferential among the states from where people have out-migrated. The multivariate analysis implies that among all three indicators of human development, health (Investment in Food and Health) is the one that attracts the major investment followed by capital formation and least on Education. Usage of the remittances has been found to be varying across all the states in India as far as usage in health, capital formation and education are concerned. Orissa, Nagaland, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Gujarat, D & H Haweli are some of the states and union territory that contributes highest of its international remittances on health, while most of the usage of the internal remittances has second or third preferences of investment on the health except for Uttar Pradesh, D & H Haweli, Arunachal Pradesh and A & N Is. This paper tries to access usage of international remittances as well as internal remittances on the flow of remittances at the micro level and its implications across three basic determinants of Human Development that is Health, Capital formation and Education coupled with the preferences of usage in presence of Several Socio economic and Demographic variable.

Keywords: multivariate analysis, household development, remittances, internal and international migration

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17 Impact of Workers’ Remittances on Poverty in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis by Ardl

Authors: Syed Aziz Rasool, Ayesha Zaman

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Poverty is one of the most important problems for any developing nation. Workers’ remittances and investment plays a crucial role in development of any country by reducing the poverty level in Pakistan. This research studies the relationship between workers’ remittances and poverty alleviation. It also focused the significant effect on poverty reduction. This study uses time series data for the period of 1972-2013. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)Model and Error Correction (ECM)Model has been used in order to find out the long run and short run relationship between the worker’s remittances and poverty level respectively. Thus, inflow of remittances showed the significant and negative impact on poverty level. Moreover, coefficient of error correction model explains the adjustment towards convergence and it has highly significant and negative value. According to this research, Policy makers should strongly focus on positive and effective policies to attract more remittances. JELCODE: JEL: J61

Keywords: ECM, ARDL, AIC, SC

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16 Governance vs Diaspora Remittances for Sustainable Development: A Case of Rwanda and Kenya

Authors: Albert Maake, Ifunanya Isama

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International remittances to developing countries reached US$ 485 billion in 2018. By 2015, the East African region had surpassed US$3.5 mark. Considering this, there is no argument as to the contribution of Diaspora remittances as an alternative source of funds in the development process of the developing countries. Nevertheless, this paper seeks to argue that good governance in areas such as policy design, implementation and monitoring play a critical role in the sustainable development process of a nation as opposed to Diaspora remittances in general. Therefore this study intends at analyzing the contribution of Governance as opposed to that of Diaspora remittances for nation development. Employing documentary analysis technique, the secondary data with respect to the countries under study on Diaspora remittances will be collected. Selected indicators for Governance-HDI, Debt-to-GDP Ratio and Corruption Index, will be sourced from the World Bank Data for the purpose of consistency and where applicable the Central Statistical Agencies of the Nations under study. By means of descriptive statistics and content analysis the data will be comparatively analyzed to highlight the unique experiences in Rwanda and Kenya. The findings and interpretations from the study will affirm and promote capacity building for best practices in good governance for the countries under study.

Keywords: diaspora remittance, governance, Kenya, Rwanda, sustainable development

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15 Remittances and Water Access: A Cross-Sectional Study of Sub Saharan Africa Countries

Authors: Narges Ebadi, Davod Ahmadi, Hiliary Monteith, Hugo Melgar-Quinonez

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Migration cannot necessarily relieve pressure on water resources in origin communities, and male out-migration can increase the water management burden of women. However, inflows of financial remittances seem to offer possibilities of investing in improving drinking-water access. Therefore, remittances may be an important pathway for migrants to support water security. This paper explores the association between water access and the receipt of remittances in households in sub-Saharan Africa. Data from round 6 of the 'Afrobarometer' surveys in 2016 were used (n= 49,137). Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out in this study. Regardless of country, findings from descriptive analyses showed that approximately 80% of the respondents never received remittance, and 52% had enough clean water. Only one-fifth of the respondents had piped water supply inside the house (19.9%), and approximately 25% had access to a toilet inside the house. Bivariate analyses revealed that even though receiving remittances was significantly associated with water supply, the strength of association was very weak. However, other factors such as the area of residence (rural vs. urban), cash income frequencies, electricity access, and asset ownership were strongly associated with water access. Results from unadjusted multinomial logistic regression revealed that the probability of having no access to piped water increased among remittance recipients who received financial support at least once a month (OR=1.324) (p < 0.001). In contrast, those not receiving remittances were more likely to regularly have a water access concern (OR=1.294) (p < 0.001), and not have access to a latrine (OR=1.665) (p < 0.001). In conclusion, receiving remittances is significantly related to water access as the strength of odds ratios for socio-demographic factors was stronger.

