Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 80

Search results for: Gaurav Upadhyay

80 Frequency Reconfigurable Multiband Patch Antenna Using PIN-Diode for ITS Applications

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, V. S. Tripathi, Shivesh Tripathi


A frequency reconfigurable multiband antenna for intelligent transportation system (ITS) applications is proposed in this paper. A PIN-diode is used for reconfigurability. Centre frequencies are 1.38, 1.98, 2.89, 3.86, and 4.34 GHz in “ON” state of Diode and 1.56, 2.16, 2.88, 3.91 and 4.45 GHz in “OFF” state. Achieved maximum bandwidth is 18%. The maximum gain of the proposed antenna is 2.7 dBi in “ON” state and 3.95 dBi in “OFF” state of the diode. The antenna is simulated, fabricated, and tested in the lab. Measured and simulated results are in good confirmation.

Keywords: ITS, multiband antenna, PIN-diode, reconfigurable

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79 PIN-Diode Based Slotted Reconfigurable Multiband Antenna Array for Vehicular Communication

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, Shivesh Tripathi, V. S. Tripathi


In this paper, a patch antenna array design is proposed for vehicular communication. The antenna consists of 2-element patch array. The antenna array is operating at multiple frequency bands. The multiband operation is achieved by use of slots at proper locations at the patch. The array is made reconfigurable by use of two PIN-diodes. The antenna is simulated and measured in four states of diodes i.e. ON-ON, ON-OFF, OFF-ON, and OFF-OFF. In ON-ON state of diodes, the resonant frequencies are 4.62-4.96, 6.50-6.75, 6.90-7.01, 7.34-8.22, 8.89-9.09 GHz. In ON-OFF state of diodes, the measured resonant frequencies are 4.63-4.93, 6.50-6.70 and 7.81-7.91 GHz. In OFF-ON states of diodes the resonant frequencies are 1.24-1.46, 3.40-3.75, 5.07-5.25 and 6.90-7.20 GHz and in the OFF-OFF state of diodes 4.49-4.75 and 5.61-5.98 GHz. The maximum bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 16.29%. The peak gain of the antenna is 3.4 dB at 5.9 GHz, which makes it suitable for vehicular communication.

Keywords: antenna, array, reconfigurable, vehicular

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
78 Environmental Impact Assessment of Conventional Tyre Manufacturing Process

Authors: G. S. Dangayach, Gaurav Gaurav, Alok Bihari Singh


The popularity of vehicles in both industrialized and developing economies led to a rise in the production of tyres. People have become increasingly concerned about the tyre industry's possible environmental impact in the last two decades. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to assess the environmental impacts of industrial tyres throughout their life cycle, which included four stages: manufacture, transportation, consumption, and end-of-life. The majority of prior studies focused on tyre recycling and disposal. Only a few studies have been conducted on the environmental impact of tyre production process. LCA methodology was employed to determine the environmental impact of tyre manufacture process (gate to gate) at an Indian firm. Comparative analysis was also conducted to identify the environmental hotspots in various stages of tire manufacturing. This study is limited to gate-to-gate analysis of manufacturing processes with the functional unit of a single tyre weighing 50 kg. GaBi software was used to do both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Different environmental impact indicators are measured in terms of CO2, SO2, NOx, GWP (global warming potential), AP (acidification potential), EP (eutrophication potential), POCP (photochemical oxidant formation potential), and HTP (toxic human potential). The results demonstrate that the major contributor to environmental pollution is electricity. The Banbury process has a very high negative environmental impact, which causes respiratory problems to workers and operators.

Keywords: life cycle assessment (LCA), environmental impact indicators, tyre manufacturing process, environmental impact assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
77 Digital Preservation: A Need of Tomorrow

Authors: Gaurav Kumar


Digital libraries have been established all over the world to create, maintain and to preserve the digital materials. This paper exhibits the importance and objectives of digital preservation. The necessities of preservation are hardware and software technology to interpret the digital documents and discuss various aspects of digital preservation.

