Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 334

Search results for: criminal law

334 Web-Based Criminal Diary: Paperless Criminal Evidence for Federal Republic of Nigeria

Authors: Yekini Nureni Asafe, Haastrup Victor Adeleye, Ikotun Abiodun Motunrayo, Ojo Olanrewaju

Abstract:

Web Based Criminal Diary is a web based application whereby data of criminals been convicted by a judge in the court of law in Nigeria are shown to the entire public. Presently, criminal records are kept manually in Nigeria, which means when a person needs to be investigated to know if the person has a criminal record in the country, there is need to pass through different manual processes. With the use of manual record keeping, the criminal records can easily be manipulated by people in charge. The focus of this research work is to design a web-based application system for criminal record in Nigeria, towards elimination of challenges (such as loss of criminal records, in-efficiency in criminal record keeping, data manipulation, and other attendant problems of paper-based record keeping) which surrounds manual processing currently in use. The product of this research work will also help to minimize crime rate in our country since the opportunities and benefits lost as a result of a criminal record create will a lifelong barriers for anyone attempting to overcome a criminal past in our country.

Keywords: court of law, criminal, criminal diary, criminal evidence, Nigeria, web-based

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
333 The Notion of International Criminal Law: Between Criminal Aspects of International Law and International Aspects of Criminal Law

Authors: Magda Olesiuk-Okomska

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Although international criminal law has grown significantly in the last decades, it still remains fragmented and lacks doctrinal cohesiveness. Its concept is described in the doctrine as highly disputable. There is no concrete definition of the term. In the domestic doctrine, the problem of criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise within the national criminal law, is underdeveloped both theoretically and practically. To the best of author’s knowledge, there are no studies describing international aspects of criminal law in a comprehensive manner, taking a more expansive view of the subject. This paper presents results of a part of the doctoral research, undertaking a theoretical framework of the international criminal law. It aims at sorting out the existing terminology on international aspects of criminal law. It demonstrates differences between the notions of international criminal law, criminal law international and law international criminal. It confronts the notion of criminal law with related disciplines and shows their interplay. It specifies the scope of international criminal law. It diagnoses the current legal framework of international aspects of criminal law, referring to both criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise in the context of national criminal law. Finally, de lege lata postulates were formulated and direction of changes in international criminal law was proposed. The adopted research hypothesis assumed that the notion of international criminal law was inconsistent, not understood uniformly, and there was no conformity as to its place within the system of law, objective and subjective scopes, while the domestic doctrine did not correspond with international standards and differed from the worldwide doctrine. Implemented research methods included inter alia a dogmatic and legal method, an analytical method, a comparative method, as well as desk research.

Keywords: criminal law, international crimes, international criminal law, international law

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
332 Idea of International Criminal Justice in the Function of Prosecution International Crimes

Authors: Vanda Božić, Željko Nikač

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The wars and armed conflicts have often resulted in violations of international humanitarian law, and often commit the most serious international crimes such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, aggression and genocide. However, only in the XX century the rule was articulated idea of establishing a body of international criminal justice in order to prosecute these crimes and their perpetrators. The first steps in this field have been made by establishing the International military tribunals for war crimes at Nuremberg and Tokyo, and the formation of ad hoc tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. In the end, The International Criminal Court was established in Rome in 1998 with the aim of justice and in order to give satisfaction the victims of crimes and their families. The aim of the paper was to provide a historical and comparative analysis of the institutions of international criminal justice based on which these institutions de lege lata fulfilled the goals of individual criminal responsibility and justice. Furthermore, the authors suggest de lege ferenda that the Permanent International Criminal Tribunal, in addition to the prospective case, also takes over the current ICTY and ICTR cases.

Keywords: international crimes, international criminal justice, prosecution of crimes, ad hoc tribunal, the international criminal court

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
331 Formulation Policy of Criminal Sanction in Indonesian Criminal Justice System

Authors: Dini Dewi Heniarti

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This One of criminal sanctions that are often imposed by the judge is imprisonment. The issue on the imposition of imprisonment has been subject of contentious debate and criticism among various groups for a long time. In practice, the problematics of imprisonment lead to complicated problems. The impact of the reckless imposition of the imprisonment includes among others overcapacity of the correctional institution and increasing crimes within the correctional facilities. Therefore, there is a need for renewal of the existing condemnation paradigm, considering the developing phenomena associated with the penal imposition. Imprisonment as one element of the Indonesian penal system is an important and integral part of the other elements. The philosophy of the current penal system, which still refers to the Criminal Code, still carries the values of retaliation and fault-finding toward the offender. Therefore, it is important to reconstruct a new thought in order to realize a penal system that is represented in the formulation of a more humanistic criminal sanction

Keywords: criminal code, criminal sanction, Indonesian legal system, reconstruction of thought