Keywords: remittances, water access, SSA, migration

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14 Indian Emigration to Gulf Countries: Opportunities and Challenges

Authors: Sudhaveni Naresh

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International migration is an important subject and gaining more significance andinterest among scholars in recent years. It is defined as crossing of the boundaries of political or administrative units for a certain minimum period for reasons such as education, employment, etc.International migration is not new for India because it has a long history with the Gulf region since ancient period. India is also one of the largest migrant-sending countries after China in the world. Migration towards the Gulf region became more prominent during early 1970s due to oil boom which led to rapid increase in the demand for foreign labour. Of 25 million Indian emigrants are living across the world, about six million Indian emigrants working in the Gulf. Most of these migrants were either unskilled or semi-skilled. Both the pull and push factors behind labour emigrate to Gulf countries. India is world’s leading receiver of remittances and the flow of remittances to India has been increasing steadily since the 1970s. In 2011-12, it was about 4 percent of GDP.Emigrants play a significant role in the economic development and growth of the country via the remittances and knowledge and skill transfer. Scholars see remittances as vital tool in the development for origin country. This paper examines the recent trend and pattern of migration from India to Gulf countries and explores impact of remittances on emigrants’ families at home country. It also highlights opportunities, challenges and the need for strengthening multilateral cooperation to transform migration into an efficient, orderly and humane process.The study propose to undertake a primary survey for this purpose. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods will be used to study the above issues.

Keywords: development, international migration, remittances, unskilled labour

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13 Gender Discrimination and Wellbeing in Family Sphere Due to Male Migration and Remittances: A Study of Doaba Region of Punjab

Authors: Atinder Pal Kaur

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A central characteristic of people is their apparent movement from one station to other for their sustenance. Human migration has become one of the most challenging issues faced by the world today. Migration represents an important dimension in world-wide setting; and remittances received by families constitute a major agent in integrating societies in the all over the world, both economically and socially. This paper is an attempt to explore the impact of male migration and remittances upon the family system. This paper brings out how the women play the role of head of the household and take all the economic decisions, but still faces discrimination in the family, that bring loneliness and emotional breakdown on their personal front. For the purpose of this study, data was collected using 30 interviews and 10 case studies in the Doaba region of Punjab. The respondents were classified into two age groups 20-35 years and above 40 years aged women whose husbands migrated abroad. The findings of this study revealed that even though the women were taking some of the economic decisions, but in majority of the cases the patriarchal structure still existed and power remained in the hands of their husbands or in-laws. It was found that women of different age groups reported differently in terms of authority that they have regarding remittances and its consequences in their emotional well-being. The distinction related to their participation in public and private spheres still exists and public spheres are mostly dominated by male members of the family. It can be concluded that freedom of women to take decision on their own is still restricted and they are subjugated to follow their husband or in-law’s opinion in matters related to both public and private spheres. However, old age group women enjoyed more independence and freedom to take decision in comparison to young age women. Loneliness and depression were more common in the young age respondent’s group than in old age women.

Keywords: gender discrimination, migration, patriarchal structure, remittances

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12 Analyzing the Effect of Remittances Transfer on the Socio-Economic Well-Being of Left behind Parents: A Study of Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir

Authors: Asia Ashfaq, Muhammad Saud

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The present study aims to highlight the socio-economic aspect of international migration by analyzing the effect of remittances sent by adult male children on the well-being of left behind parents. Well-being of left behind parents was operationalized through two indicators as financial security and health-care facilities. For this purpose, quantitative research design was employed and a survey was conducted in three cities i.e. Gujrat, Jhelum and Mirpur. The data was collected from 94 respondents chosen--purposively--on the basis of certain characteristics including demographic profile of the respondents and their male children who must be living abroad. The findings of the study revealed that parents were getting money from their sons regularly. Parents were getting financial assistance from their children for managing their household expenditures, visiting good hospitals and the specialist doctors in case of illness. Lastly, the study concluded that the economic aspect of migration of male children has a significant impact on the health status of left behind parents with the value of correlation (r) =0.241 and level of significance as 0.019. The research study also gives some suggestions and provides future directions for research.

