Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 800

Search results for: brain

800 Education and Learning in Indonesia to Refer to the Democratic and Humanistic Learning System in Finland

Authors: Nur Sofi Hidayah, Ratih Tri Purwatiningsih

Abstract:

Learning is a process attempts person to obtain a new behavior changes as a whole, as a result of his own experience in the interaction with the environment. Learning involves our brain to think, while the ability of the brain to each student's performance is different. To obtain optimal learning results then need time to learn the exact hour that the brain's performance is not too heavy. Referring to the learning system in Finland which apply 45 minutes to learn and a 15-minute break is expected to be the brain work better, with the rest of the brain, the brain will be more focused and lessons can be absorbed well. It can be concluded that learning in this way students learn with brain always fresh and the best possible use of the time, but it can make students not saturated in a lesson.

Keywords: learning, working hours brain, time efficient learning, working hours in the brain receive stimulus.

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
799 Human Brain Organoids-on-a-Chip Systems to Model Neuroinflammation

Authors: Feng Guo

Abstract:

Human brain organoids, 3D brain tissue cultures derived from human pluripotent stem cells, hold promising potential in modeling neuroinflammation for a variety of neurological diseases. However, challenges remain in generating standardized human brain organoids that can recapitulate key physiological features of a human brain. Here, this study presents a series of organoids-on-a-chip systems to generate better human brain organoids and model neuroinflammation. By employing 3D printing and microfluidic 3D cell culture technologies, the study’s systems enable the reliable, scalable, and reproducible generation of human brain organoids. Compared with conventional protocols, this study’s method increased neural progenitor proliferation and reduced heterogeneity of human brain organoids. As a proof-of-concept application, the study applied this method to model substance use disorders.

Keywords: human brain organoids, microfluidics, organ-on-a-chip, neuroinflammation

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
798 Brainwave Classification for Brain Balancing Index (BBI) via 3D EEG Model Using k-NN Technique

Authors: N. Fuad, M. N. Taib, R. Jailani, M. E. Marwan

Abstract:

In this paper, the comparison between k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithms for classifying the 3D EEG model in brain balancing is presented. The EEG signal recording was conducted on 51 healthy subjects. Development of 3D EEG models involves pre-processing of raw EEG signals and construction of spectrogram images. Then, maximum PSD values were extracted as features from the model. There are three indexes for the balanced brain; index 3, index 4 and index 5. There are significant different of the EEG signals due to the brain balancing index (BBI). Alpha-α (8–13 Hz) and beta-β (13–30 Hz) were used as input signals for the classification model. The k-NN classification result is 88.46% accuracy. These results proved that k-NN can be used in order to predict the brain balancing application.

Keywords: power spectral density, 3D EEG model, brain balancing, kNN

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
797 Partial Differential Equation-Based Modeling of Brain Response to Stimuli

Authors: Razieh Khalafi

Abstract:

The brain is the information processing centre of the human body. Stimuli in the form of information are transferred to the brain and then brain makes the decision on how to respond to them. In this research, we propose a new partial differential equation which analyses the EEG signals and make a relationship between the incoming stimuli and the brain response to them. In order to test the proposed model, a set of external stimuli applied to the model and the model’s outputs were checked versus the real EEG data. The results show that this model can model the EEG signal well. The proposed model is useful not only for modelling of EEG signal in case external stimuli but it can be used for modelling of brain response in case of internal stimuli.

Keywords: brain, stimuli, partial differential equation, response, EEG signal

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
796 Clustering-Based Detection of Alzheimer's Disease Using Brain MR Images

Authors: Sofia Matoug, Amr Abdel-Dayem

Abstract:

This paper presents a comprehensive survey of recent research studies to segment and classify brain MR (magnetic resonance) images in order to detect significant changes to brain ventricles. The paper also presents a general framework for detecting regions that atrophy, which can help neurologists in detecting and staging Alzheimer. Furthermore, a prototype was implemented to segment brain MR images in order to extract the region of interest (ROI) and then, a classifier was employed to differentiate between normal and abnormal brain tissues. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can provide a reliable second opinion that neurologists can benefit from.

