Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 556

Search results for: lipid peroxidation

556 Papaya Leaf in Broiler Chicken Feed Reducing Lipid Peroxidation of Meat

Authors: M. Ebrahimi, E. Maroufyan, M. Shakeri, E. Oskoueian, A. F Soleimani, Y. M. Goh

Abstract:

Lipid peroxidation is a main reason of low quality in meat and meat products. The free radical chain reaction is the major process of lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radical and hydroperoxyl radical are the main starter of the chain reaction. Papaya leaf contains several secondary metabolites which can be used as a potential antioxidant in broiler feed. Hence, this research was carried out to evaluate the potential of papaya leaf to prevent lipid peroxidation and enhance the antioxidant activity of breast meat of broiler chicken. The results showed that supplementation of papaya leaf at 5%, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the lipid peroxidation compared to control group. The supplementation of papaya leaf prevented from lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the broiler breast meat significantly (p < 0.05) after different storage periods. Papaya leaf reduced the lipid oxidation of meat during storage with strong free radical-scavenging ability. In conclusion, supplementation of papaya leaf in broiler diet to have high quality meat is recommended.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, papaya leaf, breast meat, lipid peroxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
555 Glycine Betaine Affects Antioxidant Response and Lipid Peroxidation in Wheat Genotypes under Water-Deficit Conditions

Authors: S. K. Thind, Neha Gupta

Abstract:

Glycine betaine (N, N’, N’’– trimethyl glycine), (GB) as aqueous solution (100 mM) containing 0.1% TWEEN-20 (Ploythylene glycol sorbitan monolaurate) was sprayed on selected nineteen wheat genotypes at maximum tillering and anthesis stages. Water-deficit conditions resulted in lipid peroxidation. GB applications reduced lipid peroxidation in all wheat genotypes at both the stages. Catalase (CAT) activity was recorded more in control than under stressed conditions in selected wheat genotypes at both the stages; GB had no effect. The ascorbic acid content in leaves of selected genotypes increased under water deficit. A genotypic variability in Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) activity was recorded and GB treatment decreased it. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased significantly under water-deficit at both stages in all genotypes. In present study, prolonged water-deficit conditions caused CAT deficiency/suppression which was compensated by APX and SOD; and GB exogenous application mitigated negative effect of water-deficit stress on lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: glycine-betaine, lipid peroxidation, ROS, water deficit stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
554 Clove Essential Oil Improves Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Activity in Tilapia Fish Fillet Cooked by Grilling and Microwaving

Authors: E. Oskoueian, E. Maroufyan, Y. M. Goh, E. Ramezani-Fard, M. Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The fish meat plays an important role in the human health as it contains high quality protein. The tilapia fish considered as the third largest group of farmed fish. The oxidative deterioration of fish meat may occur during the cooking process. The proper cooking process and using natural antioxidant to prevent oxidation and enhance the quality of the tilapia fish fillet is necessary. Hence, this research was carried out to evaluate the potential of clove essential oil to prevent lipid peroxidation and enhance the antioxidant activity of tilapia fish fillet cooked using microwave and griller. The results showed that cooking using microwave significantly (p < 0.05) increased the lipid peroxidation and decreased the DPPH and ferric reducing activity power of the fish fillet as compared to grilling. The fortification of fish fillet using clove essential oil prevented from lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the fish fillet significantly (p < 0.05). Consequently, fortification of tilapia fish fillet using clove essential oil followed by cooking using griller to have high quality cooked fish meat is recommended.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, fillet, fish, fortification, lipid peroxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
553 Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum Leaves Inhibits Fe2+ and Sodium Nitroprusside Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Liver

Authors: Oluwafemi Ojo, Omotade Oloyede

Abstract:

This study seeks to investigate the antioxidative properties and the ability of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from Ocimum gratissimum (OG) leaves to inhibit some pro-oxidants (Fe2+ and sodium nitroprusside) induced lipid peroxidation in rat’s liver homogenates in vitro. The ability of the extracts to inhibit 25 µM FeSO4 and 7.0 µM sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in isolated rat’s liver was determined. The results of the study revealed that both pro-oxidants caused a significantly decrease in (p < 0.05) accumulation of lipid peroxides. However, aqueous extract of OG shows a high ability to inhibit lipid production in the liver induced with SNP than Fe2+. Ethanolic and ethyl acetate extract of OG which shows a high ability to inhibit lipid production more when induced with Fe2+ than SNP. However, ethyl acetate fraction of OG shows a higher inhibitory effect on both Fe2+ and SNP induced lipid peroxidation in rat’s liver. This applies to its significantly higher extractable phytochemicals. Therefore, Fe II and sodium nitroprusside induced oxidative stress could be managed by dietary intake of Ocimum gratissimum leaves.

Keywords: antioxidative, pro-oxidants, lipid peroxidation, Ocimum gratissimum

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
552 Blood Lipid Profile and Liver Lipid Peroxidation in Normal Rat Fed with Different Concentrations of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal

Authors: Eqbal M. A. Dauqan, A. Aminah

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the blood lipid profile and liver lipid peroxidation in normal rat fed with different concentrations of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal. Thirty six Sprague Dawley male rats each weighing between 180-200g were randomly divided into two groups. Each group contains eighteen rats and were divided into three groups of 6 rats per group. The rats were fed ad libitum with commercial rat’s feed and tap water containing different concentrations of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal (3% and 6%) for 4 weeks. The results at 4 weeks showed that there was no significant difference (p≤0.05) in the total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) between the control group and treated groups while the results for the high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) showed a significant decrease (P≥0.05) at the 3% and 6% of gum arabic treated groups compared to control group. There was a significant increase (P≥0.05) in low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) with 3% and 6% of gum Arabic (GA) groups compared to the control group. The study indicated that there was no significant (p≤0.05) effect on TC and TG but there was significant effect (P≥0.05) on HDL-C and LDL-C in blood lipid profile of normal rat. The results showed that after 4 weeks of treatment the malondialdehyde (MDA) value in rat fed with 6% of A. seyal group was significantly higher (P≥0.05) than control or other treated groups of A. seyal and A. senegal studied. Thus, the two species of gum arabic did not have beneficial effect on blood lipid profile and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: Acacia senegal, acacia seyal, lipid profile, lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
551 The Investigation of Endogenous Intoxication and Lipid Peroxidation in Patients with Giardiasis Before and After Treatment