Keywords: preservation, digital preservation, conservation, archive, repository, document, information technology, hardware, software, organization, machine readable format

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
76 Effect of Welding Processes on Tensile Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Joints

Authors: Chaitanya Sharma, Vikas Upadhyay, A. Tripathi


Friction stir welding and tungsten inert gas welding techniques were employed to weld armor grade aluminum alloy to investigate the effect of welding processes on tensile behavior of weld joints. Tensile tests, Vicker microhardness tests and optical microscopy were performed on developed weld joints and base metal. Welding process influenced tensile behavior and microstructure of weld joints. Friction stir welded joints showed tensile behavior better than tungsten inert gas weld joints.

Keywords: friction stir welding, microstructure, tensile properties, fracture locations

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
75 Poly(Lactic Acid) Based Flexible Films

Authors: Fathilahbinti Ali, Jamarosliza Jamaluddin, Arun Kumar Upadhyay


Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer which has good mechanical properties, however, its brittleness limits its usage especially in packaging materials. Therefore, in this work, PLA based polyurethane films were prepared by synthesizing with different types of isocyanates; methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanates (HDI). For this purpose, PLA based polyurethane must have good strength and flexibility. Therefore, polycaprolactone which has better flexibility were prepared with PLA. An effective way to endow polylactic acid with toughness is through chain-extension reaction of the polylactic acid pre-polymer with polycaprolactone used as chain extender. Polyurethane prepared from MDI showed brittle behaviour, while, polyurethane prepared from HDI showed flexibility at same concentrations.

Keywords: biodegradable polymer, flexible, poly(lactic acid), polyurethane

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
74 Information Literacy: Concept and Importance

Authors: Gaurav Kumar


An information literate person is one who uses information effectively in all its forms. When presented with questions or problems, an information literate person would know what information to look for, how to search efficiently and be able to access relevant sources. In addition, an information literate person would have the ability to evaluate and select appropriate information sources and to use the information effectively and ethically to answer questions or solve problems. Information literacy has become an important element in higher education. The information literacy movement has internationally recognized standards and learning outcomes. The step-by-step process of achieving information literacy is particularly crucial in an era where knowledge could be disseminated through a variety of media. What is the relationship between information literacy as we define it in higher education and information literacy among non-academic populations? What forces will change how we think about the definition of information literacy in the future and how we will apply the definition in all environments?

Keywords: information literacy, human beings, visual media and computer network etc, information literacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
73 Software Defined Storage: Object Storage over Hadoop Platform

Authors: Amritesh Srivastava, Gaurav Sharma


The purpose of this project is to develop an open source object storage system that is highly durable, scalable and reliable. There are two representative systems in cloud computing: Google and Amazon. Their storage systems for Google GFS and Amazon S3 provide high reliability, performance and stability. Our proposed system is highly inspired from Amazon S3. We are using Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) Java API to implement our system. We propose the architecture of object storage system based on Hadoop. We discuss the requirements of our system, what we expect from our system and what problems we may encounter. We also give detailed design proposal along with the abstract source code to implement it. The final goal of the system is to provide REST based access to our object storage system that exists on top of HDFS.

Keywords: Hadoop, HBase, object storage, REST

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
72 Using Augmented Reality to Enhance Doctor Patient Communication

Authors: Rutusha Bhutada, Gaurav Chavan, Sarvesh Kasat, Varsha Mujumdar


This software system will be an Augmented Reality application designed to maximize the doctor’s productivity by providing tools to assist in automating the patient recognition and updating patient’s records using face and voice recognition features, which would otherwise have to be performed manually. By maximizing the doctor’s work efficiency and production, the application will meet the doctor’s needs while remaining easy to understand and use. More specifically, this application is designed to allow a doctor to manage his productive time in handling the patient without losing eye-contact with him and communicate with a group of other doctors for consultation, for in-place treatments through video streaming, as a video study. The system also contains a relational database containing a list of doctor, patient and display techniques.