Keywords: Alzheimer, brain images, classification techniques, Magnetic Resonance Images MRI

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
795 Performance Evaluation of Various Segmentation Techniques on MRI of Brain Tissue

Authors: U.V. Suryawanshi, S.S. Chowhan, U.V Kulkarni

Abstract:

Accuracy of segmentation methods is of great importance in brain image analysis. Tissue classification in Magnetic Resonance brain images (MRI) is an important issue in the analysis of several brain dementias. This paper portraits performance of segmentation techniques that are used on Brain MRI. A large variety of algorithms for segmentation of Brain MRI has been developed. The objective of this paper is to perform a segmentation process on MR images of the human brain, using Fuzzy c-means (FCM), Kernel based Fuzzy c-means clustering (KFCM), Spatial Fuzzy c-means (SFCM) and Improved Fuzzy c-means (IFCM). The review covers imaging modalities, MRI and methods for noise reduction and segmentation approaches. All methods are applied on MRI brain images which are degraded by salt-pepper noise demonstrate that the IFCM algorithm performs more robust to noise than the standard FCM algorithm. We conclude with a discussion on the trend of future research in brain segmentation and changing norms in IFCM for better results.

Keywords: image segmentation, preprocessing, MRI, FCM, KFCM, SFCM, IFCM

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
794 A Mathematical-Based Formulation of EEG Fluctuations

Authors: Razi Khalafi

Abstract:

Brain is the information processing center of the human body. Stimuli in form of information are transferred to the brain and then brain makes the decision on how to respond to them. In this research we propose a new partial differential equation which analyses the EEG signals and make a relationship between the incoming stimuli and the brain response to them. In order to test the proposed model, a set of external stimuli applied to the model and the model’s outputs were checked versus the real EEG data. The results show that this model can model the EEG signal well. The proposed model is useful not only for modeling of the EEG signal in case external stimuli but it can be used for the modeling of brain response in case of internal stimuli.

Keywords: Brain, stimuli, partial differential equation, response, eeg signal

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
793 EEG Diagnosis Based on Phase Space with Wavelet Transforms for Epilepsy Detection

Authors: Mohmmad A. Obeidat, Amjed Al Fahoum, Ayman M. Mansour

Abstract:

The recognition of an abnormal activity of the brain functionality is a vital issue. To determine the type of the abnormal activity either a brain image or brain signal are usually considered. Imaging localizes the defect within the brain area and relates this area with somebody functionalities. However, some functions may be disturbed without affecting the brain as in epilepsy. In this case, imaging may not provide the symptoms of the problem. A cheaper yet efficient approach that can be utilized to detect abnormal activity is the measurement and analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The main goal of this work is to come up with a new method to facilitate the classification of the abnormal and disorder activities within the brain directly using EEG signal processing, which makes it possible to be applied in an on-line monitoring system.

Keywords: EEG, wavelet, epilepsy, detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
792 Improvement of Brain Tumors Detection Using Markers and Boundaries Transform

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Mommen A. Alkhir, Amel S. Algaddal

Abstract:

This was experimental study conducted to study segmentation of brain in MRI images using edge detection and morphology filters. For brain MRI images each film scanned using digitizer scanner then treated by using image processing program (MatLab), where the segmentation was studied. The scanned image was saved in a TIFF file format to preserve the quality of the image. Brain tissue can be easily detected in MRI image if the object has sufficient contrast from the background. We use edge detection and basic morphology tools to detect a brain. The segmentation of MRI images steps using detection and morphology filters were image reading, detection entire brain, dilation of the image, filling interior gaps inside the image, removal connected objects on borders and smoothen the object (brain). The results of this study were that it showed an alternate method for displaying the segmented object would be to place an outline around the segmented brain. Those filters approaches can help in removal of unwanted background information and increase diagnostic information of Brain MRI.