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
330 The Lawfulness of the Determination of a Criminal Suspect as a New Pre-Trial's Object

Authors: Muhammad Tanziel Aziezi

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In Indonesia, pre-trial (in Indonesia called ‘praperadilan’) is a mechanism that is regulated on Criminal Procedure Code as a form of oversight and check and balance on the process at the stage of inquiry, investigation, and prosecution, so that actions taken by the State (in this case, the police and prosecutor) is carried out in accordance with its authority and not violate human rights. Article 77 of the Criminal Procedure Code has been set that the object may be filed pretrial is just about the lawfulness of the arrest, the lawfulness of the detention, and the legitimacy of stopping investigation and prosecution. However, since the beginning of 2015, there was a further object which is then entered as a pre-trial object, namely the lawfulness of the determination of a criminal suspect. This is because the determination of the suspect is considered as one of the forceful measures that could restrict the rights of a person, so the implementation should have oversight and checks and balances by the courts. This paper will discuss the development of the pre-trial on the lawfulness of the determination of a criminal suspect as a new judicial mechanism as the protection of human rights in Indonesia.

Keywords: criminal procedure law, pre-trial, lawfulness of determination of a criminal suspect, check and balance by the court

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329 Sexual and Gender Based Crimes in International Criminal Law: Moving Forwards or Backwards

Authors: Khadija Ali

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Prosecution of sexual violence in international criminal law requires not only an understanding of the mechanisms employed to prosecute sexual violence but also a critical analysis of the factors facilitating perpetuation of such crimes in armed conflicts. The extrapolations laid out in this essay delve into the jurisprudence of international criminal law pertaining to sexual and gender based violence followed by the core question of this essay: Has the entrenchment of sexual violence as international crimes in the Rome Statute been successful to address such violence in armed conflicts?

Keywords: conflict, gender, international criminal law, sexual violence

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328 Criminal Liability for Criminal Tax

Authors: Theresia Simatupang dan Rahmayanti

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Tax Law is a legal product and therefore should be subject to the legal norms, both about this actions, implementation, and about the material. Law has always aimed at providing justice, and besides that the law as a tool used to organize the order or rule of law. tax classification of a crime in this is very necessary, because the crime of taxation is very detrimental to the country and is still very high in society and socialization associated with punishment in sentencing that would have to provide a deterrent for the perpetrators, so refer to the this, these criminal offenses can endanger the stability of the nation's economy and the country that require special snacks. The application of legal sanctions against the perpetrators of the crime of taxation already has a strong legal basis, namely UU KUP. UU KUP have loaded threat (sanctions) severe punishment for tax payers who commit offenses and crimes in the field of taxation, which is contained in Article 38, and Article 39, Article 41, Article 41 A, and 41 B as well as Article 43 of Law and Law No. 12 KUP about 1985 Land Tax and Building. Criminal sanctions against violators of the tax provision are important because tax payers sanctions for violating tax laws.

Keywords: accountability, tax crime, criminal liability, taxation

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327 Social Media, Society, and Criminal Victimization: A Qualitative Study on University Students of Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Tawohidul Haque

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The main objective of this study is to explore the nature, types and, causes of the involvement of criminal activities of the university students using social media namely Social Networking Sites (SNS). The evidence shows that the students have greater chance to involve such criminal activities during sharing their personal messages, photos, and even sharing their academic works. Used qualitative case studies with six students from two universities, this study provides a detail information about the processes how this media provokes the students to commit to the criminal activities such as unethical pose, naked picture, post against persona’s prestige and dignity as well as social position, phone call at midnight, personal threats, sexual offer, kidnapping attitude, and so on. This finding would be an important guideline for the media persons, policy makers, restorative justice, and human rights workers.

Keywords: social media, criminal victimization, human gathering scheme, social code of ethics

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326 Criminalization of Wicked Statements with Legal Consequences in the Criminal Law of the Republic of Moldova

Authors: Andrei Nastas, Sergiu Cernomoreț

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The legislation of the Republic of Moldova, as in fact the legislation of any other state, during its entire history was known to the institution of legal and criminal protection of declarations producing legal consequences. The achievements of scientific and legislative concepts in this field cannot be underestimated or questioned. The evolution of criminal law and the establishment of the examined regulations are directly related to certain epochs of the evolution of the statehood of the Republic of Moldova, to the formation of the juridical-national culture, and to the legal system of the state. In the literature, most authors do not define statements in general but establish definitions for them depending on the procedural quality of the person making statements. Thus, in the literature, we will find more often the definitions given: the statements of the witness, the injured party, the suspect, the accused, the defendant, and less often a definition given to the statements to the general, as a means of proof. In addition, we can say that in our case, which is producing legal consequences, it can take different forms depending on the context and the legal framework in which it is made.

