Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 112

Search results for: vehicular

112 VCloud: A Security Framework for VANET

Authors: Wiseborn Manfe Danquah, D. Turgay Altilar

Abstract:

Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is an integral component of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) that has enjoyed a lot of attention from the research community and the automotive industry. This is mainly due to the opportunities and challenges it presents. Vehicular Ad-hoc Network being a class of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET) has all the security concerns existing in traditional MANET as well as new security and privacy concerns introduced by the unique vehicular communication environment. This paper provides a survey of the possible attacks in vehicular environment, as well as security and privacy concerns in VANET. It also provides an insight into the development of a comprehensive cloud framework to provide a more robust and secured communication among vehicular nodes and road side units. Our proposal, a Metropolitan Based Public Interconnected Vehicular Cloud (MIVC) infrastructure seeks to provide a more reliable and secured vehicular communication network.

Keywords: mobile Ad-hoc networks, vehicular ad hoc network, cloud, ITS, road side units (RSU), metropolitan interconnected vehicular cloud (MIVC)

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111 A 5G Architecture Based to Dynamic Vehicular Clustering Enhancing VoD Services Over Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

Authors: Lamaa Sellami, Bechir Alaya

Abstract:

Nowadays, video-on-demand (VoD) applications are becoming one of the tendencies driving vehicular network users. In this paper, considering the unpredictable vehicle density, the unexpected acceleration or deceleration of the different cars included in the vehicular traffic load, and the limited radio range of the employed communication scheme, we introduce the “Dynamic Vehicular Clustering” (DVC) algorithm as a new scheme for video streaming systems over VANET. The proposed algorithm takes advantage of the concept of small cells and the introduction of wireless backhauls, inspired by the different features and the performance of the Long Term Evolution (LTE)- Advanced network. The proposed clustering algorithm considers multiple characteristics such as the vehicle’s position and acceleration to reduce latency and packet loss. Therefore, each cluster is counted as a small cell containing vehicular nodes and an access point that is elected regarding some particular specifications.

Keywords: video-on-demand, vehicular ad-hoc network, mobility, vehicular traffic load, small cell, wireless backhaul, LTE-advanced, latency, packet loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
110 Experimental Measurement for Vehicular Communication Evaluation Using Obu Arada System

Authors: Aymen Sassi

Abstract:

The equipment of vehicles with wireless communication capabilities is expected to be the key to the evolution to next generation intelligent transportation systems (ITS). The IEEE community has been continuously working on the development of an efficient vehicular communication protocol for the enhancement of Wireless Access in Vehicular Environment (WAVE). Vehicular communication systems, called V2X, support vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communications. The efficiency of such communication systems depends on several factors, among which the surrounding environment and mobility are prominent. Accordingly, this study focuses on the evaluation of the real performance of vehicular communication with special focus on the effects of the real environment and mobility on V2X communication. It starts by identifying the real maximum range that such communication can support and then evaluates V2I and V2V performances. The Arada LocoMate OBU transmission system was used to test and evaluate the impact of the transmission range in V2X communication. The evaluation of V2I and V2V communication takes the real effects of low and high mobility on transmission into account.

Keywords: IEEE 802.11p, V2I, V2X, mobility, PLR, Arada LocoMate OBU, maximum range

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
109 Vehicular Emission Estimation of Islamabad by Using Copert-5 Model

Authors: Muhammad Jahanzaib, Muhammad Z. A. Khan, Junaid Khayyam

Abstract:

Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan with the population of 1.365 million people and with a vehicular fleet size of 0.75 million. The vehicular fleet size is growing annually by the rate of 11%. Vehicular emissions are major source of Black carbon (BC). In developing countries like Pakistan, most of the vehicles consume conventional fuels like Petrol, Diesel, and CNG. These fuels are the major emitters of pollutants like CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, VOCs, and particulate matter (PM10). Carbon dioxide and methane are the leading contributor to the global warming with a global share of 9-26% and 4-9% respectively. NOx is the precursor of nitrates which ultimately form aerosols that are noxious to human health. In this study, COPERT (Computer program to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport) was used for vehicular emission estimation in Islamabad. COPERT is a windows based program which is developed for the calculation of emissions from the road transport sector. The emissions were calculated for the year of 2016 include pollutants like CO, NOx, VOC, and PM and energy consumption. The different variable was input to the model for emission estimation including meteorological parameters, average vehicular trip length and respective time duration, fleet configuration, activity data, degradation factor, and fuel effect. The estimated emissions for CO, CH4, CO2, NOx, and PM10 were found to be 9814.2, 44.9, 279196.7, 3744.2 and 304.5 tons respectively.