Keywords: improvement, brain, matlab, markers, boundaries

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
791 Recent Advancement in Dendrimer Based Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Brain Tumor

Authors: Nitin Dwivedi, Jigna Shah

Abstract:

Brain tumor is metastatic neoplasm of central nervous system, in most of cases it is life threatening disease with low survival rate. Despite of enormous efforts in the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools, the treatment of brain tumors and gliomas remain a considerable challenge in the area of neuro-oncology. The most reason behind of this the presence of physiological barriers including blood brain barrier and blood brain tumor barrier, lead to insufficient reach ability of therapeutic agents at the site of tumor, result of inadequate destruction of gliomas. So there is an indeed need empowerment of brain tumor imaging for better characterization and delineation of tumors, visualization of malignant tissue during surgery, and tracking of response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Multifunctional different generations of dendrimer offer an improved effort for potentiate drug delivery at the site of brain tumor and gliomas. So this article emphasizes the innovative dendrimer approaches in tumor targeting, tumor imaging and delivery of therapeutic agent.

Keywords: blood brain barrier, dendrimer, gliomas, nanotechnology

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
790 Brain Age Prediction Based on Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging by 3D Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Leila Keshavarz Afshar, Hedieh Sajedi

Abstract:

Estimation of biological brain age from MR images is a topic that has been much addressed in recent years due to the importance it attaches to early diagnosis of diseases such as Alzheimer's. In this paper, we use a 3D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to provide a method for estimating the biological age of the brain. The 3D-CNN model is trained by MRI data that has been normalized. In addition, to reduce computation while saving overall performance, some effectual slices are selected for age estimation. By this method, the biological age of individuals using selected normalized data was estimated with Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 4.82 years.

Keywords: brain age estimation, biological age, 3D-CNN, deep learning, T1-weighted image, SPM, preprocessing, MRI, canny, gray matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
789 Descriptive Study of Role Played by Exercise and Diet on Brain Plasticity

Authors: Mridul Sharma, Praveen Saroha

Abstract:

In today's world, everyone has become so busy in their to-do tasks and daily routine that they tend to ignore some of the basal components of our life, including exercise and diet. This comparative study analyzes the pathways of the relationship between exercise and brain plasticity and also includes another variable diet to study the effects of diet on learning by answering questions including which diet is known to be the best learning supporter and what are the recommended quantities of the same. Further, this study looks into inter-relation between diet and exercise, and also some other approach of the relation between diet and exercise on learning apart from through Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF).

Keywords: brain derived neurotrophic factor, brain plasticity, diet, exercise

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
788 The Effect of the Hemispheres of the Brain and the Tone of Voice on Persuasion

Authors: Rica Jell de Laza, Jose Alberto Fernandez, Andrea Marie Mendoza, Qristin Jeuel Regalado

Abstract:

This study investigates whether participants experience different levels of persuasion depending on the hemisphere of the brain and the tone of voice. The experiment was performed on 96 volunteer undergraduate students taking an introductory course in psychology. The participants took part in a 2 x 3 (Hemisphere: left, right x Tone of Voice: positive, neutral, negative) Mixed Factorial Design to measure how much a person was persuaded. Results showed that the hemisphere of the brain and the tone of voice used did not significantly affect the results individually. Furthermore, there was no interaction effect. Therefore, the hemispheres of the brain and the tone of voice employed play insignificant roles in persuading a person.

Keywords: dichotic listening, brain hemisphere, tone of voice, persuasion

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
787 Computer Aided Diagnostic System for Detection and Classification of a Brain Tumor through MRI Using Level Set Based Segmentation Technique and ANN Classifier

Authors: Atanu K Samanta, Asim Ali Khan

Abstract:

Due to the acquisition of huge amounts of brain tumor magnetic resonance images (MRI) in clinics, it is very difficult for radiologists to manually interpret and segment these images within a reasonable span of time. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems can enhance the diagnostic capabilities of radiologists and reduce the time required for accurate diagnosis. An intelligent computer-aided technique for automatic detection of a brain tumor through MRI is presented in this paper. The technique uses the following computational methods; the Level Set for segmentation of a brain tumor from other brain parts, extraction of features from this segmented tumor portion using gray level co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to classify brain tumor images according to their respective types. The entire work is carried out on 50 images having five types of brain tumor. The overall classification accuracy using this method is found to be 98% which is significantly good.