Keywords: statement, justice, legislation, criminal law, criminal liability

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325 Judicial Analysis of the Burden of Proof on the Perpetrator of Corruption Criminal Act

Authors: Rahmayanti, Theresia Simatupang, Ronald H. Sianturi

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Corruption criminal act develops rapidly since in the transition era there is weakness in law. Consequently, there is an opportunity for a few people to do fraud and illegal acts and to misuse their positions and formal functions in order to make them rich, and the criminal acts are done systematically and sophisticatedly. Some people believe that legal provisions which specifically regulate the corruption criminal act; namely, Law No. 31/1999 in conjunction with Law No. 20/2001 on the Eradication of Corruption Criminal Act are not effective any more, especially in onus probandi (the burden of proof) on corruptors. The research was a descriptive analysis, a research method which is used to obtain description on a certain situation or condition by explaining the data, and the conclusion is drawn through some analyses. The research used judicial normative approach since it used secondary data as the main data by conducting library research. The system of the burden of proof, which follows the principles of reversal of the burden of proof stipulated in Article 12B, paragraph 1 a and b, Article 37A, and Article 38B of Law No. 20/2001 on the Amendment of Law No. 31/1999, is used only as supporting evidence when the principal case is proved. Meanwhile, how to maximize the implementation of the burden of proof on the perpetrators of corruption criminal act in which the public prosecutor brings a corruption case to Court, depends upon the nature of the case and the type of indictment. The system of burden of proof can be used to eradicate corruption in the Court if some policies and general principles of justice such as independency, impartiality, and legal certainty, are applied.

Keywords: burden of proof, perpetrator, corruption criminal act

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324 Legalizing Prostitution: Providing Equality Amongst Men and Women in the Criminal Justice System through a Socialist Feminist Framework

Authors: Amanda Rebman

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This paper challenges the criminal justice system’s traditional stance regarding prostitution. Historically, the acceptance and morality of prostitution within the United States has fluctuated depending upon the social attitudes of the era. Today, prostitutes are allegedly viewed as victims; however, they are treated like criminals throughout the criminal justice system and society. Dominant patriarchal narratives within the United States has resulted in woman lacking autonomy over their bodies and diminished their ability to choose their own career. Even though prostitutes are deemed victims, many times, they are convicted of crimes, a practice that results in further victimization. Utilizing the socialist feminist theory to understand these juxtaposing positions on whether to legalize prostitution facilitates a greater understanding of how patriarchal capitalist arrangements ensure the oppression of women throughout the criminal justice system. The legalization of prostitution will alleviate some of this oppression and ensure a more equal treatment of women in the criminal justice system and society at large.

Keywords: equality, feminist theory, prostitution, sex work

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
323 The Withdrawal of African States from the International Criminal Court

Authors: Allwell Uwazuruike

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With the withdrawal, in 2016, of 3 African states from the ICC, the discourse took an interesting twist. African states, or at least some of them, had now shown their resolve to part ways with the ICC and, by implication, focus on further enthroning regional control and governance through an improved continental justice system. A range of views has been expressed over the years on the allegations of bias by some African states and the continued membership of the ICC. While there may be a split on the merits of the allegations of bias, academic analysts have generally not opposed African states’ membership of the ICC nor been particularly optimistic about the prospects of an African criminal court. There is also a degree of ambivalence on whether there are positives to be taken from African states’ withdrawal from the ICC. This article examines the recent developments with the ICC and analyses whether these could be viewed from the positive (or, at least, alternative) spectrum of the AU’s spirited march towards regional sovereignty or entirely negatively from the point of view of African Heads-of-State seeking to enthrone an era of authoritarianism and non-accountability.

Keywords: international criminal court, Africa, regionalism, criminal justice

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
322 Reduction of Process of Evidence in Specific Forms of Criminal Proceeding: Problems and Risks