Keywords: augmented reality, hand-held devices, head-mounted devices, marker based systems, speech recognition, face detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
71 One Step Synthesis of Molybdenum Carbide Nanoparticles for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

Authors: Sanjay Upadhyay, Om Prakash Pandey


Hydrogen has been promoted as an alternative source of energy, which is renewable, cost-effective, and nature-friendly. Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) can be used for mass production of hydrogen at a very low cost through electrochemical water splitting. An active and efficient electrocatalyst is required to perform this reaction. Till date, platinum (Pt) is a stable and efficient electrocatalyst towards HER. But its high cost and low abundance hiders its large scale uses. Molybdenum carbide having a similar electronic structure to platinum can be a great alternative to costly platinum. In this study, pure phase molybdenum carbide (Mo₂C) has been synthesized in a single step. Synthesis temperature and holding time have been optimized to obtain pure phases of Mo₂C. The surface, structural and morphological properties of as-synthesized compounds have been studied. The HER activity of as-synthesized compounds has been explored in detail.

Keywords: capacitance, hydrogen fuel, molybdenum carbide, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
70 MEMS based Vibration Energy Harvesting: An overview

Authors: Gaurav Prabhudesai, Shaurya Kaushal, Pulkit Dubey, B. D. Pant


The current race of miniaturization of circuits, systems, modules and networks has resulted in portable and mobile wireless systems having tremendous capabilities with small volume and weight. The power drivers or the power pack, electrically driving these modules have also reduced in proportion. Normally, the power packs in these mobile or fixed systems are batteries, rechargeable or non-rechargeable, which need regular replacement or recharging. Another approach to power these modules is to utilize the ambient energy available for electrical driving to make the system self-sustained. The current paper presents an overview of the different MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) based techniques used for the harvesting of vibration energy to electrically drive a WSN (wireless sensor network) or a mobile module. This kind of system would have enormous applications, the most significant one, may be in cell phones.

Keywords: energy harvesting, WSN, MEMS, piezoelectrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
69 A Facile and Room Temperature Growth of Pd-Pt Decorated Hexagonal-ZnO Framework and Their Selective H₂ Gas Sensing Properties

Authors: Gaurav Malik, Satyendra Mourya, Jyoti Jaiswal, Ramesh Chandra


The attractive and multifunctional properties of ZnO make it a promising material for the fabrication of highly sensitive and selective efficient gas sensors at room temperature. This presented article focuses on the development of highly selective and sensitive H₂ gas sensor based on the Pd-Pt decorated ZnO framework and its sensing mechanisms. The gas sensing performance of sputter made Pd-Pt/ZnO electrode on anodized porous silicon (PSi) substrate toward H₂ gas is studied under low detection limit (2–500 ppm) of H₂ in the air. The chemiresistive sensor demonstrated sublimate selectivity, good sensing response, and fast response/recovery time with excellent stability towards H₂ at low temperature operation under ambient environment. The elaborate selective measurement of Pd-Pt/ZnO/PSi structure was performed towards different oxidizing and reducing gases. This structure exhibited advance and reversible response to H₂ gas, which revealed that the acquired architecture with ZnO framework is a promising candidate for H₂ gas sensor.

Keywords: sputtering, porous silicon, ZnO framework, XPS spectra, gas sensor

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68 A Fast Chemiresistive H₂ Gas Sensor Based on Sputter Grown Nanocrystalline P-TiO₂ Thin Film Decorated with Catalytic Pd-Pt Layer on P-Si Substrate

Authors: Jyoti Jaiswal, Satyendra Mourya, Gaurav Malik, Ramesh Chandra


In the present work, we have fabricated and studied a resistive H₂ gas sensor based on Pd-Pt decorated room temperature sputter grown nanocrystalline porous titanium dioxide (p-TiO₂) thin film on porous silicon (p-Si) substrate for fast H₂ detection. The gas sensing performance of Pd-Pt/p-TiO₂/p-Si sensing electrode towards H₂ gas under low (10-500 ppm) detection limit and operating temperature regime (25-200 °C) was discussed. The sensor is highly sensitive even at room temperature, with response (Ra/Rg) reaching ~102 for 500 ppm H₂ in dry air and its capability of sensing H₂ concentrations as low as ~10 ppm was demonstrated. At elevated temperature of 200 ℃, the response reached more than ~103 for 500 ppm H₂. Overall the fabricated resistive gas sensor exhibited high selectivity, good sensing response, and fast response/recovery time with good stability towards H₂.