Keywords: brain tumor, computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system, gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), tumor segmentation, level set method

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
786 Analysis of Brain Signals Using Neural Networks Optimized by Co-Evolution Algorithms

Authors: Zahra Abdolkarimi, Naser Zourikalatehsamad,

Abstract:

Up to 40 years ago, after recognition of epilepsy, it was generally believed that these attacks occurred randomly and suddenly. However, thanks to the advance of mathematics and engineering, such attacks can be predicted within a few minutes or hours. In this way, various algorithms for long-term prediction of the time and frequency of the first attack are presented. In this paper, by considering the nonlinear nature of brain signals and dynamic recorded brain signals, ANFIS model is presented to predict the brain signals, since according to physiologic structure of the onset of attacks, more complex neural structures can better model the signal during attacks. Contribution of this work is the co-evolution algorithm for optimization of ANFIS network parameters. Our objective is to predict brain signals based on time series obtained from brain signals of the people suffering from epilepsy using ANFIS. Results reveal that compared to other methods, this method has less sensitivity to uncertainties such as presence of noise and interruption in recorded signals of the brain as well as more accuracy. Long-term prediction capacity of the model illustrates the usage of planted systems for warning medication and preventing brain signals.

Keywords: co-evolution algorithms, brain signals, time series, neural networks, ANFIS model, physiologic structure, time prediction, epilepsy suffering, illustrates model

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
785 Mechanical Prosthesis Controlled by Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Tianyu Cao, KIRA (Ruizhi Zhao)

Abstract:

The purpose of our research is to study the possibility of people with physical disabilities manipulating mechanical prostheses through brain-computer interface (BCI) technology. The brain-machine interface (BCI) of the neural prosthesis records signals from neurons and uses mathematical modeling to decode them, converting desired movements into body movements. In order to improve the patient's neural control, the prosthesis is given a natural feeling. It records data from sensitive areas from the body to the prosthetic limb and encodes signals in the form of electrical stimulation to the brain. In our research, the brain-computer interface (BCI) is a bridge connecting patients’ cognition and the real world, allowing information to interact with each other. The efficient work between the two is achieved through external devices. The flow of information is controlled by BCI’s ability to record neuronal signals and decode signals, which are converted into device control. In this way, we could encode information and then send it to the brain through electrical stimulation, which has significant medical application.

Keywords: biomedical engineering, brain-computer interface, prosthesis, neural control

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
784 Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Children with Brain Tumors

Authors: J. R. Ashrapov, G. A. Alihodzhaeva, D. E. Abdullaev, N. R. Kadirbekov

Abstract:

Diagnosis of brain tumors is one of the challenges, as several central nervous system diseases run the same symptoms. Modern diagnostic techniques such as CT, MRI helps to significantly improve the surgery in the operating period, after surgery, after allowing time to identify postoperative complications in neurosurgery. Purpose: To study the MRI characteristics and localization of brain tumors in children and to detect the postoperative complications in the postoperative period. Materials and methods: A retrospective study of treatment of 62 children with brain tumors in age from 2 to 5 years was performed. Results of the review: MRI scan of the brain of the 62 patients 52 (83.8%) case revealed a brain tumor. Distribution on MRI of brain tumors found in 15 (24.1%) - glioblastomas, 21 (33.8%) - astrocytomas, 7 (11.2%) - medulloblastomas, 9 (14.5%) - a tumor origin (craniopharyngiomas, chordoma of the skull base). MRI revealed the following characteristic features: an additional sign of the heterogeneous MRI signal of hyper and hypointensive T1 and T2 modes with a different perifocal swelling degree with involvement in the process of brain vessels. The main objectives of postoperative MRI study are the identification of early or late postoperative complications, evaluation of radical surgery, the identification of the extended-growing tumor that (in terms of 3-4 weeks). MRI performed in the following cases: 1. Suspicion of a hematoma (3 days or more) 2. Suspicion continued tumor growth (in terms of 3-4 weeks). Conclusions: Magnetic resonance tomography is a highly informative method of diagnostics of brain tumors in children. MRI also helps to determine the effectiveness and tactics of treatment and the follow up in the postoperative period.