Authors: Filip Ščerba, Veronika Pochylá

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Performing of the acts within criminal proceedings usually takes too long and thus this phenomenon can be regarded as one of the most burning problems which have plagued the criminal justice not only in the Czech Republic but at least all over Europe for the last few decades. This problem obviously has to be dealt with and thus the need to tackle this issue has resulted in the trend which is sometimes called Criminal Justice Rationalization, i.e. introducing and enforcing methods supporting the increase in efficiency of the criminal justice in order to make the criminal proceedings shorter and administrative procedure easier. This resulted in the introduction of institutes such as e.g. diversions in criminal proceedings or other forms of shortened pre-trial proceedings, which may be used primarily for dealing with less serious crimes. But also the institute, which was originally mentioned in connection with the system of criminal law in the countries belonging to the Anglo-Saxon legal order where it is frequently called of plea bargaining, has been introduced into the criminal law of many European countries, and it may be applied also in cases of serious crimes. All these special and shortened forms of criminal proceedings are connected with limited extent of process of evidence; in fact, some of these specific forms of criminal proceedings are designed for the purpose to simplify the process of evidence. That is also the reason, why some of these procedures are conditioned with the defendant’s confession. Main hypothesis: Limited process of evidence represents also a potential conflict with certain fundamental principles upon which the criminal proceeding in the Continental legal system is based. (A conflict with principle of material truth may be considered as the most important problem. This principle states that the bodies in criminal proceedings must clarify the facts of the case beyond reasonable doubt to such extent that a decision can be made; the defendant’s confession does not mean that these bodies are freed from the duty to review all the circumstances and facts of the case. Such principle is typical for criminal law in Central European region.) Basic methodologies: The paper is going to analyze such a problem of weakening of the principle of material truth in modern criminal law. Such analysis will be provided primarily on the base of the Czech criminal law, but also other legal regulations will be taken into consideration, and its result may have some relevance for all legal regulations belonging to the Continental legal system, so the paper offers also a comparison with legal systems of other Central European countries.

Keywords: burden of proof, central European countries, criminal justice rationalization, criminal proceeding, Czech legislation, Czech republic, defendant, diversions, evidence, fundamental principles, plea bargaining, pre-trial proceedings, principle of material truth, process of evidence, process of evidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
321 Criminal Law Instruments to Counter Corporate Crimes in Poland

Authors: Dorota Habrat

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In Polish law, the idea of the introduction of corporate responsibility for crimes is becoming more popular and creates a lot of questions. The need to introduce into the Polish legal system liability of corporate (collective entities) has resulted, among others, from the Polish Republic's international commitments, in particular related to membership in the European Union. The Act of 28 October 2002 on the liability of collective entities for acts prohibited under penalty is one of the example of adaptation of Polish law to Community law. Introduction to Polish law a criminal nature liability of corporations (legal persons) has resulted in a lot of controversy and lack of acceptance from both the scientific community as well as the judiciary. The responsibility of collective entities under the Act has a criminal nature. The main question concerns the ability of the collective entity to be brought to guilt under criminal law sense. Polish criminal law knows only the responsibility of individual persons. So far, guilt as a personal feature of action, based on the ability of the offender to feel in his psyche, could be considered only in relation to the individual person, while the said Act destroyed this conviction. Guilt of collective entity must be proven under at least one of the three possible forms: the guilt in the selection or supervision and so called organizational guilt. The next question is how the principle of proportionality in relation to criminal measures in response of collective entities should be considered. It should be remembered that the legal subjectivity of collective entities, including their rights and freedoms, is an emanation of the rights and freedoms of individual persons which create collective entities and through these entities implement their rights and freedoms. The adopted Act largely reflects the international legal regulations but also contains the unknown and original legislative solutions.

Keywords: criminal corporate responsibility, Polish criminal law, legislative solutions, Act of 28 October 2002

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320 Prison Reforms: An Overview of the Nigerian Prisons as a Key Component of an Efficient Criminal Justice Delivery System

Authors: Foluke Dada

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Prisons all over the world are set up by law to provide restraint and custody for individuals accused or convicted of crimes by the state. The Nigerian prison dates back to the colonial era and is modelled after the British system. It is a system that lays emphasis on punishment and deterrence. It emphasises retribution rather than reformation. These, it can be argued, results in the inhuman conditions of Nigerian prisons and the conscienceless treatment of convicts and awaiting trial inmates in Nigerian prisons. This paper attempts an examination of the challenges currently beguiling Nigerian prisons, the need for reforms in the prison systems and the imperative of these reforms to an efficient criminal justice delivery system in the country. This paper further postulates that rehabilitation should be favoured as against retribution f the development of the Nigerian criminal justice system in line with the shift towards reform.

Keywords: criminal justice, human rights, prison reforms, rehabilitation and retribution

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319 The Nature of Origin of New Criminal Occurrences in Gjakova Region: Cultural and Criminological “Intersection” in 1999-2009

Authors: Bekim Avdiaj

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The transition period of Kosovo society brought fundamental changes in all the spheres of organizing life. This was the period when also in the cultural tradition the biggest movement and an emerging from ‘isolation’ or from the ‘shell’ occurred. Transformation of the traditional and embracing of the modern began here. The same was experienced and is currently being experienced also by Gjakova and its surrounding which is historically renowned for its great tradition and culture. The population of this region is actually facing a transition from the traditional system into the modern one and quite often with huge leaps. These ‘movements’ or ‘evolutions’ of the society of this region, besides the numerous positive things it ‘harvested’, also brought things that do not at all correspond with their tradition as well as new criminal occurrences which in the past were not present in this area. Furthermore, some of the ‘new’ behaviours that are embraced from other ‘cultures’ and ‘civilizations’, and which are often exceeded, are quite perturbing. The security situation is also worrying, particularly following the appearance of some new criminal occurrences. Therefore, with this research paper we will strive to analyse the new cultural “intersections” as well as the nature of the origin of some new very worrying criminal occurrences. We will present there also some factors inciting into these occurrences, which were confessed by the persons involved in these criminal occurrences and who come from this very region.