Keywords: sputtering, porous silicon (p-Si), TiO₂ thin film, hydrogen gas sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
67 Bi-Objective Optimization for Sustainable Supply Chain Network Design in Omnichannel

Authors: Veerpaul Maan, Gaurav Mishra


The evolution of omnichannel has revolutionized the supply chain of the organizations by enhancing customer shopping experience. For these organizations need to develop well-integrated multiple distribution channels to leverage the benefits of omnichannel. To adopt an omnichannel system in the supply chain has resulted in structuring and reconfiguring the practices of the traditional supply chain distribution network. In this paper a multiple distribution supply chain network (MDSCN) have been proposed which integrates online giants with a local retailers distribution network in uncertain environment followed by sustainability. To incorporate sustainability, an additional objective function is added to reduce the carbon content through minimizing the travel distance of the product. Through this proposed model, customers are free to access product and services as per their choice of channels which increases their convenience, reach and satisfaction. Further, a numerical illustration is being shown along with interpretation of results to validate the proposed model.

Keywords: sustainable supply chain network, omnichannel, multiple distribution supply chain network, integrate multiple distribution channels

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
66 Application of Artificial Neural Network for Prediction of High Tensile Steel Strands in Post-Tensioned Slabs

Authors: Gaurav Sancheti


This study presents an impacting approach of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in determining the quantity of High Tensile Steel (HTS) strands required in post-tensioned (PT) slabs. Various PT slab configurations were generated by varying the span and depth of the slab. For each of these slab configurations, quantity of required HTS strands were recorded. ANNs with backpropagation algorithm and varying architectures were developed and their performance was evaluated in terms of Mean Square Error (MSE). The recorded data for the quantity of HTS strands was used as a feeder database for training the developed ANNs. The networks were validated using various validation techniques. The results show that the proposed ANNs have a great potential with good prediction and generalization capability.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, back propagation, conceptual design, high tensile steel strands, post tensioned slabs, validation techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
65 Highly Sensitive and Selective H2 Gas Sensor Based on Pd-Pt Decorated Nanostructured Silicon Carbide Thin Films for Extreme Environment Application

Authors: Satyendra Mourya, Jyoti Jaiswal, Gaurav Malik, Brijesh Kumar, Ramesh Chandra


Present work describes the fabrication and sensing characteristics of the Pd-Pt decorated nanostructured silicon carbide (SiC) thin films on anodized porous silicon (PSi) substrate by RF magnetron sputtering. The gas sensing performance of Pd-Pt/SiC/PSi sensing electrode towards H2 gas under low (10–400 ppm) detection limit and high operating temperature regime (25–600 °C) were studied in detail. The chemiresistive sensor exhibited high selectivity, good sensing response, fast response/recovery time with excellent stability towards H2 at high temperature. The selectivity measurement of the sensing electrode was done towards different oxidizing and reducing gases and proposed sensing mechanism discussed in detail. Therefore, the investigated Pd-Pt/SiC/PSi structure may be a highly sensitive and selective hydrogen gas sensing electrode for deployment in extreme environment applications.

Keywords: RF Sputtering, silicon carbide, porous silicon, hydrogen gas sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
64 Digital Preservation: Requirement of 21st Century

Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Shilpa


Digital libraries have been established all over the world to create, maintain and to preserve the digital materials. This paper focuses on operational digital preservation systems specifically in educational organizations in India. It considers the broad range of digital objects including e-journals, technical reports, e-records, project documents, scientific data, etc. This paper describes the main objectives, process and technological issues involved in preservation of digital materials. Digital preservation refers to the various methods of keeping digital materials alive for the future. It includes everything from electronic publications on CD-ROM to Online database and collections of experimental data in digital format maintains the ability to display, retrieve and use digital collections in the face of rapidly changing technological and organizational infrastructures elements. This paper exhibits the importance and objectives of digital preservation. The necessities of preservation are hardware and software technology to interpret the digital documents and discuss various aspects of digital preservation.