Keywords: brain tumors, children, MRI, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
783 Brain-Motor Disablement: Using Virtual Reality-Based Therapeutic Simulations

Authors: Vince Macri, Jakub Petioky, Paul Zilber

Abstract:

Virtual-reality-based technology, i.e. video-game-like simulations (collectively, VRSims) are used in therapy for a variety of medical conditions. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a discussion on criteria for selecting VRSims to augment treatment of survivors of acquired brain injury. Specifically, for treatments to improve or restore brain motor function in upper extremities affected by paresis or paralysis. Six uses of virtual reality are reviewed video games for entertainment, training simulations, unassisted or device-assisted movements of affected or unaffected extremities displayed in virtual environments and virtual anatomical interactivity.

Keywords: acquired brain injury, brain-motor function, virtual anatomical interactivity, therapeutic simulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
782 Estimation of Endogenous Brain Noise from Brain Response to Flickering Visual Stimulation Magnetoencephalography Visual Perception Speed

Authors: Alexander N. Pisarchik, Parth Chholak

Abstract:

Intrinsic brain noise was estimated via magneto-encephalograms (MEG) recorded during perception of flickering visual stimuli with frequencies of 6.67 and 8.57 Hz. First, we measured the mean phase difference between the flicker signal and steady-state event-related field (SSERF) in the occipital area where the brain response at the flicker frequencies and their harmonics appeared in the power spectrum. Then, we calculated the probability distribution of the phase fluctuations in the regions of frequency locking and computed its kurtosis. Since kurtosis is a measure of the distribution’s sharpness, we suppose that inverse kurtosis is related to intrinsic brain noise. In our experiments, the kurtosis value varied among subjects from K = 3 to K = 5 for 6.67 Hz and from 2.6 to 4 for 8.57 Hz. The majority of subjects demonstrated leptokurtic kurtosis (K < 3), i.e., the distribution tails approached zero more slowly than Gaussian. In addition, we found a strong correlation between kurtosis and brain complexity measured as the correlation dimension, so that the MEGs of subjects with higher kurtosis exhibited lower complexity. The obtained results are discussed in the framework of nonlinear dynamics and complex network theories. Specifically, in a network of coupled oscillators, phase synchronization is mainly determined by two antagonistic factors, noise, and the coupling strength. While noise worsens phase synchronization, the coupling improves it. If we assume that each neuron and each synapse contribute to brain noise, the larger neuronal network should have stronger noise, and therefore phase synchronization should be worse, that results in smaller kurtosis. The described method for brain noise estimation can be useful for diagnostics of some brain pathologies associated with abnormal brain noise.

Keywords: brain, flickering, magnetoencephalography, MEG, visual perception, perception time

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
781 Highly Skilled Migrants Trapped in the Brain Waste: The Eastern European Graduates in the Western European Underemployment

Authors: Katalin Bándy

Abstract:

The European emigration of highly educated immigrants draws attention to the problem of brain drain. Due to the Eastern European countries joining the EU and the opening of the Western European labour market the west-wards migration brisked up. By now another problem has been intensified correlated to migration: the migration of highly skilled workers related to brain waste tendencies. With some exceptions, educated immigrants from Eastern European countries are more likely to end up in unskilled jobs than residents. This paper is about to reveal the above-mentioned problems and this study is supported by the results of secondary pieces of research and the own survey made in the EU-15 among the Hungarian highly skilled (especially economics graduated) migrants, and it also examines the causes and in the focus there are the migrant motivations of the high-skilled young generation after the crisis.

Keywords: brain drain, brain waste, migration of highly-skilled, underemployment

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
780 Mechanical Characterization of Brain Tissue in Compression

Authors: Abbas Shafiee, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadian, Maryam Hoviattalab

Abstract:

The biomechanical behavior of brain tissue is needed for predicting the traumatic brain injury (TBI). Each year over 1.5 million people sustain a TBI in the USA. The appropriate coefficients for injury prediction can be evaluated using experimental data. In this study, an experimental setup on brain soft tissue was developed to perform unconfined compression tests at quasistatic strain rates ∈0.0004 s-1 and 0.008 s-1 and 0.4 stress relaxation test under unconfined uniaxial compression with ∈ 0.67 s-1 ramp rate. The fitted visco-hyperelastic parameters were utilized by using obtained stress-strain curves. The experimental data was validated using finite element analysis (FEA) and previous findings. Also, influence of friction coefficient on unconfined compression and relaxation test and effect of ramp rate in relaxation test is investigated. Results of the findings are implemented on the analysis of a human brain under high acceleration due to impact.