Authors: R. H. Begaydarova, B. Zh. Kultanov, B. T. Esilbaeva, G. E. Nasakaeva, Y. Yukhnevich, G. K. Alshynbekova, A. E. Dyusembaeva

Abstract:

Background: The level of middle molecules of peptides (MMP) allows to evaluate the severity and prognosis of the disease and is a criterion for the effectiveness of the treatment. The detection the products of lipidperoxidation cascade, such as conjugated dienes, malondialdehyde in biological material, has an important role in the development of pathogenesis, the diagnosis and prognosis in different parasitic diseases. Purpose of the study was to evaluate the state of endogenous intoxication and indicators of lipid peroxidation in patients with giardiasis before and after treatment. Materials and methods: Endogenous intoxication was evaluated in patients with giardiasis in the level of middle molecules of peptides (MMP) in the blood. The amount of MMP and products of lipid peroxidation were determined in the blood of 198 patients with giardiasis, 129 of them were women (65%), 69 were men (35%). The MMP level was detected for comparison in the blood of 84 healthy volunteers. The lipid peroxidation were determined in 40 healthy men and women without giardiasis and history of chronic diseases. Data were processed by conventional methods of variation statistics, we calculated the arithmetic mean (M) and standard dispersion (m). t-test (t) was used to assess differences. Results: The level of MMP in the blood was significantly higher in patients with giardiasis in comparison with group of healthy men and women. MMP concentration in the blood of women with Giardia was 2.5 times greater than that of the comparison groups of women. The level of MMP exceeds more than 6 times in men with giardiasis. The decrease in the intensity of endogenous intoxication was two weeks after antigiardia therapy, both men and women. According to the study, a statistically significant increase in the level of all the studied parameters lipid peroxidation cascade was observed in the blood of men with giardiasis, with the exception of the total primary production (NGN). The treatment of giardiasis helped to stabilize the level of almost all metabolites of lipid peroxidation cascade. The exception was level of malondialdehyde, it was significantly elevated to compare with the control group and after treatment. Conclusion: Thus, the MMP level was significantly higher in blood of patients with giardiasis than in comparison group. This is evidence of severe endogenous intoxication caused by giardia infection. The accumulation of primary and secondary products of lipid peroxidation was observed in the blood of men and women. These processes tend to be more active in men than in women. Antigiardiasis therapy contributed to the normalization of almost all the studied indicators of lipid peroxidation in the blood of participants, except the level malondialdehyde in the blood of men.

Keywords: enzymes of antioxidant protection, giardiasis, blood, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
550 Antimicrobial Properties of Copper in Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

Authors: Travis J. Meyer, Jasodra Ramlall, Phyo Thu, Nidhi Gadura

Abstract:

For centuries humans have used the antimicrobial properties of copper to their advantage. Yet, after all these years the underlying mechanisms of copper mediated cell death in various microbes remain unclear. We had explored the hypothesis that copper mediated increased levels of lipid peroxidation in the membrane fatty acids is responsible for increased killing inEscherichia coli. In this study we show that in both gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria there is a strong correlation between copper mediated cell death and increased levels of lipid peroxidation. Interestingly, the non-spore forming gram positive bacteria as well as gram negative bacteria show similar patterns of cell death, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as genomic DNA degradation, however there is some difference inloss in membrane integrity upon exposure to copper alloy surface.

Keywords: antimicrobial, copper, gram positive, gram negative

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
549 Effects of SNP in Semen Diluents on Motility, Viability and Lipid Peroxidation of Sperm of Bulls

Authors: Hamid Reza Khodaei, Behnaz Mahdavi, Alireza Banitaba

Abstract:

Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in all sexual activities of animals. It is made in body from NO syntheses enzyme and L-arginin molecule. NO can make band with sulfur-iron complexes and due to production of steroid sexual hormones related to enzymes which have this complex, NO can change the activity of these enzymes. NO affects many cells including endothelial cells of veins, macrophages and mast cells. These cells are found in testis leydig cells and therefore are important source of NO in testis tissue. Minimizing damages to sperm at the time of sperm freezing and thawing is really important. The goal of this study was to determine the function of NO before freezing and its effects on quality and viability of sperms after thawing and incubation. 4 Holstein bulls were selected from the age of 4, and artificial insemination was done for 3 weeks (2 times a week). Treatments were 0, 10, 50 and 100 nm of sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Data analysis was performed by SAS98 program. Also, mean comparison was done using Duncan's multiple ranges test (P<0.05). Concentrations used were found to increase motility and viability of spermatozoa at 1, 2 and 3 hours after thawing significantly (P<0.05) but there was no significant difference at zero time. SNP levels reduced the amount of lipid peroxidation in sperm membrane, increased acrosome health and improved samples membranes especially in 50 and 100 nm treatments. According to results, adding SNP to semen diluents increases motility and viability of spermatozoa. Also, it reduces lipid peroxidation in sperm membrane and improves sperm function.