Keywords: preservation, digital preservation, digital dark age, conservation, archive, repository, document, information technology, hardware, software, organization, machine readable format

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
63 Hydraulic Design of Proposed Ranney Well for Water Supply Scheme in Kurukshetra

Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Baldev Setia


Water is essential for sustenance of life and the ecosystem. Among the various uses of water, the water required for drinking and domestics has the priority over other needs. Water that is required for human consumption must be available in sufficient quantity and should be of good quality. Keeping in view the futuristic needs of water of Kurukshetra town, a durable and cost-effective water supply system with the help of Ranney well has been proposed. This has been proposed on the premise that Brahmsarovar, the largest static water body in the state of Haryana provides sufficient recharge to the groundwater aquifer. In the study, a 30 year design period has been adopted and the water demand up to the year 2050 has been computed. The proposed Ranney well to be constructed in the vicinity of the Brahmsarovar will have a caisson of diameter of 12 m and will be laid at a depth of 30 m below MSL. The laterals, 20 in number, 300 mm in diameter and 15 m in length will be located in two layer separated by 1.5 m. the impact on environment because of the construction and working of the Ranney well is also studied and it has been found that there are no adverse impacts of the proposed scheme. However, the present study is limited to the hydraulics design of the scheme and does not address the structural design of components of Ranney well and the cost involved.

Keywords: drawdown, Ranney well, LPCD, MSL, transmissibility, storativity

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
62 Dynamics of the Coupled Fitzhugh-Rinzel Neurons

Authors: Sanjeev Kumar Sharma, Arnab Mondal, Ranjit Kumar Upadhyay


Excitable cells often produce different oscillatory activities that help us to understand the transmitting and processing of signals in the neural system. We consider a FitzHugh-Rinzel (FH-R) model and studied the different dynamics of the model by considering the parameter c as the predominant parameter. The model exhibits different types of neuronal responses such as regular spiking, mixed-mode bursting oscillations (MMBOs), elliptic bursting, etc. Based on the bifurcation diagram, we consider the three regimes (MMBOs, elliptic bursting, and quiescent state). An analytical treatment for the occurrence of the supercritical Hopf bifurcation is studied. Further, we extend our study to a network of a hundred neurons by considering the bi-directional synaptic coupling between them. In this article, we investigate the alternation of spiking propagation and bursting phenomena of an uncoupled and coupled FH-R neurons. We explore that the complete graph of heterogenous desynchronized neurons can exhibit different types of bursting oscillations for certain coupling strength. For higher coupling strength, all the neurons in the network show complete synchronization.

Keywords: excitable neuron model, spiking-bursting, stability and bifurcation, synchronization networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
61 Production of Cement-Free Construction Materials via Fly Ash Carbonation

Authors: Zhenhua Wei, Gabriel Falzone, Bu Wang, Laurent Pilon, Gaurav Sant


The production of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is a CO₂ intensive process. Specifically, cement clinkering reactions require not only substantial energy in the form of heat, but also result in the release of CO₂, from limestone decarbonation and the combustion of fuel. To overcome this CO₂ intensive process, clinkering-free cementation is demonstrated by the carbonation of fly ash; i.e., a by-product of coal combustion. It is shown that in moist environments and at sub-boiling temperatures, calcium-rich fly ashes readily react with gas-phase CO₂ to provide cementation. After seven days of CO₂ exposure at 75°C, such formulations achieve a compressive strength on the order of 35 MPa and take-up 9% CO₂ (by mass of the solid). On the other hand, calcium-deficient fly ashes, due to their lack of alkalinity (i.e., abundance of mobile Ca or Mg), show little if any potential for CO₂ uptake and strength gain. The role of the CO₂ concentration and processing temperature are discussed and linked to the progress of reactions, and the development of microstructure. The outcomes demonstrate a means for enabling clinkering-free cementation while enabling beneficial utilization of CO₂ and fly ash; i.e., two abundant but underutilized industrial by-products.