Keywords: international migration, left behind parents, Pakistan, remittances, well-being

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11 Migrants as Change Agents: A Study of Social Remittances between Finland and Russia

Authors: Ilona Bontenbal

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In this research, the potential for societal change is researched through the idea of migrants as change agents. The viewpoint is on the potential that migrants have for affecting societal change in their country of origin through transmitting transnational peer-to-peer information. The focus is on the information that Russian migrants living in Finland transmit about their experiences and attitudes regarding the Nordic welfare state, its democratic foundation and the social rights embedded in it, to their family and friends in their country of origin. The welfare provision and level of democracy are very different in the two neighbouring countries of Finland and Russia. Finland is a Nordic welfare state with strong democratic institutions and a comprehensive actualizing of civil and social rights. In Russia, the state of democracy has on the other hand been declining, and the social and civil rights of its citizens are constantly undermined. Due to improvements in communications and travel technology, migrants can easily and relatively cheaply stay in contact with their family and friends in their country of origin. This is why it is possible for migrants to act as change agents. By telling about their experiences and attitudes about living in a democratic welfare state, migrants can affect what people in the country or origin know and think about welfare, democracy, and social rights. This phenomenon is approached through the concept of social remittances. Social remittances broadly stand for the ideas, know-how, world views, attitudes, norms of behavior, and social capital that flows through transnational networks from receiving- to sending- country communities and the other way around. The viewpoint is that historically and culturally formed democratic welfare models cannot be copied entirely nor that each country should achieve identical development paths, but rather that migrants themselves choose which aspects they see as important to remit to their acquaintances in their country of origin. This way the potential for social change and the agency of the migrants is accentuated. The empirical research material of this study is based on 30 qualitative interviews with Russian migrants living in Finland. Russians are the largest migrant group in Finland and Finland is a popular migration destination especially for individuals living in North-West Russia including the St. Petersburg region. The interviews are carried out in 2018-2019. The preliminary results indicate that Russian migrants discuss social rights and welfare a lot with their family members and acquaintances living in Russia. In general, the migrants feel that they have had an effect on the way that their friends and family think about Finland, the West, social rights and welfare provision. Democracy, on the other hand, is seen as a more difficult and less discussed topic. The transformative potential that the transmitted information and attitudes could have outside of the immediate circle of acquaintances on larger societal change is seen as ambiguous although not negligible.

Keywords: migrants as change agents, Russian migrants, social remittances, welfare and democracy

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10 Determinants of Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Structural Vector Auto Regression Approach

Authors: Muhammad Ajmair

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This empirical study followed structural vector auto regression (SVAR) approach proposed by the so-called AB-model of Amisano and Giannini (1997) to check the impact of relevant macroeconomic determinants on economic growth in Pakistan. Before that auto regressive distributive lag (ARDL) bound testing technique and time varying parametric approach along with general to specific approach was employed to find out relevant significant determinants of economic growth. To our best knowledge, no author made such a study that employed auto regressive distributive lag (ARDL) bound testing and time varying parametric approach with general to specific approach in empirical literature, but current study will bridge this gap. Annual data was taken from World Development Indicators (2014) during period 1976-2014. The widely-used Schwarz information criterion and Akaike information criterion were considered for the lag length in each estimated equation. Main findings of the study are that remittances received, gross national expenditures and inflation are found to be the best relevant positive and significant determinants of economic growth. Based on these empirical findings, we conclude that government should focus on overall economic growth augmenting factors while formulating any policy relevant to the concerned sector.