Keywords: sperm motility, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, spermatozoa

Procedia PDF Downloads 540
548 Effects of Adding Sodium Nitroprusside in Semen Diluents on Motility, Viability and Lipid Peroxidation of Sperm of Holstein Bulls

Authors: Leila Karshenas, Hamid Reza Khodaei, Behnaz Mahdavi

Abstract:

We know that nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in all sexual activities of animals. It is made in body from NO synthase enzyme and L-arginin molecule. NO can bound with sulfur-iron complexes and because production of steroid sexual hormones is related to enzymes which have this complex, NO can change the activity of these enzymes. NO affects many cells including endothelial cells of veins, macrophages and mast cells. These cells are found in testis leydig cells and therefore are important source of NO in testis tissue. Minimizing damages to sperm at the time of sperm freezing and thawing is really important. The goal of this study was to determine the function of NO before freezing and its effects on quality and viability of sperms after thawing and incubation. 4 Holstein bulls were selected from the age of 4, and artificial insemination was done for 3 weeks (2 times a week). Treatments were 0, 10, 50 and 100 nm of sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Data analysis was performed by SAS98 program. Also, mean comparison was done using Duncan's multiple ranges test (P<0.05). Concentrations used was found to increase motility and viability of spermatozoa at 1, 2 and 3 hours after thawing significantly (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference at zero time. SNP levels reduced the amount of lipid peroxidation in sperm membrane, increased acrosome health and improved sample membranes especially in 50 and 100 nm treatments. According to results, adding SNP to semen diluents increases motility and viability of spermatozoa. Also, it reduces lipid peroxidation in sperm membrane and improves sperm function.

Keywords: sperm motility, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, spermatozoa

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
547 Protective Effects of Ethanolic Purslane Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Osama M. Ahmed, Walaa G. Hozayen, Haidy Tamer Abo Sree

Abstract:

The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w.week) without or with oral administration of ethanolic purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot (leaves and stems) extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) or ethanolic purslane seeds extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. There was an increase in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and total bilirubin. In addition, hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, CAT activities were decreased while lipid peroxidation in the liver was increased. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts successfully improved the adverse changes in the liver functions with an increase in antioxidants activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: antioxidants, doxorubicin, hepatotoxicity, purslane

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
546 Effect of Hormones Priming on Enzyme Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Wheat Seed under Accelerated Aging

Authors: Amin Abbasi, Fariborz Shekari, Seyed Bahman Mousavi

Abstract:

Seed aging during storage is a complex biochemical and physiological processes that can lead to reduce seed germination. This phenomenon associated with increasing of total antioxidant activity during aging. To study the effects of hormones on seed aging, aged wheat seeds (control, 90 and 80% viabilities) were treated with GA3, Salicylic Acid, and paclobutrazol and antioxidant system were investigated as molecular biomarkers for seed vigor. The results showed that, seed priming treatment significantly affected germination percentage, normality seedling percentage, H2O2, MDA, CAT, APX, and GPX activates. Maximum germination percentage achieve in GA3 priming in control treatment. Germination percentage and normal seedling percentage increased in other GA3 priming treatment compared with other hormones. Also aging increased MDA, H2O2 content. MDA is considered sensitive marker commonly used for assessing membrane lipid peroxidation and H2O2result in toxicity to cellular membrane system and damages to plant cells. Amount of H2O2 and MDA declined in GA3 treatment. CAT, GPX and APX activities were reduced by increasing the aging time and at different levels of priming. The highest APX activity was observed in Salicylic Acid control treatment and the highest GPX and CAT activity was obtained in GA3 control treatment. The lowest MDA and H2O2 showed in GA3 control treatment, too. Hormone priming increased Antioxidant enzyme activity and decreased amount of reactive oxygen space and malondialdehyde (MDA) under aging treatment. Also, GA3 priming treatments have a significant effect on germination percentage and number of normal seedling. Generally aging seed, increase ROS and lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant enzymes activity of aged seeds increased after hormone priming.

Keywords: hormones priming, wheat, aging seed, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
545 Effects of Ethanolic Purslane Shoot and Seed Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Osama M. Ahmed, Walaa G. Hozayen, Haidy Tamer Abo Sree

Abstract:

Doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antibiotic is a broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent, which is commonly used in the treatment of uterine, ovarian, breast and lung cancers, Hodgkin's disease and soft tissue sarcomas as well as in several other cancer types. The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w.week) without or with oral administration of ethanolic purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot (leaves and stems) extract (50 mg/kg b.w. day) or ethanolic purslane seeds extract (50 mg/kg b.w.day) co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. Serum ALT, AST, ALP, GGT, total bilirubin, total protein, and albumin levels were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (indexed by MDA) and antioxidants like hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, and CAT were assessed. There was an increase in serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and total bilirubin. In addition, hepatic glutathine, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD, and CAT activities were decreased while lipid peroxidation in the liver was increased. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts successfully improved the adverse changes in the liver functions with an increase in antioxidants activities and reduction of lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, it can be supposed that dietary purslane extract supplementation may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against DOX hepatopathy without harmful side effects. However, further clinical studies are required to assess the safety and efficacy of these extract in human beings.