Keywords: fly ash, carbonation, concrete, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
60 NUX: A Lightweight Block Cipher for Security at Wireless Sensor Node Level

Authors: Gaurav Bansod, Swapnil Sutar, Abhijit Patil, Jagdish Patil


This paper proposes an ultra-lightweight cipher NUX. NUX is a generalized Feistel network. It supports 128/80 bit key length and block length of 64 bit. For 128 bit key length, NUX needs only 1022 GEs which is less as compared to all existing cipher design. NUX design results into less footprint area and minimal memory size. This paper presents security analysis of NUX cipher design which shows cipher’s resistance against basic attacks like Linear and Differential Cryptanalysis. Advanced attacks like Biclique attack is also mounted on NUX cipher design. Two different F function in NUX cipher design results in high diffusion mechanism which generates large number of active S-boxes in minimum number of rounds. NUX cipher has total 31 rounds. NUX design will be best-suited design for critical application like smart grid, IoT, wireless sensor network, where memory size, footprint area and the power dissipation are the major constraints.

Keywords: lightweight cryptography, Feistel cipher, block cipher, IoT, encryption, embedded security, ubiquitous computing

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
59 Design and Optimization of Flow Field for Cavitation Reduction of Valve Sleeves

Authors: Kamal Upadhyay, Zhou Hua, Yu Rui


This paper aims to improve the streamline linked with the flow field and cavitation on the valve sleeve. We observed that local pressure fluctuation produces a low-pressure zone, central to the formation of vapor volume fraction within the valve chamber led to air-bubbles (or cavities). Thus, it allows simultaneously to a severe negative impact on the inner surface and lifespan of the valve sleeves. Cavitation reduction is a vitally important issue to pressure control valves. The optimization of the flow field is proposed in this paper to reduce the cavitation of valve sleeves. In this method, the inner wall of the valve sleeve is changed from a cylindrical surface to the conical surface, leading to the decline of the fluid flow velocity and the rise of the outlet pressure. Besides, the streamline is distributed inside the sleeve uniformly. Thus, the bubble generation is lessened. The fluid models are built and analysis of flow field distribution, pressure, vapor volume and velocity was carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and numerical technique. The results indicate that this structure can suppress the cavitation of valve sleeves effectively.

Keywords: streamline, cavitation, optimization, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
58 Classification of Random Doppler-Radar Targets during the Surveillance Operations

Authors: G. C. Tikkiwal, Mukesh Upadhyay


During the surveillance operations at war or peace time, the Radar operator gets a scatter of targets over the screen. This may be a tracked vehicle like tank vis-à-vis T72, BMP etc, or it may be a wheeled vehicle like ALS, TATRA, 2.5Tonne, Shaktiman or moving the army, moving convoys etc. The radar operator selects one of the promising targets into single target tracking (STT) mode. Once the target is locked, the operator gets a typical audible signal into his headphones. With reference to the gained experience and training over the time, the operator then identifies the random target. But this process is cumbersome and is solely dependent on the skills of the operator, thus may lead to misclassification of the object. In this paper, we present a technique using mathematical and statistical methods like fast fourier transformation (FFT) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the random objects. The process of classification is based on transforming the audible signature of target into music octave-notes. The whole methodology is then automated by developing suitable software. This automation increases the efficiency of identification of the random target by reducing the chances of misclassification. This whole study is based on live data.