Keywords: economic growth, gross national expenditures, inflation, remittances

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9 Remittances, Unemployement and Demographic Changes between Tunisia and Europe

Authors: Hajer Habib, Ghazi Boulila

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The objective of this paper is to present our contribution to the theoretical literature through a simple theoretical model dealing with the effect of transferring funds on the labor market of the countries of origin and on the other hand to test this relationship empirically in the case of Tunisia. The methodology used consists of estimating a panel of the nine main destinations of the Tunisian diaspora in Europe between 1994 and 2014 in order to better value the net effect of these migratory financial flows on unemployment through population growth. The empirical results show that the main factors explaining the decision to emigrate are the economic factors related mainly to the income differential, the demographic factors related to the differential age structure of the origin and host populations, and the cultural factors linked basically to the mastery of the language. Indeed, the stock of migrants is one of the main determinants of the transfer of migratory funds to Tunisia. But there are other variables that do not lack importance such as the economic conditions linked by the host countries. This shows that Tunisian migrants react more to economic conditions in European countries than in Tunisia. The economic situation of European countries dominates the numbers of emigrants as an explanatory factor for the amount of transfers from Tunisian emigrants to their country of origin. Similarly, it is clear that there is an indirect effect of transfers on unemployment in Tunisia. This suggests that the demographic transition conditions the effects of transferring funds on the level of unemployment.

Keywords: demographic changes, international migration, labor market, remittances

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8 Economics of Conflict: Core Economic Dimensions of the Georgian-South Ossetian Context

Authors: V. Charaia

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This article presents SWOT analysis for Georgian - South Ossetian conflict. The research analyzes socio-economic aspects and considers future prospects for all sides including neighbor countries and regions. Also it includes the possibilities of positive intervention of neighbor countries to solve the conflict or to mitigate its negative results. The main question of the article is: What will it take to award Georgians and South Ossetians with a peace dividend?

Keywords: conflict economics, investments, trade, remittances

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7 Emigration Improves Life Standard of Families Left Behind: An Evidence from Rural Area of Gujrat-Pakistan

Authors: Shoaib Rasool

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Migration trends in rural areas of Gujrat are increasing day by day among illiterate people as they consider it as a source of attraction and charm of destination. It affects the life standard both positive and negative way to their families left behind in the context of poverty, socio-economic status and life standards. It also promotes material items and as well as social indicators of living, housing conditions, schooling of their children’s, health seeking behavior and to some extent their family environment. The nature of the present study is to analyze socio-economic conditions regarding life standard of emigrant families left behind in rural areas of Gujrat district, Pakistan. A survey design was used on 150 families selected from rural areas of Gujrat districts through purposive sampling technique. A well-structured questionnaire was administered by the researcher to explore the nature of the study and for further data collection process. The measurement tool was pretested on 20 families to check the workability and reliability before the actual data collection. Statistical tests were applied to draw results and conclusion. The preliminary findings of the study show that emigration has left deep social-economic impacts on life standards of rural families left behind in Gujrat. They improved their life status and living standard through remittances. Emigration is one of the major sources of development of economy of household and it also alleviate poverty at house household level as well as community and country level. The rationale behind migration varies individually and geographically. There are popular considered attractions in Pakistan includes securing high status, improvement in health condition, coping other, getting married then to acquire nationality, using the unfair means, opting educational visas etc. Emigrants are not only sending remittances but also returning with newly acquired skills and valuable knowledge to their country of origin because emigrants learn new methods of living and working. There are also women migrants who experience social downward mobility by engaging in jobs that are beneath their educational qualifications.

Keywords: emigration, life standard, families, left behind, rural area, Gujrat

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6 Economic Implications of the Arrival of Syrian Refugees in Jordan

Authors: Ammar Z. Alwrekiat, Sara Ojeda Gonzalez, Maria Jose Miranda Martel, Antonio Mihi-Ramirez

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This paper analyses the economic situation in Jordan, which has been the political asylum destination for Syrians since 2011. We analyze the effects of the Jordanian situation through the following indicators: international aid, gross domestic product, remittances, and unemployment. A correlation analysis has been used to identify the main connections of these parameters with the reception of refugees. Although the economic effects of Syrian refugees in Jordan are uncertain, it involves an important challenge in the development of migration policies. Jordan has a special economic situation and limited capacities, but the country has provided humanitarian assistance to Syrian refugees. In this case, the support of the international community is of particular importance, taking an important role in the negotiation of international agreements on refugees.