Keywords: doxorubicin, purslane, hepatotoxicity, antioxidants

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
544 Preventive Effect of Zinc on Nickel Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Albino (Wistar) Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid, Samira Bouhalit

Abstract:

Aim: We studied the effect of intraperitonial zinc treatment on nickel sulphate-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Wistar strain male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver and kidney dysfunction parameters represented by aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood glucose, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine, and serum belurebin were estimated. Liver glutathione level, catalase and GPx activities were also determined in liver as indicators of oxidative damage. Result: Nickel treatment led to high serum glucose concentration and produced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity characterized by increasing GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase activities, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine and serum belurebin concentrations. In addition, liver glutathione level, catalase and GSH-Px activities diminished due to high lipid peroxidation. The simultaneous administration of zinc with nickel sulphate resulted in a remarkable improvement of the previous parameters compared with rats treated with nickel alone. Conclusion: In conclusion, nickel sulphate led to liver and kidney dysfunctions and hepatic lipid peroxidation in animals, but simultaneous treatment with zinc offers a relative protection against nickel induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: nickel, zinc, rats, GOT, GPT, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
543 Antioxidant and Anti-Lipid Peroxidation Activities of Some Thai Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

Authors: Wararut Buncharoen, Kanokporn Saenphet, Supap Saenphet

Abstract:

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a reproductive problem, affecting elderly men worldwide. Several factors particularly free radical reaction and oxidative damage have been contributed to be key factors leading to the development of BPH. A number of medicinal plants with high antioxidant properties are extensively constituted in Thai herbal pharmacopoeia for treating BPH. These plants may prevent or delay the progression of BPH through an antioxidant mechanism. Thus, this study was to prove the antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation potential of medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of BPH such as Artabotrys harmandii Finet & Gagnep. Miq., Uvaria rufa Blume, Anomianthus dulcis (Dunal) J. Sinclair and Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Antioxidant parameters including free radical (2, 2-azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and superoxide) scavenging, ferric reducing power and anti-lipid peroxidation activity were determined in different crude extracts from the stem of these four plants. Total phenolic and ascorbic contents were also investigated. The highest total phenolic content was shown in ethyl acetate crude extract of A. dulcis (510 ± 26.927 µg GAE/g extract) while the highest ascorbic content was found in ethanolic extract of U. rufa (234.727 ± 30.356 µg AAE/g extract). The strongest scavenging activity of ABTS•+ and DPPH• was found in ethyl acetate extract of C. sappan with the IC50 values of 0.469 and 0.255 mg/ml, respectively. The petroleum ether extracts of C. sappan and U. rufa at concentration of 1 mg/ml exhibited high scavenging activity toward superoxide radicals with the inhibition of 37.264 ± 8.672 and 34.434 ± 6.377 %, respectively. Ethyl acetate crude extract of C. sappan displayed the greatest reducing power. The IC50 value of water extract of A. dulcis was 1.326 mg/ml which indicated the strongest activity in the inhibition of lipid-peroxidation among all plant extracts whereas the IC50 value of the standard, butyl hydroxyl toluene was 1.472 µg/ml. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that the stem of A. dulcis, U. rufa and C. sappan are the potential natural antioxidants and could have an importance as therapeutic agents in the preventing free radicals and oxidative damage related diseases including BPH.

Keywords: anti-lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, benign prostatic hyperplasia, Thai medicinal plants

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
542 Effects of Purslane Shoot and Seed Ethanolic Extracts on Doxorubicin-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Walaa G. Hozayen, Osama M. Ahmed, Haidy T. Abo Sree

Abstract:

The clinical usefulness of anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic, doxorubicin (DOX) is restricted since it has several acute and chronic side effects. The effect of doxorubicin (4 mg/kg b.w/week) without or with oral administration of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) shoot ethanolic extract (50mg/kg b.w./day) and purslane seed ethanolic extract (50mg/kg b.w./day) co-treatments for 6 weeks was evaluated in adult male rats. Serum testosterone luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level were assayed. Testis lipid peroxidation (indexed by MDA) and antioxidants like glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) levels in testis were assessed. The data revealed a significant decrease in serum levels concentration of testosterone, LH and FSH levels in doxorubicin-injected rats. In addition, testis glutathione, glutathione transferase, peroxidase, SOD and CAT levels were decreased while lipid peroxidation concentration in the testis was increased as a result of doxorubicin injection. Co-administration of ethanolic purslane and seed extracts potentially improved the adverse changes in serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels with an increase in testis antioxidants levels and reduction in lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, it can be suggested that dietary purslane extract supplementation may provide a cushion for a prolonged therapeutic option against DOX testicular toxicity without harmful side effects.

Keywords: doxorubicin, purslane, testis function, antioxidants

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
541 Antioxidant Responses and Malondialdehyde Levels in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Eleyele River in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwatosin Adetola Arojojoye, Olajumoke Olufunlayo Alao, Philip Odigili

Abstract:

This study investigated the extent of pollution in Eleyele River in Oyo State, Nigeria by investigating the antioxidant status and malondialdehyde levels (index of lipid peroxidation) in the organs of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus from the river. Clarias gariepinus weighing between 250g-400g were collected from Eleyele River (a suspected polluted river) and Clarias gariepinus from a clean fish farm (Durantee fisheries) were used as the control. Levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione concentration (GSH) and activities of antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were evaluated in the post-mitochondrial fractions of the liver, kidney and gills of the fishes. From the results, there were increases in malondialdehyde level and GSH concentration in the liver, kidney and gills of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control. Glutathione-S-transferase activity was induced in the liver and kidney of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control. However, the activity of this enzyme was depleted in the gills of fishes from Eleyele River compared with control. Also there was an induction in SOD activity in the liver of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control but there was a decrease in the activity of this enzyme in the kidney and gills of fishes from Eleyele River compared with control. Increase in lipid peroxidation and alterations in antioxidant system in Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River show that the fishes were under oxidative stress. These suggest that the river is polluted probably as a result of industrial, domestic and agricultural wastes frequently discharged into the river. This could pose serious health risks to consumers of water and aquatic organisms from the river.