Keywords: radar target, FFT, principal component analysis, eigenvector, octave-notes, DSP

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
57 Modified Surface Morphology, Structure and Enhanced Weathering Performance of Polyester-Urethane/Organoclay Nanocomposite Coatings

Authors: Gaurav Verma


Organoclay loaded (0-5 weight %) polyester-urethane (PU) coatings were prepared with a branched hydroxyl-bearing polyester and an aliphatic poly-isocyanate. TEM micrographs show partial exfoliation and intercalation of clay platelets in organoclay-polyester dispersions. AFM surface images reveals that the PU hard domains tend to regularise and also self-organise into spherical shapes of sizes 50 nm (0 wt %), 60 nm (2 wt %) and 190 nm (4 wt %) respectively. IR analysis shows that PU chains have increasing tendency to interact with exfoliated clay platelets through hydrogen bonding. This interaction strengthens inter-chain linkages in PU matrix and hence improves anti-ageing properties. 1000 hours of accelerated weathering was evaluated by ATR spectroscopy, while yellowing and overall discoloration was quantified by the Δb* and ΔE* values of the CIELab colour scale. Post-weathering surface properties also showed improvement as the loss of thickness and reduction in gloss in neat PU was 25% and 42%; while it was just 3.5% and 14% respectively for the 2 wt% nanocomposite coating. This work highlights the importance of modifying surface and bulk properties of PU coatings at nanoscale, which led to improved performance in accelerated weathering conditions.

Keywords: coatings, AFM, ageing, spectroscopy

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56 Biosurfactant-Mediated Nanoparticle Synthesis by Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Satya Eswari Jujjavarapu, Swasti Dhagat, Lata Upadhyay, Reecha Sahu


Silver nanoparticles have a broad range of antimicrobial and antifungal properties ranging from soaps, pastes to sterilization and drug delivery systems. These can be synthesized by physical, chemical and biological methods; biological methods being the most popular owing to their non-toxic nature and reduced energy requirements. Microbial surfactants, produced on the microbial cell surface or excreted extracellularly are an alternative to synthetic surfactants for the production of silver nanoparticles. Hence, they are also called as green molecules. Microbial lipopeptide surfactants (biosurfactant) exhibit anti-tumor and anti-microbial properties and can be used as drug delivery agents. In this study, biosurfactant was synthesized by using a strain of acillus subtilis. The biosurfactant thus produced was analysed by emulsification assay, oil spilling test, and haemolytic test. Biosurfactant-mediated silver nanoparticles were synthesised by microwave irradiation of the culture supernatant and further characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy for a range of 400-600 nm. The UV–vis spectra showed a surface plasmon resonance vibration band at 410 nm corresponding to the peak of silver nanoparticles.

Keywords: biosurfactant, Bacillus subtilis, silver nano particle, lipopeptide

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
55 Estimation and Validation of Free Lime Analysis of Clinker by Quantitative Phase Analysis Using X ray diffraction

Authors: Suresh Palla, Kalpna Sharma, Gaurav Bhatnagar, S. K. Chaturvedi, B. N. Mohapatra


Determining the content of free lime is especially important to judge reactivity of the raw materials and clinker quality. The free lime limit isn’t the same for all cements; it depends on several factors, especially the temperature reached during the cooking and the grain size distribution in cement after grinding. Estimation of free lime by conventional method is influenced by the presence of portlandite and misleads the actual free lime content in the clinker for quality check up conditions. To ensure the product quality according to the standard specifications in terms of within the quality limits or not, a reliable, precise, and very reproducible method to quantify the relative phase abundances in the Portland Cement clinker and Portland Cements is to use X-ray diffraction (XRD) in combination with the Rietveld method. In the present study, a methodology was proposed using XRD to validate the obtained results of free lime by conventional method. The XRD and TG/DTA results confirm the presence of portlandite in the clinker to take the decision on the obtained free lime results through conventional method.