Keywords: correlation analysis, economic implications, migration, refugees

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5 The Effects of Urbanization on Peri-Urban Livelihood in Ghana: A Case of Kumasi Peri-Urban Communities

Authors: Charles Kwaku Oppong

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The research linked urban expansion resulting from urbanization with changing morphology processes happening in peri-urban communities. Two villages of Kumasi City peri-urban were used as a case study. Appropriate analytical framework and methodology (literature review and empirical evidence) were employed to ensure that all pertinent issues of peri-urban interface are brought to light. It was discovered from the study that since peri-urban livelihood is linked with assets base; it has been found that stock of asset, as well as transformation processes, were major factors in the shaping of livelihoods strategies. For that reason, success or failure of household livelihoods was seen to relate to the kind of livelihood strategy employed. With efforts to mitigate for livelihoods failure due to peri-urban development, households' recourse to remittances, land disposal, and other means as an alternative livelihood approach. The study calls for local government policy interventions in regulating peri-urban transformation process and providing safety nets for the vulnerable.

Keywords: urban expansion, peri-urban interface, livelihoods, asset

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4 The Internal Migration in Jiangxi Province, China after the Migrating Decision

Authors: Gourida Siham

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Chinese society has witnessed a continuing trend of nationwide rural to urban migration since the 1970's. Before that age, under restricted hukou systems, peasants were kept still and fixed in the farm land. The year 1978 and later years saw the control of migration in China was relaxed gradually, freeing peasants to start their own businesses and reach out to work also in urban areas. Since then the “floating population” (migrants without local hukou) took great momentum and drew great attention from both the media and academia. The scale of such internal migration is enormous –the floating population has reached to a number of 79 million in 2000, and as of 2010, the number of migrant workers from rural China amounts to over 221 million and according to the annual survey results projections by National Bureau of Statistics; the total migrant workers in china in 2012 amounted to 262.61 million, which refers to an increase of 9.83 million compared with the previous year with increase percentage by 3.9%. Using China’s Jiangxi Province as a case, this paper examines patterns of internal migration as a response of emigrations in the context of high emigration communities. Our findings suggest that emigration of individuals initially deterred both inter-provincial and intra- provincial migration of other family members, and yet, overtime they had an increasing propensity to migrate internally at both scales.

Keywords: internal migration, jiangxi, nanchang, remittances

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3 Assessment of Indigenous People Living Condition in Coal Mining Region: An Evidence from Dhanbad, India

Authors: Arun Kumar Yadav

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Coal contributes a significant role in India’s developmental mission. But, ironically, on the other side it causes large scale population displacement and significant changes in indigenous people’s livelihood mechanism. Dhanbad which is regarded as one of the oldest and large mining area, as well as a “Coal Capital of India”. Here, mining exploration work started nearly a century ago. But with the passage of time, mining brings a lot of changes in the life of local people. In this context, study tries to do comparative situational analysis of the changes in the living condition of dwellers living in mines affected and non-mines affected villages based on livelihood approach. Since, this place has long history of mining so it is very difficult to conduct before and after comparison between mines and non-mines affected areas. Consequently, the present study is based on relative comparison approach to elucidate the actual scenario. By using primary survey data which was collected by the author during the month of September 2014 to March 2015 at Dhanbad, Jharkhand. The data were collected from eight villages, these were categorised broadly into mines and non-mines affected villages. Further at micro level, mines affected villages has been categorised into open cast and underground mines. This categorization will help us to capture the deeper understanding about the issues of mine affected villages group. Total of 400 household were surveyed. Result depicts that in every sphere mining affected villages are more vulnerable. Regarding financial capital, although mine affected villages are engaged in mining work and get higher mean income. But in contrast, non-mine affected villages are more occupationally diversified. They have an opportunity to earn money from diversified extents like agricultural land, working in mining area, selling coal informally as well as receiving remittances. Non-mines affected villages are in better physical capital which comprises of basic infrastructure to support livelihood. They have an access to secured shelter, adequate water supply & sanitation, and affordable information and transport. Mining affected villages are more prone to health risks. Regarding social capital, it shows that in comparison to last five years, law and order has been improved in mine affected villages.