Keywords: brain soft tissue, visco-hyperelastic, finite element analysis (FEA), friction, quasistatic strain rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 531
779 Development of a Computer Aided Diagnosis Tool for Brain Tumor Extraction and Classification

Authors: Fathi Kallel, Abdulelah Alabd Uljabbar, Abdulrahman Aldukhail, Abdulaziz Alomran

Abstract:

The brain is an important organ in our body since it is responsible about the majority actions such as vision, memory, etc. However, different diseases such as Alzheimer and tumors could affect the brain and conduct to a partial or full disorder. Regular diagnosis are necessary as a preventive measure and could help doctors to early detect a possible trouble and therefore taking the appropriate treatment, especially in the case of brain tumors. Different imaging modalities are proposed for diagnosis of brain tumor. The powerful and most used modality is the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). MRI images are analyzed by doctor in order to locate eventual tumor in the brain and describe the appropriate and needed treatment. Diverse image processing methods are also proposed for helping doctors in identifying and analyzing the tumor. In fact, a large Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) tools including developed image processing algorithms are proposed and exploited by doctors as a second opinion to analyze and identify the brain tumors. In this paper, we proposed a new advanced CAD for brain tumor identification, classification and feature extraction. Our proposed CAD includes three main parts. Firstly, we load the brain MRI. Secondly, a robust technique for brain tumor extraction is proposed. This technique is based on both Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). DWT is characterized by its multiresolution analytic property, that’s why it was applied on MRI images with different decomposition levels for feature extraction. Nevertheless, this technique suffers from a main drawback since it necessitates a huge storage and is computationally expensive. To decrease the dimensions of the feature vector and the computing time, PCA technique is considered. In the last stage, according to different extracted features, the brain tumor is classified into either benign or malignant tumor using Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm. A CAD tool for brain tumor detection and classification, including all above-mentioned stages, is designed and developed using MATLAB guide user interface.

Keywords: MRI, brain tumor, CAD, feature extraction, DWT, PCA, classification, SVM

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
778 Tumor Detection of Cerebral MRI by Multifractal Analysis

Authors: S. Oudjemia, F. Alim, S. Seddiki

Abstract:

This paper shows the application of multifractal analysis for additional help in cancer diagnosis. The medical image processing is a very important discipline in which many existing methods are in search of solutions to real problems of medicine. In this work, we present results of multifractal analysis of brain MRI images. The purpose of this analysis was to separate between healthy and cancerous tissue of the brain. A nonlinear method based on multifractal detrending moving average (MFDMA) which is a generalization of the detrending fluctuations analysis (DFA) is used for the detection of abnormalities in these images. The proposed method could make separation of the two types of brain tissue with success. It is very important to note that the choice of this non-linear method is due to the complexity and irregularity of tumor tissue that linear and classical nonlinear methods seem difficult to characterize completely. In order to show the performance of this method, we compared its results with those of the conventional method box-counting.

Keywords: irregularity, nonlinearity, MRI brain images, multifractal analysis, brain tumor

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
777 The Non-Linear Analysis of Brain Response to Visual Stimuli

Authors: H. Namazi, H. T. N. Kuan

Abstract:

Brain activity can be measured by acquiring and analyzing EEG signals from an individual. In fact, the human brain response to external and internal stimuli is mapped in his EEG signals. During years some methods such as Fourier transform, wavelet transform, empirical mode decomposition, etc. have been used to analyze the EEG signals in order to find the effect of stimuli, especially external stimuli. But each of these methods has some weak points in analysis of EEG signals. For instance, Fourier transform and wavelet transform methods are linear signal analysis methods which are not good to be used for analysis of EEG signals as nonlinear signals. In this research we analyze the brain response to visual stimuli by extracting information in the form of various measures from EEG signals using a software developed by our research group. The used measures are Jeffrey’s measure, Fractal dimension and Hurst exponent. The results of these analyses are useful not only for fundamental understanding of brain response to visual stimuli but provide us with very good recommendations for clinical purposes.