Keywords: antioxidant, lipid peroxidation, Clarias gariepinus, Eleyele River

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
540 Antioxidant Activity of Germinated African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis Stenocarpa) in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

Authors: N. Uchegbu Nneka

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the antioxidant activity of germinated African Yam Bean (AYB) on oxidative stress markers in alloxan-induced diabetic rat. Rats were randomized into three groups; control, diabetic and germinated AYB–treated diabetic rats. The Total phenol and flavonoid content and DPPH radical scavenging activity before and after germination were investigated. The glucose level, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione of the animals were also determined using the standard technique for four weeks. Germination increased the total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of AYB extract by 19.14%, 32.28%, and 57.25% respectively. The diabetic rats placed on germinated AYB diet had a significant decrease in the blood glucose and lipid peroxidation with a corresponding increase in glutathione (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that consumption of germinated AYB can be a good dietary supplement in inhibiting hyperglycemia/hyperlipidemia and the prevention of diabetic complication associated with oxidative stress.

Keywords: African yam bean, antioxidant, diabetes, total phenol

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
539 Histopathological and Biochemical Investigations of Protective Role of Honey in Rats with Experimental Aflatoxicosis

Authors: Turan Yaman, Zabit Yener, Ismail Celik

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties and protective role of honey, considered a part of traditional medicine, against carcinogen chemical aflatoxin (AF) exposure in rats, which were evaluated by histopathological changes in liver and kidney, measuring level of serum marker enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamil transpeptidase (GGT)], antioxidant defense systems [Reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)], and lipid peroxidation content in liver, erythrocyte, brain, kidney, heart and lungs. For this purpose, a total of eighteen healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into three experimental groups: A (Control), B (AF-treated) and C (AF+honey-treated). While rats in group A were fed with a diet without AF, B, and C groups received 25 µg of AF/rat/day, where C group additionally received 1 mL/kg of honey by gavage for 90 days. At the end of the 90-day experimental period, we found that the honey supplementation decreased the lipid peroxidation and the levels of enzyme associated with liver damage, increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the AF+honey-treated rats. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of honey is further substantiated by showing almost normal histological architecture in AF+honey-treated group, compared to degenerative changes in the liver and kidney of AF-treated rats. Additionally, honey supplementation ameliorated antioxidant defense systems and lipid peroxidation content in other tissues of AF+honey-treated rats. In conclusion, the present study indicates that honey has a hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect in rats with experimental aflatoxicosis due to its antioxidant activity.

Keywords: aflatoxicosis, honey, histopathology, malondialdehyde, antioxidant, rat

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
538 Elucidation of Physiological and Biochemical Mechanisms of an Endemic Halophyte Centaurea Tuzgoluensis under Salt Stress

Authors: Mustafa Kucukoduk, Evren Yildiztugay, A. Hediye Sekmen, Ismail Turkan, Yavuz Bagci

Abstract:

In this study, physiological and biochemical responses of Centaurea tuzgoluensis, a Turkish endemic halophyte, to salinity were studied. Therefore, the changes in shoot growth, leaf relative water content (RWC), ion concentrations, lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl (OH.) radical scavenging activity, proline (Pro) content, and antioxidant system [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR)] were investigated. The 60 days (d) old C. tuzgoluensis seedlings were subjected to 0, 150 and 300 mM NaCl for 7 d and 14 d. The relative shoot growth was generally did not change in the 150 mM NaCl, but reduced with 300 mM NaCl stress at 7 d and 14 d. RWC was higher in 150 mM NaCl-treated leaves than that of 300 mM NaCl. Salinity decreased K+/Na+ ratio, but increased Na+, Cl, Ca+2 and Na+/Cl ratio in the leaves. On the other hand, it did not change or increase the K+ content at 150 and 300 mM NaCl, respectively. MDA content in the 150 and 300 mM NaCl-treated leaves remained close to control at 7 d. This was related to enhanced activities of SOD, CAT, APX and GR enzymes, and their isoenzymes especially Fe-SOD in the leaves. On the other hand, the higher sensitivity to 300 mM NaCl at 14 d was associated with inadequate increase in antioxidant enzymes and the decreased OH radical scavenging activity. All these results suggest that C. tuzgoluensis has different antioxidant metabolisms between short- (7 d) and long-term (14 d) salt treatments and salinity tolerance of C. tuzgoluensis might be closely related to increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accumulation of osmoprotectant proline under salinity conditions.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, endemic halophyte, ion exchange, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, enzymes, endemic halophyte, ion exchange, lipid peroxidation, proline, Centaurea tuzgoluensis

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
537 Molecular Mechanism on Inflammation and Antioxidant Role of Pterocarpus Marsupiumin in Experimental Hyperglycaemia

Authors: Leelavinothan Pari , Ayyasamy Rathinam

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major and growing public health problem throughout the world. Pterocarpus marsupium (Roxb.) (Family: Fabaceae) is widely used as a traditional medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes. However, the molecular mechanism of Pterocarpus marsupium has not been investigated so far. Two fractions (2.5% and 5%) of extract from the medicinal plant, Pterocarpus marsupium (PME) were conducted in a dose dependent manner in streptozotocin (45 mg/kg b.w.) induced type 2 diabetic rats. Each fraction of PME was administered to diabetic rats intragastrically at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w for 45 days. The effective dose 200 mg/kg b.w of 5% fraction was more pronounced in reducing the levels of blood glucose (95.65 mg/dL) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (0.41 mg/g Hb), and increasing the plasma insulin (16.20 µU/mL) level. Moreover, PME (200 mg/kg b.w) significantly ameliorated lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides) enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (Vitamin C, Vitamin E and reduced glutathione) levels. The altered activities of the key enzymes of lipid metabolism along with the lipid profile in diabetic rats were significantly reverted to near normal levels by the administration of PME 5% 200 mg/kg b.w fraction. PME (200 mg/kg b.w) has the ability to reduce the inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6 mRNA, as well as protein expression and apoptotic marker, such as caspase-3 enzyme in diabetic hepatic tissue. The above biochemical findings were also supported by histological studies such as improvement in pancreas and liver. Pterocarpus marsupium could effectively reduce the hyperglycemia, oxidative-stress, inflammation and hyperlipedimea in diabetic rats; hence it could be a useful drug in the management of diabetes without any side effects.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, streptozotocin, Pterocarpus marsupium, lipid peroxidation, Antioxidants, inflammatory cytokines