Keywords: displacement, indigenous, livelihood, mining

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2 Exploring Causes of Irregular Migration: Evidence from Rural Punjab, India

Authors: Kulwinder Singh

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Punjab is one of the major labour exporting states of India. Every year more than 20,000 youths from Punjab attempt irregular migration. About 84 irregular migrants are from rural areas and 16 per cent from urban areas. Irregular migration could only be achieved if be organized through highly efficient international networks with the countries of origin, transit, and destination. A good number of Punjabis continue to immigrate into the UK for work through unauthorized means entering the country on visit visas and overstaying or getting ‘smuggled into’ the country with the help of transnational networks of agents. Although, the efforts are being made by the government to curb irregular migration through The Punjab Prevention of Human Smuggling Rules (2012, 2014) and Punjab Travel Regulation Act (2012), but yet it exists parallel to regular migration. Despite unprecedented miseries of irregular migrants and strict laws implemented by the state government to check this phenomenon, ‘why do Punjabis migrate abroad irregularly’ is the important question to answer. This study addresses this question through the comparison of irregular migration with regular one. In other words, this analysis reveals major causes, specifically economic ones, of irregular migration from rural Punjab. This study is unique by presenting economics of irregular migration, given previous studies emphasize the role of sociological and psychological factors. Addressing important question “why do Punjabis migrate abroad irregularly?”, the present study reveals that Punjabi, being far-sighted, endeavor irregular migration as it is, though, economically nonviable in short run, but offers lucrative economic gains as gets older. Despite its considerably higher cost viz-a-viz regular migration, it is the better employment option to irregular migrants with higher permanent income than local low paid jobs for which risking life has become the mindset of the rural Punjabis. Although, it carries considerably lower economic benefits as compared to regular migration, but provides the opportunity of migrating abroad to less educated, semi-skilled and language-test ineligible Punjabis who cannot migrate through regular channels. As its positive impacts on source and destination countries are evident, it might not be restricted, rather its effective management, through liberalising restrictive migration policies by destination nations, can protect the interests of all involved stakeholders.

Keywords: cost, migration, income, irregular, regular, remittances

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1 Economic Impact of Ogbomoso Migrant Community in Jos Metropolis, Nigeria, 1940-2000

Authors: Afees Adebayo Salam

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This paper attempts an in-depth analysis of the economic impact of Ogbomoso migrant community in the Jos metropolis. It discusses the factors that motivated a sizeable number of Ogbomoso people (from southwestern Nigeria) to leave their hometown for a new place/space in Jos (northern Nigeria). It examines the historical antecedent of Ogbomoso migrants in northern Nigeria with emphasis on Jos metropolis. The movement of Ogbomoso migrants to Jos was dictated by the economic and social challenges of colonial and post-colonial periods. The political crisis of the 1960s was a contributory factor to the process of Ogbomoso migration to other parts of Nigeria. In the aftermath, many people migrated from Ogbomoso to different parts of the country and beyond to seek for better economic opportunities. The establishment of Ogbomoso migrant community in Jos was dated back to the colonial era when taxation was introduced by the British. Many people could not pay these taxes from their peasant farming activities, while some embarked on migration to places such as Jos, Kaduna, Kano, Keffi and Bauchi due to the harsh economic situation at home. Their settlement in Jos brought about success in several spheres of human endeavours. Ogbomoso migrants dominated both paid jobs and private business sector such as textile merchants, food stuff sellers, herbalists, printers, transporters, and religious missionaries, as well as clerical officers in the government establishments. Their remittances were invested in different sectors of Ogbomoso economy. The migrants had in one way or the other contributed to the socio-economic development of their host community in Jos as entrepreneurs. Branches of such industries were located in their hometown of Ogbomoso as a clear demonstration of community development. The remittance pattern of the migrants has transformed Ogbomoso to enviable position. Moreover, the economic success of Ogbomoso migrants over the period under review indicates the process of nation building due to peaceful nature of inter-ethnic engagements between Ogbomoso migrants and their host community in Jos. Therefore, the paper makes use of oral, archival and secondary sources to analyse the processes of migration and its economic impact. Oral interviews were conducted in Ogbomoso town with veteran migrants and their family members. Interviews were also conducted in Jos with the indigenous host community as well as other urban residents. Archival materials were obtained from Arewa House Archives and the National Archives, Kaduna and the National Archives, Ibadan.

Keywords: Ogbomoso migrants, Jos metropolis, community development, economic impact

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