Keywords: visual stimuli, brain response, EEG signal, fractal dimension, hurst exponent, Jeffrey’s measure

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
776 Dynamic Behavior of Brain Tissue under Transient Loading

Authors: Y. J. Zhou, G. Lu

Abstract:

In this paper, an analytical study is made for the dynamic behavior of human brain tissue under transient loading. In this analytical model the Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law is coupled with visco-elastic constitutive equations to take into account both the nonlinear and time-dependent mechanical behavior of brain tissue. Five ordinary differential equations representing the relationships of five main parameters (radial stress, circumferential stress, radial strain, circumferential strain, and particle velocity) are obtained by using the characteristic method to transform five partial differential equations (two continuity equations, one motion equation, and two constitutive equations). Analytical expressions of the attenuation properties for spherical wave in brain tissue are analytically derived. Numerical results are obtained based on the five ordinary differential equations. The mechanical responses (particle velocity and stress) of brain are compared at different radii including 5, 6, 10, 15 and 25 mm under four different input conditions. The results illustrate that loading curves types of the particle velocity significantly influences the stress in brain tissue. The understanding of the influence by the input loading cures can be used to reduce the potentially injury to brain under head impact by designing protective structures to control the loading curves types.

Keywords: analytical method, mechanical responses, spherical wave propagation, traumatic brain injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
775 Melatonin Suppresses the Brain Injury after Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion in Hyperglycemic Rats

Authors: Dalia O. Saleha, Gehad A. Abdel Jaleela, Sally W. Al-Awdana

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to exacerbate cerebral ischemic injury. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of oral supplementation of melatonin (MLN) on cerebral injury caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/Re) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats. Hyperglycemia was induced by a single injection of STZ (55mg/kg; i.p.), six weeks later the cerebral injury was induced by MCAO/Re. Twenty-four hours after the MCAO/Re the MLN (10 mg/kg) was injected for 14 consecutive days. Results of the present study revealed that MCAO/Re in STZ-induced hyperglycemia in rats causes an increase in the oxidative stress biomarkers; it increased brain lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA) and brain level of nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, MCAO/Reproduces a prominent increase in the brain inflammatory markers viz. interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis nuclear factor-alpha (TNF-α). Oral treatment of MCAO/Re in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats with MLN (10 mg/kg) for two weeks restored the brain levels of MDA, GSH, NO, IL-6, IL-1β and the TNF-α. MLN succeeded to suppress the exacerbation of damage in the brain of hyperglycemic rats. These results suggest that daily intake of MLN attenuates the exacerbation of cerebral ischemic injury in a diabetic state, which may be attributed to anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the brain.

Keywords: melatonin, brain injury, cerebral ischemia/reperfusion, hyperglycemia, rats

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
774 Characterization of 3D-MRP for Analyzing of Brain Balancing Index (BBI) Pattern

Authors: N. Fuad, M. N. Taib, R. Jailani, M. E. Marwan

Abstract:

This paper discusses on power spectral density (PSD) characteristics which are extracted from three-dimensional (3D) electroencephalogram (EEG) models. The EEG signal recording was conducted on 150 healthy subjects. Development of 3D EEG models involves pre-processing of raw EEG signals and construction of spectrogram images. Then, the values of maximum PSD were extracted as features from the model. These features are analysed using mean relative power (MRP) and different mean relative power (DMRP) technique to observe the pattern among different brain balancing indexes. The results showed that by implementing these techniques, the pattern of brain balancing indexes can be clearly observed. Some patterns are indicates between index 1 to index 5 for left frontal (LF) and right frontal (RF).