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
536 Antioxidant Defence Systems, Lipid Peroxidation, and Photosynthetic Variables in Salt-Sensitive and Salt-Tolerant Soybean Genotypes in Response to Salt Stress

Authors: Faheema Khan

Abstract:

We have investigated the effects of salt stress on the stability of plant growth, water relations, photosynthetic variables, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in salt-tolerant (PK-327) and salt-sensitive (PK-471) soybean genotypes. Ten-day-old salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive soybean plants were subjected to 0-150 mM NaCl for 15 days. While the growth of genotype PK-327 was not affected significantly up to 75 mM NaCl treatment, the growth of the PK-471 was reduced significantly beyond 25 mM NaCl treatments. Salt stress caused severe impairments in photosynthetic variables like photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content, being more pronounced in salt-sensitive genotype than in salt-tolerant.The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were higher in PK-327 than in PK-471 at various levels of salt treatments.It is concluded that tolerance capacity of PK-327 against salinity can be associated with the ability of this genotype in keeping an active photosynthetic system and strong antioxidant defence system.

Keywords: salt stress, soybean, antioxidant, photosynthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
535 Hypotensive, Free Radical Scavenging and Anti-Lipid Peroxidation Activities of Crataegus azarolus L. Leaves Extracts Growing in Algeria

Authors: Amel Bouaziz, Seddik Khennouf, Mussa Abu Zarga, Shtayway Abdalla, Saliha Djidel, Assia Bentahar, Saliha Dahamna, Smain Amira

Abstract:

The present study aimed to evaluate the hypotensive and the in vitro antioxidant activities of Crataegus azarolus L. (Rosaceae), a plant widely used as natural remedy for hypertension in folk medicine. The antioxidant potential of methanolic extract (ME)and its three fractions of Chloroform (CHE), ethyl acetate (EAE)and water (AqE) have been investigated using several assays, including the DPPH scavenging, ABTS scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation was performed by the β-carotene bleaching assay, ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarburic acid method. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were estimated using Folin-Chiocalteu reagent and AlCl3, respectively. EAE extract showed the highest polyphenolic and flavonoids contents (396,04±1.20 mg GAE/g of dry extract and 32,73 ± 0.03mg QE/g of dry extract) respectively. Similarly, this extract possessed the highest scavenging activity for DPPH radical (IC 50 = 0,006±0,0001mg /ml), ABTS radical (IC50=0.0035±0,0007 mg/ml) and hydroxyl radical(IC 50=0,283± 0.01 mg/ml). In addition, the EAE exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in the inhibition of linoleic acid/ß-carotene coupled oxidation (89,21%), lipid peroxidation in the ferric thiocyanate(FTC) method (90.13%), and thio-barbituric acid (TBA) method (74.23%). Intravenous administration of Me and EAE decreased mean arterial blood pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in anesthetized rats dose-dependently, at the dose range of 0.4 to 12 mg/kg. The mean arterial blood pressure dropped by 27.58 and 39.37% for ME and EAE, respectively. In conclusion, The present study supported the significant potential to use C. azarolus by-products as a source of natural antioxidants and provides scientific justification for its traditional uses as cardio-protective and anti-hypertensive remedy.

Keywords: Crataegus azarolus, polyphenols, flavonoids, hypertension, antioxidant activity, free radicals, peroxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
534 The Effect of Thymoquinone and Sorafenib Combination on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line

Authors: Nabila N. El-Maraghy, Amany Essa, Yousra Abdel–Mottaleb, Nada Ismail

Abstract:

The use of combination of chemotherapy and natural products to influence the cell death with low doses of chemotherapeutic agents and few side effects has recently emerged as a new method of cancer therapy. Aim: Evaluation the modulatory effect of Thymoquinone on HepG2 cells treated with Sorafenib. Methods: Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 cell line was treated with Sorafenib and TQ individually and in combination. The effect of these treatments on cell viability (MTT assay), apoptosis (Expression of Caspase-3) and oxidative markers (GSH content and extent of lipid peroxidation) was determined. Results: When compared the effect of both agents alone and the combination of the IC50 of Sorafenib and the IC50 TQ, the combination resulted in reduction of cell inhibition and apoptosis and antagonize their actions on GSH content and extent of lipid peroxidation which are increased. This study showed potent anti-tumor activity of both TQ and Sorafenib separately on HepG2 but upon combination surprisingly they interacted and give antagonistic effect. Conclusion: Co-treatment resulted in antagonistic interaction between Sorafenib and Thymoquinone.

Keywords: antagonism, hepatocellular carcinoma, sorafenib, thymoquinone

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
533 Oxidative Damage to Lipids, Proteins, and DNA during Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Umbilical Cord into Biologically Active Hepatocytes

Authors: Abdolamir Allameh, Shahnaz Esmaeili, Mina Allameh, Safoura Khajeniazi

Abstract:

Stem cells with therapeutic applications can be isolated from human placenta/umblical cord blood (UCB) as well as the cord tissue (UC). Stem cells in culture are vulnerable to oxidative stress, particularly when subjected to differentiation process. The aim of this study was to examine the chnages in the rate of oxidation that occurs to cellular macromolecules during hepatic differentiation of mononuclear cells (MSCs). In addition, the impact of the hepatic differentiation process of MSC on cellular and biological activity of the cells will be undertaken. For this purpose, first mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated from human UCB which was obtained from a healthy full-term infant. The cells were cultured at a density of 3×10⁵ cells/cm² in DMEM- low-glucose culture media supplemented with 20% FBS, 2 mM L-glutamine, 100 μg/ml streptomycin and 100 U/ml penicillin. Cell cultures were then incubated at 37°C in a humidified 5% CO₂ incubator. After removing non-adherent cells by replacing culture medium, fibroblast-like adherent cells were resuspended in 0.25% trypsin-EDTA and plated in 25 cm² flasks (1×10⁴/ml). Characterization of the MSCs was routinely done by observing their morphology and growth curve. MSCs were subjected to a 2-step hepatocyte differentiation protocol in presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), dexamethazone (DEX) and oncostatin M (OSM). The hepatocyte-like cells derived from MSCs were checked every week for 3 weeks for changes in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl formation and DNA oxidation i.e., 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) assay. During the 3-week differentiation process of MSCs to hepatocyte-like cells we found that expression liver-specific markers such as albumin, was associated with increased levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation. Whereas, undifferentiated MSCs has relatively low levels of lipid peroxidation products. There was a significant increase ( p < 0.05) in lipid peroxidation products in hepatocytes on days 7, 14, and 21 of differentiation. Likewise, the level of protein carbonyls in the cells was elevated during the differentiation. The level of protein carbonyls measured in hepatocyte-like cells obtained 3 weeks after differentiation induction was estimated to be ~6 fold higher compared to cells recovered on day 7 of differentiation. On the contrary, there was a small but significant decrease in DNA damage marker (8-OH-dG) in hepatocytes recovered 3 weeks after differentiation onset. The level of 8-OHdG which was in consistent with formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In conclusion, this data suggest that despite the elevation in oxidation of lipid and protein molecules during hepatocyte development, the cells were normal in terms of DNA integrity, morphology, and biologically activity.

Keywords: adult stem cells, DNA integrity, free radicals, hepatic differentiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
532 Effects of AG1 and AG2 QTLs on Rice Seedling Growth and Physiological Processes during Germination in Flooded Soils

Authors: Satyen Mondal, Frederickson Entila, Shalabh Dixit, Pompe C. Sta. Cruz, Abdelbagi M. Ismail

Abstract:

Anaerobic condition caused by flooding during germination in direct seeded rice systems, known as anaerobic germination (AG), severely reduces crop establishment in both rainfed and irrigated areas. Seeds germinating in flooded soils could encounter hypoxia or even anoxia in severe cases, and this hinders germination and seedling growth. This study was conducted to quantify the effects of incorporating two major QTLs, AG1 and AG2, associated with tolerance of flooding during germination and to assess their interactive effects on enhancing crop establishment. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Baňos, Philippines, using elite lines incorporating AG1, AG2 and AG1+AG2 in the background of the popular varieties PSBRc82 (PSBRc82-AG1, PSBRc82-AG2, PSBRc82-AG1+AG2) and Ciherang-Sub1 (Ciherang-Sub1-AG1, Ciherang-Sub1-AG2, Ciherang-Sub1-AG1+AG2), along with the donors Kho Hlan On (for AG1) and Ma-Zhan Red (AG2) and the recipients PSBRc82 and Ciherang-Sub1. The experiment was conducted using concrete tanks in an RCBD with three replications. Dry seeds were sown in seedling trays then flooded with 10 cm water depth. Seedling survival, root and shoot growth and relative growth rate were measured. The germinating seedlings were used for assaying nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) and ascorbate concentrations, lipid peroxidation, total phenolic concentration, reactive oxygen species and total amylase enzyme activity. Flooding reduced overall survival, though survival of AG1+AG2 introgression lines was greater than other genotypes. Soluble sugars increased, while starch concentration decreased gradually under flooding especially in the tolerant checks and AG1+AG2 introgression lines. Less lipid peroxidation and higher amylase activity, reduced-ascorbate (RAsA) and total phenolic contents (TPC) were observed in the tolerant checks and in AG1+AG2 introgression lines. Lipid peroxidation correlated negatively with ascorbate and total phenolic concentrations and with reactive oxygen species (ROS). Introgression of AG1+AG2 QTLs upregulated total amylase activity causing rapid starch degradation and increase in ascorbate and total phenolic concentrations resulting in higher germination and seedling growth in flooded soils.

Keywords: amylase, anaerobic germination, ascorbate, direct-seeded rice, flooding, lipid peroxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
531 Formulation and Anticancer Evaluation of Beta-Sitosterol in Henna Methanolic Extract Embedded in Controlled Release Nanocomposite

Authors: Sanjukta Badhai, Durga Barik, Bairagi C. Mallick

Abstract:

In the present study, Beta-Sitosterol in Lawsonia methanolic leaf extract embedded in controlled release nanocomposite was prepared and evaluated for in vivo anticancer efficacy in dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer. In the present study, colon cancer was induced by s.c injection of DMH (20 mg/kg b.wt) for 15 weeks. The animals were divided into five groups as follows control, DMH alone, DMH and Beta Sitosterol nanocomposite (50mg/kg), DMH and Beta Sitosterol nanocomposite (100 mg/kg) and DMH and Standard Silymarin (100mg/kg) and the treatment was carried out for 15 weeks. At the end of the study period, the blood was withdrawn, and serum was separated for haematological, biochemical analysis and tumor markers. Further, the colonic tissue was removed for the estimation of antioxidants and histopathological analysis. The results of the study displays that DMH intoxication elicits altered haematological parameters (RBC,WBC, and Hb), elevated lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidants level (SOD, CAT, GPX, GST and GSH), elevated lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglycerides), tumor markers (CEA and AFP) and altered colonic tissue histology. Meanwhile, treatment with Beta Sitosterol nanocomposites significantly restored the altered biochemicals parameters in DMH induced colon cancer mediated by its anticancer efficacy. Further, Beta Sitosterol nanocomposite (100 mg/kg) showed marked efficacy.