Keywords: crime, occurrence, culture, Gjakova Region

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318 Making Good Samaritans: An Exploration of Criminal Liability for Failure to Rescue in England and Wales

Authors: Usmaan Siddiqui

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In England and Wales, there is no duty to rescue strangers. We will be investigating whether this is correct, and whether we should introduce a Good Samaritan law. In order to explore this, firstly, we will be exploring the nature of our moral duties. How far do our moral duties extend? Do they extend only to our family and friends, or do they also extend to strangers? Secondly, even if there does exist a moral duty, should this duty be enforced by criminal law? To what extent should the criminal law reflect morality? Under English criminal law, the consensus is, that it is not the job of the English criminal law to perfect human behaviour, and whilst the law should prevent us from causing harm, it should not force us to be good. This approach is radically different from many other European countries that actually do have a Good Samaritan law. If there are compelling in principle reasons to introduce a Good Samaritan law how would we deal with the pragmatic institutional constraints? Such a law has been stated as being unworkable in practice and difficult in defining its limits. In order to verify this, we shall carry out a comparative analysis between England and selected states in the US to gauge how successful the Good Samaritan law has been in dealing with these institutional constraints. In terms of methodology, as well as a comparative analysis, we shall also be carrying out a doctrinal analysis exploring what the English criminal law’s position is regarding Omissions. In conclusion, the findings so far are, whilst it is not the job of the law to perfect human behaviour, both respect for the law and the level of social co-operation will be greatly improved if the law encourages morally desirable conduct. Whilst it is possible for society to exist without a duty to assist the distressed, a society which ignores the vulnerable is cold, callous, and uncaring. After all, we all need to face up to the possibility that we may be one day be vulnerable and in need of urgent aid, and it is about time English criminal law, catches up with the majority of Europe and protects the vulnerable.

Keywords: criminal, law, omissions, philosophy

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
317 Jurisdictional Problem of International Criminal Court over National of Non-Parties: A Legal Analysis in the Light of Rome Statute

Authors: Nour Mohammad

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The concept of International Criminal Court is not a new idea.It goes back to the late 19th century and was first mooted in 1872 by Gustave Moynier of the International Commitee of the Red Cross(ICRC). This paper attempts to focus on jurisdictional problem of the international criminal court (ICC) over national of states of non parties to the Rome statute. Mor than 120 countries are state parties to the Rome Statute representing all regions, Afria, the Asia-pacofoc Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribben as well as Western Europe and North America.The Statute is the core document of internationa criminal law todaycontaining 128 Articles and divided in 13 parts.The Rome Statute provides that the court may sit elsewhere the judge consider it desirable.The International Criminal Court is not in a position to adjudicate all international crimes but its jurisdiction is limited to the four categories of crime viz. genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crime of aggression as stipulated in Article 5 of the ICC Statute. It also mention here that the Court will be able to exercise its jurisdiction over the crime of aggression only when this crime is defined. Due to the highly political nature of this crime, it is unlikely that a consensus in this regard would be arrived at in the near future.The main point of this article is to discuss the mandate of international criminal court to prosecute and punish persons responsible for the henious crimes of concern to the international community.The author highlighted the principles which support the delegation of criminal jurisdiction by state to international tribunals and discuss the precedents of such delegation.It also argued that the exercise of ICC jurisdiction over acts done pursuant to the officially policy of non-party state would not be contrary to the principles requiring consent for the exercise of jurisdiction by international tribunals. The article explore the limit to jurisdiction of ICC over non-party nationals.

Keywords: jurisdiction, international, criminal, court, non-parties

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316 Stereotypical Perception as an Influential Factor in the Judicial Decision Making Process for Shoplifting Cases Presided over in the UK

Authors: Mariam Shah

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Stereotypes are not generally considered to be an acceptable influence upon any decision making process, particularly those involving judicial decision making outcomes. Yet, we are confronted with an uncomfortable truth that stereotypes may be operating to influence judicial outcomes. Variances in sentencing outcomes are not easily explained away by criminological, psychological, or sociological theorem, but may be answered via qualitative research produced within the field of phenomenology. This paper will examine the current literature pertaining to the effect of stereotypes on the criminal justice system within the UK, and will also discuss what the implications are for stereotypical influences upon decision making in the criminal justice system. This paper will give particular focus to shoplifting offences dealt with in UK criminal courts, but this research has long reaching implications for the criminal process more generally.