Keywords: free lime, quantitative phase analysis, conventional method, x ray diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
54 Identification and Quantification of Phenolic Compounds In Cassia tora Collected from Three Different Locations Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography – Electro Spray Ionization – Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS-MS)

Authors: Shipra Shukla, Gaurav Chaudhary, S. K. Tewari, Mahesh Pal, D. K. Upreti


Cassia tora L. is widely distributed in tropical Asian countries, commonly known as sickle pod. Various parts of the plant are reported for their medicinal value due to presence of anthraquinones, phenolic compounds, emodin, β-sitosterol, and chrysophanol. Therefore a sensitive analytical procedure using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of five phenolic compounds in leaf, stem and root extracts of Cassia tora. Rapid chromatographic separation of compounds was achieved on Acquity UHPLC BEH C18 column (50 mm×2.1 mm id, 1.7µm) column in 2.5 min. Quantification was carried out using negative electrospray ionization in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9985) over the concentration range of 0.5-200 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions and accuracy were within RSDs ≤ 1.93% and ≤ 1.90%, respectively. The developed method was applied to investigate variation of five phenolic compounds in the three geographical collections. Results indicated significant variation among analyzed samples collected from different locations in India.

Keywords: Cassia tora, phenolic compounds, quantification, UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
53 Effect of the Birth Order and Arrival of Younger Siblings on the Development of a Child: Evidence from India

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay


Using longitudinal data from three waves of Young Lives Study and Ordinary Least Square methods, study has investigated the effect of birth order and arrival of younger siblings on child development in India. Study used child’s height for age z-score, weight for age z-score, BMI for age z-score, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-Score)c, maths score, Early Grade Reading Assessment Test (ERGA) score, and memory score to measure the physical and cognitive development of child during wave-3. Findings suggest that having a high birth order is detrimental for child development and the gap between adjacent siblings is larger for children late in the birth sequences than early in the birth sequences. Study also reported that not only older siblings but arrival of younger siblings before assessment of test also reduces the development of a child. The effects become stronger in case of female children than male children.

Keywords: height for age z-score, weight for age z-score, BMI for z-score, PPVT score, math score, EGRA score, memory score, birth order, siblings, Young Lives Study, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
52 Formulation and Characterization of Drug Loaded Niosomal Gel for Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Vipin Saini, Suman Bala, Gaurav Sharma


The main aim of the present research was to encapsulate mefenamic acid in niosomes and incorporate the prepared niosomes in the carbopol gel base for sustained therapeutic action. Mefenamic acid loaded niosomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique and evaluated for entrapment efficiency, vesicular size and zeta potential. The entrapment efficiency of the prepared niosomes was found to increase with decreasing the HLB values of surfactants and vesicle size was found to increase with increasing the cholesterol concentration. Niosomal vesicles with good entrapment efficiencies were incorporated in carbopol gel base to form the niosomal gel. The prepared niosomal gel was evaluated for pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability and skin permeation study across the rat skin.The results of permeation study revealed that the gel formulated with span 60 niosomes sustained the drug release for 12 h. Further the in vivo study showed the good inhibition of inflammation by the gel prepared with span 60 niosomes.

Keywords: mefenamic acid, niosomal gel, nonionic surfactants, sustained release

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51 Application of Principle Component Analysis for Classification of Random Doppler-Radar Targets during the Surveillance Operations

Authors: G. C. Tikkiwal, Mukesh Upadhyay


During the surveillance operations at war or peace time, the Radar operator gets a scatter of targets over the screen. This may be a tracked vehicle like tank vis-à-vis T72, BMP etc, or it may be a wheeled vehicle like ALS, TATRA, 2.5Tonne, Shaktiman or moving army, moving convoys etc. The Radar operator selects one of the promising targets into Single Target Tracking (STT) mode. Once the target is locked, the operator gets a typical audible signal into his headphones. With reference to the gained experience and training over the time, the operator then identifies the random target. But this process is cumbersome and is solely dependent on the skills of the operator, thus may lead to misclassification of the object. In this paper we present a technique using mathematical and statistical methods like Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify the random objects. The process of classification is based on transforming the audible signature of target into music octave-notes. The whole methodology is then automated by developing suitable software. This automation increases the efficiency of identification of the random target by reducing the chances of misclassification. This whole study is based on live data.

Keywords: radar target, fft, principal component analysis, eigenvector, octave-notes, dsp

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