Keywords: nanocomposites, herbal formulation, henna, beta sitosterol, colon cancer, dimethyl hydrazine, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
530 Antioxidant Effects of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) on Brain

Authors: Manju Lata Sharma

Abstract:

Damage to cells caused by free radicals is believed to play a central role in the ageing process and in disease progression. Withania somnifera is widely used in ayurvedic medicine, and it is one of the ingredients in many formulations to increase energy, improve overall health and longevity and prevent disease. Withania somnifera possesses antioxidative properties. The antioxdant activity of Withania somnifera consisting of an equimolar concentration of active principles of sitoindoside VII-X and withaferin A. The antioxidant effect of Withania somnifera extract was investigated on lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in mice. Aim: To study the antioxidant activity of an extract of Withania somnifera leaf against a mice model of chronic stress. Healthy swiss albino mice (3-4 months old) selected from an inbred colony were divided in to 6 groups. Biochemical estimation revealed that stress induced a significant change in SOD, LPO, CAT AND GPX. These stress induced perturbations were attenuated Withania somnifera (50 and 100 mg/kg BW). Result: Withania somnifera tended to normalize the augmented SOD and LPO activities and enhanced the activities of CAT and GPX. The result indicates that treatment with an alcoholic extract of Withania somnifera produced a significant decrease in LPO ,and an increase in both SOD and CAT in brain mice. This indicates that Withania somnifera extract possesses free radical scavenging activity .

Keywords: Withania somnifera, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation, brain

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
529 The Understanding of Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Diabetic Rats Treated with Andrographis paniculata and Erythrina indica Methanol Extract

Authors: Chakrapani Pullagummi, Arun Jyothi Bheemagani, B. Chandra Sekhar Singh, Prem Kumar, A. Roja Rani

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion and its action. The objective of present study was alloxan induced diabetes in S.D (Sprague Dawley) rats, treated with leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata and bark extract of Erythrina indica. Plant extract treated rats were analyzed biochemically and molecularly. on normal and diabetic rats. The changes in MDA (lipid peroxidation) and glucose (by GOD method) levels in blood of both normal and diabetic rat were analyzed. Diabetes induced rats were treated with methanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata leaf and Erythrina indica bark which are of medicinal importance. Later after inducing diabetes the rats were treated with medicinal plant extracts, Andrographis paniculata leaf and Erythrina indica bark which are well known for their anti diabetic and antioxidative property in order to control the glucose and MDA levels. The blood plasma of diabetic and normal rats was analyzed for the levels of MDA (lipid peroxidation) and glucose levels. Results of this study suggested that the Andrographis paniculata leaf and Erythrina indica can be used as a potential natural antidiabetic agent for treating and postponing the appearance of complications that arise due to Diabetes. Molecular study deals with the analysis of binding mechanism of 2 selected natural compounds from Andrographis and Erythrina extracts against the novel target for type T2D namely PPAR-γ compared with Rosiglitazone (standard compound). The results revealed that most of the selected herbal lead compounds were effective targets against the receptors. These compounds showed favorable interactions with the amino acid residues thereby substantiating their proven efficacy as anti-diabetic compounds.

Keywords: andrographis paniculata, erythrina indica, alloxan, lipid peroxidation, blood glucose level, PPAR-γ

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
528 Imipramine Ameliorate Altered Biochemical Parameter and Oxidative Damage in Depression

Authors: D. S. Mohale, A.V. Chandewar

Abstract:

Study was undertaken to investigate the effect of imipramine on various biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers in short and long term depression on rats. Rats were subjected for short (21 days) and long term (84 days) social isolation for and checked for depression on force swim test and tail suspension method. Various markers of oxidative stress like lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), Supersoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and biochemical parameters like Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), Serum glutamate pyruate transaminase (SGPT), and blood glucose were determined in depressed, control, imipramine and Vitamin E treated group. The rats displayed an increase in depression on force swim test and tail suspension method relative to control. There was significant increase in the level of LPO and decrease in the levels of GSH, SOD and CAT after short and long term depression. Increased oxidative stress in depression which may leads to alteration of biochemical parameters. Treatment with imipramine an tricyclic antidepressant significantly decreases in level of LPO, SGOT, SGPT and increase in the levels of GSH, SOD and CAT in long term depression.

Keywords: depression, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
527 Antioxidant Enzymes and Crude Mitochondria ATPases in the Radicle of Germinating Bean (Vigna unguiculata) Exposed to Different Concentrations of Crude Oil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu

Abstract:

The study examined the effect of Bonny Light whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) on the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle of germinating bean (Vigna unguiculata). The percentage germination, level of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme, and mitochondria Ca2+ and Mg2+ ATPase activities were measured in the radicle of bean after 7, 14, and 21 days post germination. Viable bean seeds were planted in soils contaminated with 10ml, 25ml, and 50ml of whole crude oil (WC) and its water soluble fraction (WSF) to obtain 2, 5, and 10% v/w crude oil contamination. There was dose dependent reduction of the number of bean seeds that germinated in the contaminated soils compared with control (p<0.001). The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, as well as, adenosine triphosphatase enzymes, were also significantly (p<0.001) altered in the radicle of the plants grown in contaminated soil compared with the control. Generally, the level of lipid peroxidation was highest after 21 days post germination when compared with control. Stress to germinating bean caused by Bonny Light crude oil or its water soluble fraction resulted in adaptive changes in crude mitochondria ATPases in the radicle.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, bonny light crude oil, radicle, mitochondria ATPases

Procedia PDF Downloads 200