Keywords: decision making, judicial decision making, phenomenology, shoplifting, stereotypes

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315 Criminal Responsibility of Minors in Russia: The Age of Liability and Penalties

Authors: Natalia Selezneva

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The level of crime depends on a number of factors, such as political and economic instability, social inequality and ineffective legislation. A special place in the overall level of crime takes juvenile delinquency. United Nations Standard Minimum developed rules for the administration of juvenile justice (The Beijing Rules), in order to ensure the rights of juvenile offenders under the various legal systems. Most countries support these recommendations, and Russia is no exception. Russia's criminal code establishes the minimum age of criminal liability; types of crimes for which the possible involvement of minors to justice; punishment; sentencing and execution of punishment for minors. However, these provisions cause heated debates in the scientific literature. The high level of juvenile crime indicates the ineffectiveness of legal regulation of criminal liability of minors. In order to ensure compliance with international standards require new and modern approaches to improve national legislation and practice of its application. Achieving this goal will be achieved through the following tasks: 1. Create sub-branches of law regulating the legal status of minors; 2. Improving the types of penalties; 3. The possibility of using alternative measures; 4. The introduction of the procedure of extrajudicial settlement of the conflict. The criminal law of each country depends on the historical, national and cultural characteristics. The development of the Russian legislation taking into account international experience is extremely essential and will be a new stage in the formation of a legal state, especially in the sphere of protection of the rights of juvenile offenders.

Keywords: criminal law, juvenile offender, punishment, the age of criminal responsibility

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314 Short-Term Incarceration in South Africa and the Shaping of Legal Consciousness

Authors: Thato Masiangoako

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While being home to one of the greatest constitutions in the world, South Africa is also notorious for brutal policing practices, endemic corruption, and an overstrained criminal justice system. This apparent gap between the normative conceptions of the law and the actual experiences of being subjected to the criminal justice system forms the crux of this study. This study explores how community activists, student activists, and migrants in Johannesburg, who rely on the law for protection and effective political expression and participation and understand the law through their experiences of arrest and short-term incarceration. This work introduces the concept of legal consciousness to the South African context, whilst also drawing very heavily from South African literature of the law and criminal justice system. This research is grounded in the experiences of arrest and pre-trial and immigration detention shared by these individuals, which are used to develop a rich account of legal consciousness in South Africa. It also sheds light on some of the ways in which the criminal justice system sustains its legitimacy within a post-apartheid framework despite the gaps between what the law ought to be and it actually is. The study argues that the ways in which these groups make sense of their experiences of the criminal justice system and the law, more broadly, are closely bound to their socio-political identities. This calls the core values of equality and dignity that undergird South Africa’s Constitution into question.

Keywords: criminal justice, immigrant detention, legal consciousness, remand detention

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313 The Active Subject and the Victim of Trafficking in Human Beings: Material and Procedural Criminal Law Approaches

Authors: Andrei Nastas, Sergiu Cernomopret

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This research addresses trafficking in human beings, in terms of the active subject and the victim of this crime, through the prism of national and international regulations in material and procedural criminal matters. For the correlative approach of both mentioned aspects, the active subject and the victim of trafficking in human beings, the research addresses both its constituent elements and the way to prevent and combat this phenomenon through criminal proceedings. As follows, trafficking in human beings, from a material criminal point of view, involves two subjects of this crime (active subject - offender and passive subject - victim), while their procedural status differs depending on the case (victim or injured party). The result of the research highlights some clarifications, which find a theoretical-practical basis in the legal provisions, the specialized doctrine, and the judicial practice.

Keywords: victim, active subject, abuse, injured party, crime

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312 'Spare the Rod and Spoil the Child': The Criminal Career of an Armed Robber

Authors: Mahlogonolo Stephina Thobane

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The aim of the study upon which this article is based was “to evaluate the possibility of using criminal career research in the development and evaluation of crime control strategies, particularly for armed robberies.” The research employed a concurrent triangulation mixed-method approach where quantitative and qualitative data were collected concurrently but analysed separately through the use of SPSS and Atlas.ti respectively. Forty offenders incarcerated at six correctional centres around the Gauteng province of South Africa for robbery with aggravating circumstances were interviewed as research participants. Since the researcher had no prior information on the total number of the population, purposive sampling (i.e. snowballing) was executed to draw the sample. This research found that offenders launched their criminal career at a very young age of, 11 years, by committing petty crimes such as theft and then, as they grew older, they progressed to more serious and violent crimes such as vehicle hijacking and Cash-in-Transit (CIT) robberies. Thus, it is pivotal that those responsible for developing crime prevention policies focus on interrupting the root causes of crime in the early stages of one’s life in order to prevent continuation of delinquent behaviour from childhood to adolescence and adulthood.