Keywords: power spectral density, 3D EEG model, brain balancing, mean relative power, different mean relative power

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
773 The Analysis of Brain Response to Auditory Stimuli through EEG Signals’ Non-Linear Analysis

Authors: H. Namazi, H. T. N. Kuan

Abstract:

Brain activity can be measured by acquiring and analyzing EEG signals from an individual. In fact, the human brain response to external and internal stimuli is mapped in his EEG signals. During years some methods such as Fourier transform, wavelet transform, empirical mode decomposition, etc. have been used to analyze the EEG signals in order to find the effect of stimuli, especially external stimuli. But each of these methods has some weak points in analysis of EEG signals. For instance, Fourier transform and wavelet transform methods are linear signal analysis methods which are not good to be used for analysis of EEG signals as nonlinear signals. In this research we analyze the brain response to auditory stimuli by extracting information in the form of various measures from EEG signals using a software developed by our research group. The used measures are Jeffrey’s measure, Fractal dimension and Hurst exponent. The results of these analyses are useful not only for fundamental understanding of brain response to auditory stimuli but provide us with very good recommendations for clinical purposes.

Keywords: auditory stimuli, brain response, EEG signal, fractal dimension, hurst exponent, Jeffrey’s measure

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
772 Exposure to Radio Frequency Waves of Mobile Phone and Temperature Changes of Brain Tissue

Authors: Farhad Forouharmajd, Hossein Ebrahimi, Siamak Pourabdian

Abstract:

Introduction: Prevalent use of cell phones (mobile phones) has led to increasing worries about the effect of radiofrequency waves on the physiology of human body. This study was done to determine different reactions of the temperatures in different depths of brain tissue in confronting with radiofrequency waves of cell phones. Methodology: This study was an empirical research. A cow's brain tissue was placed in a compartment and the effects of radiofrequency waves of the cell phone was analyzed during confrontation and after confrontation, in three different depths of 2, 12, and 22 mm of the tissue, in 4 mm and 4 cm distances of the tissue to a cell phone, for 15 min. Lutron thermometer was used to measure the tissue temperatures. Data analysis was done by Lutron software. Findings: The rate of increasing the temperature at the depth of 22 mm was higher than 2 mm and 12mm depths, during confrontation of the brain tissue at the distance of 4 mm with the cell phone, such that the tissue temperatures at 2, 12, and 22 mm depths increased by 0.29 ˚C, 0.31 ˚C, and 0.37 ˚C, respectively, relative to the base temperature (tissue temperature before confrontation). Moreover, the temperature of brain tissue at the distance of 4 cm by increasing the tissue depth was more than other depths. Increasing the tissue temperature also existed by increasing the brain tissue depth after the confrontation with the cell phone. The temperature of the 22 mm depth increased with higher speed at the time confrontation. Conclusion: Not only radiofrequency waves of cell phones increased the tissue temperature in all the depths of the brain tissue, but also the temperature due to radiofrequency waves of the cell phone was more at the depths higher than 22 mm of the tissue. In fact, the thermal effect of radiofrequency waves was higher in higher depths.

Keywords: mobile phone, radio frequency waves, brain tissue, temperature

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771 LGG Architecture for Brain Tumor Segmentation Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Sajeeha Ansar, Asad Ali Safi, Sheikh Ziauddin, Ahmad R. Shahid, Faraz Ahsan

Abstract:

The most aggressive form of brain tumor is called glioma. Glioma is kind of tumor that arises from glial tissue of the brain and occurs quite often. A fully automatic 2D-CNN model for brain tumor segmentation is presented in this paper. We performed pre-processing steps to remove noise and intensity variances using N4ITK and standard intensity correction, respectively. We used Keras open-source library with Theano as backend for fast implementation of CNN model. In addition, we used BRATS 2015 MRI dataset to evaluate our proposed model. Furthermore, we have used SimpleITK open-source library in our proposed model to analyze images. Moreover, we have extracted random 2D patches for proposed 2D-CNN model for efficient brain segmentation. Extracting 2D patched instead of 3D due to less dimensional information present in 2D which helps us in reducing computational time. Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) is used as performance measure for the evaluation of the proposed method. Our method achieved DSC score of 0.77 for complete, 0.76 for core, 0.77 for enhanced tumor regions. However, these results are comparable with methods already implemented 2D CNN architecture.

Keywords: brain tumor segmentation, convolutional neural networks, deep learning, LGG

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