Keywords: criminal career, robbery with aggravating circumstances, cash-in-transit robbery, criminal career research

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311 On the Alternative Sanctions to Capital Punishment in China

Authors: Huang Gui

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There can be little doubt that our world is inexorably moving towards being execution-free. However, China is still on the way until now, in other words, China is still a retentionist state in the term of capital punishment but it is developing domestic criminal law toward that goal (eventual abolition of the capital punishment). The alternative sanction to capital punishment, which would be imposed on a criminal who should have been sentenced to death by law, is a substitute for execution and it should be provided with the basis of the present criminal punishment structure and with the premise of abolishing capital punishment or limiting its use. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to explore a substitute for capital punishment in China. For the criminal sanction system in China, the death penalty with suspension, naturally, is an execution, so it wouldn’t be the substitute; life sentences without parole is out of the tune with punishment policy that promoting correction and rehabilitation; life-imprisonment, which is one of the most severe punishment measure in the sanction system, should be a suitable substitute for executing but it needs to be improved, including the term of imprisonment, the commutation and parole conditions.

Keywords: alternative sanctions, capital punishment, life imprisonment, life imprisonment without parole, China

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310 An International Comparison of Forensic Identification Evidence Legislation: Balancing Community Interests and Individual Rights

Authors: Marcus Smith

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DNA profiling has made a valuable contribution to criminal investigations over the past thirty years. Direct matching DNA profiles from a crime scene and suspect, or between a suspect and a database remain of great importance to crimes such as murder, assault, and property theft. As scientific and technological advancement continues, a wide range of new DNA profiling applications has been developed. The application of new techniques involves an interesting balancing act between admitting probative evidence in a criminal trial, evaluating its degree of relevance and validity, and limiting its prejudicial impact. The impact of new DNA profiling applications that have significant implications for law enforcement and the legal system can be evaluated through a review of relevant case law, legislation and the latest empirical evidence from jurisdictions around the world including the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia. There are benefits in further examining the implications of these new developments, including how the criminal law can best be adapted to ensure that new technology is used to enhance criminal investigation and prosecution while ensuring it is applied in a measured way that respects individual rights and maintains principles of fairness enshrined in the legal system.

Keywords: criminal procedure, forensic evidence, DNA profiling, familial searching, phenotyping

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309 The Situation in Afghanistan as a Step Forward in Putting an End to Impunity

Authors: Jelena Radmanovic

Abstract:

On 5 March 2020, the International Criminal Court has decided to authorize the investigation into the crimes allegedly committed on the territory of Afghanistan after 1 May 2003. The said determination has raised several controversies, including the recently imposed sanctions by the United States, furthering the United States' long-standing rejection of the authority of the International Criminal Court. The purpose of this research is to address the said investigation in light of its importance for the prevention of impunity in the cases where the perpetrators are nationals of Non-Party States to the Rome Statute. Difficulties that the International Criminal Court has been facing, concerning the establishment of its jurisdiction in those instances where an involved state is not a Party to the Rome Statute, have become the most significant stumbling block undermining the importance, integrity, and influence of the Court. The Situation in Afghanistan raises even further concern, bearing in mind that the Prosecutor’s Request for authorization of an investigation pursuant to article 15 from 20 November 2017 has initially been rejected with the ‘interests of justice’ as an applied rationale. The first method used for the present research is the description of the actual events regarding the aforementioned decisions and the following reactions in the international community, while with the second method – the method of conceptual analysis, the research will address the decisions pertaining to the International Criminal Court’s jurisdiction and will attempt to address the mentioned Decision of 5 March 2020 as an example of good practice and a precedent that should be followed in all similar situations. The research will attempt parsing the reasons used by the International Criminal Court, giving rather greater attention to the latter decision that has authorized the investigation and the points raised by the officials of the United States. It is a find of this research that the International Criminal Court, together with other similar judicial instances (Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals, The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda), has presented the world with the possibility of non-impunity, attempting to prosecute those responsible for the gravest of crimes known to the humanity and has shown that such persons should not enjoy the benefits of their immunities, with its focus primarily on the victims of such crimes. Whilst it is an issue that will most certainly be addressed further in the future, with the situations that will be brought before the International Criminal Court, the present research will make an attempt at pointing to the significance of the situation in Afghanistan, the International Criminal Court as such and the international criminal justice as a whole, for the purpose of putting an end to impunity.

Keywords: Afghanistan, impunity, international criminal court, sanctions, United States

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308 The Genetic Basis of the Lack of Impulse Control: What is Provided for the Criminal Law?

Authors: Amir Bastani

Abstract:

The result of the research in the field of human behavioural genetics demonstrates a genetic contribution of behavioural differences in aggression, violence, drug and substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder and other related traits. As the field of human behavioural genetics progresses and achieves credibility, the criminal accused continue to use its types of evidence into the criminal law. One of the most important genetic factors which controls certain neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin is the Monoamine Oxidase Acid A (MAOA) gene, known as the 'warrior gene'. The high-profile study by Caspi and colleagues in 2002 showed that the combination between one type of variation of the MAOA gene and childhood maltreatment noticeably predisposes a person to antisocial behaviour. Moreover, further scientific research shows that individuals with the MAOA gene have to some degree difficulties in controlling their impulses. Based on the evidence of MAOA, some criminal accused claimed difficulties in self-control. In the first case – the famous case of Mobley – the court rejected the MAOA evidence on the ground of the lack of scientific support. In contrast, in other cases after the Mobley trial, courts accepted the evidence of MAOA. In this paper, the issue of lack of impulse control produced by the MAOA gene and cases which relied on the MAOA evidence and successfully being accepted will be reviewed in detail. Finally, the anticipation of the paper for the future use of the MAOA evidence in criminal cases will be presented.

Keywords: genetic defence, criminal responsibility, MAOA, self-control

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307 The Victim as a Public Actor: Understanding the Victim’s Role as an Agent of Accountability

Authors: Marie Manikis

Abstract:

This paper argues that the scholarship to date on victims in the criminal process has mainly adopted a private conception of victims –as bearers of individual interests, rights, and remedies– rather than a conception of the victim as an actor with public functions and interests, who has historically and continuously taken on an active role in the common law tradition. This conception enables a greater understanding of the various developments around victim participation in common law criminal justice systems and provides a useful analytical tool to understand the different roles of victims in England and Wales and the United States. Indeed, the main focus on individual rights and the conception of the victim as a private entity undermines the distinctive and increasing role victims play in the wider criminal justice process as agents of accountability through administrative-based processes within and outside courts, including private prosecutions, internal review processes within prosecutorial agencies, judicial review, and ombudsmen processes.

Keywords: victims, participation, criminal justice, accountability

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306 The Islamic Administrative Morals among Criminal Investigators in the Investigation and Prosecution Bureau in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Practical Study on the Investigation and Prosecution Bureau in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Majed Aldusaimani

Abstract:

Introduction: The researcher aims to verify the extent of the criminal investigator's commitment to the Islamic morals set out in the Holy Quran, their application in his work, and to understand the point of view of police officers, clerks and suspects regarding the investigator's commitment to moral and ethics in practice. Research question: Are the criminal investigators at the Bureau of Investigation and Public Prosecution in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia committed to the application of the practical morals set out in the Holy Quran in the view of the police officers, clerks and suspects with whom they work? Objectives of the study: 1. Identifying the standing of morality in Islam. 2. Identifying the practical morals outlined in the Holy Quran. 3. Identifying the most important practical morals in the Holy Quran that must be met by the criminal investigator from the viewpoint of the investigator himself. 4. Identifying the criminal investigator's commitment to the practical morals set out in the Holy Quran as perceived from the perspectives of police officers, clerks and suspects. Methodology: This study will use a descriptive methodology through quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data from respondents, who will be asked to answer questions about the extent of the commitment to the practical morals set out in the Holy Quran of the criminal investigators at the Bureau of Investigation and Public Prosecution that they have encountered.

Keywords: Islamic, investigator, Morals, Quran

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305 An Assessment of the Risk and Protective Factors Impacting Criminal Gang Involvement among At-Risk Boys Resident at a Juvenile Home in Trinidad and Tobago: The Peer/Individual Domain of the Risk Factor Prevention ParadIGM

Authors: Dianne Williams

Abstract:

This study examined the peer/individual domain of the Risk Factor Prevention Paradigm (RFPP) to assess the risk and protective factors that impact criminal gang involvement among at-risk males residing in a juvenile home in Trinidad and Tobago. The RFPP allows for the identification of both risk and protective factors in a single, holistic framework to identify the relationship between risk factors, protective factors, and criminal gang involvement among at-risk male adolescents. Findings showed that having anti-social peers was the most significant risk factor associated with criminal gang involvement, while the most significant protective factor was having a positive social attitude. Moreover, while 65% of the boys reported never having been in a gang, 70% reported having hit, struck or used a weapon against someone, while 52% reported being involved in other violent incidents on more than two occasions. This suggests that while involvement with criminal gangs may not be common among this population, predisposing behavioral patterns are present. Results are expected to assist in the development of targeted strategies to reduce the attractiveness of gang membership.

Keywords: risk factor prevention paradigm, risk factors, protective factors, peer/individual domain, gang involvement, at-risk youth, trinidad and tobago, juvenile home

Procedia PDF Downloads 501