Keywords: COPERT Model, emission estimation, PM10, vehicular emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
108 PIN-Diode Based Slotted Reconfigurable Multiband Antenna Array for Vehicular Communication

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, Shivesh Tripathi, V. S. Tripathi

Abstract:

In this paper, a patch antenna array design is proposed for vehicular communication. The antenna consists of 2-element patch array. The antenna array is operating at multiple frequency bands. The multiband operation is achieved by use of slots at proper locations at the patch. The array is made reconfigurable by use of two PIN-diodes. The antenna is simulated and measured in four states of diodes i.e. ON-ON, ON-OFF, OFF-ON, and OFF-OFF. In ON-ON state of diodes, the resonant frequencies are 4.62-4.96, 6.50-6.75, 6.90-7.01, 7.34-8.22, 8.89-9.09 GHz. In ON-OFF state of diodes, the measured resonant frequencies are 4.63-4.93, 6.50-6.70 and 7.81-7.91 GHz. In OFF-ON states of diodes the resonant frequencies are 1.24-1.46, 3.40-3.75, 5.07-5.25 and 6.90-7.20 GHz and in the OFF-OFF state of diodes 4.49-4.75 and 5.61-5.98 GHz. The maximum bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 16.29%. The peak gain of the antenna is 3.4 dB at 5.9 GHz, which makes it suitable for vehicular communication.

Keywords: antenna, array, reconfigurable, vehicular

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
107 ECO ROADS: A Solution to the Vehicular Pollution on Roads

Authors: Harshit Garg, Shakshi Gupta

Abstract:

One of the major problems in today’s world is the growing pollution. The cause for all environmental problems is the increasing pollution rate. Looking upon the statistics, one can find out that most of the pollution is caused by the vehicular pollution which is more than 70 % of the total pollution, effecting the environment as well as human health proportionally. One is aware of the fact that vehicles run on roads so why not having the roads which could adsorb that pollution, not only once but a number of times. Every problem has a solution which can be solved by the state of art of technology, that is one can use the innovative ideas and thoughts to make technology as a solution to the problem of vehicular pollution on roads. Solving the problem up to a certain limit/ percentage can be formulated into a new term called ECO ROADS.

Keywords: environment, pollution, roads, sustainibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
106 Assessment and Prediction of Vehicular Emissions in Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon City at Various Policy and Technology Scenarios Using Simple Interactive Model (SIM-Air)

Authors: Ria M. Caramoan, Analiza P. Rollon, Karl N. Vergel

Abstract:

The Simple Interactive Models for Better Air Quality (SIM-air) is an integrated approach model that allows the available information to support the integrated urban air quality management. This study utilized the vehicular air pollution information system module of SIM-air for the assessment of vehicular emissions in Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon City, Philippines. The main objective of the study is to assess and predict the contribution of different types of vehicles to the vehicular emissions in terms of PM₁₀, SOₓ, and NOₓ at different policy and technology scenarios. For the base year 2017, the results show vehicular emissions of 735.46 tons of PM₁₀, 108.90 tons of SOₓ, and 2,101.11 tons of NOₓ. Motorcycle is the major source of particulates contributing about 52% of the PM₁₀ emissions. Meanwhile, Public Utility Jeepneys contribute 27% of SOₓ emissions and private cars using gasoline contribute 39% of NOₓ emissions. Ambient air quality monitoring was also conducted in the study area for the standard parameters of PM₁₀, S0₂, and NO₂. Results show an average of 88.11 µg/Ncm, 47.41 µg/Ncm and 22.54 µg/Ncm for PM₁₀, N0₂, and SO₂, respectively, all were within the DENR National Ambient Air Quality Guideline Values. Future emissions of PM₁₀, NOₓ, and SOₓ are estimated at different scenarios. Results show that in the year 2030, PM₁₀ emissions will be increased by 186.2%. NOₓ emissions and SOₓ emissions will also be increased by 38.9% and 5.5%, without the implementation of the scenarios.

Keywords: ambient air quality, emissions inventory, mobile air pollution, vehicular emissions

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
105 Effect of On-Road Vehicular Traffic on Noise Pollution in Bhubaneswar City, Eastern India

Authors: Dudam Bharath Kumar, Harsh Kumar, Naveed Ahmed

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Vehicular traffic on the road-side plays a significant role in affecting the noise pollution in most of the cities over the world. To assess the correlation of the road-traffic on noise pollution in the city environment, continuous measurements were carried out in an entire daytime starting from 8:00 AM IST to 6:00 PM IST at a single point for each 5 minutes (8:00-8:05, 9:00-9:05, 10:00-10:05 AM, ...) near the KIIT University campus road. Noise levels were observed using a mobile operated app of android cell phone and a handheld noise meter. Calibration analysis shows high correlation about 0.89 for the study location for the day time period. Results show diurnal variability of atmospheric noise pollution levels go hand-in and with the vehicular number which pass through a point of observation. The range of noise pollution levels in the daytime period is observed as 55 to 75 dB(A). As a day starts, sudden upsurge of noise levels is observed from 65 to 71 dB(A) in the early morning, 64 dB(A) in late morning, regains the same quantity 68-71 dB(A) in the afternoon, and rises 70 dB(A) in the early evening. Vehicular number of the corresponding noise levels exhibits 115-120, 150-160, and 140-160, respectively. However, this preliminary study suggests the importance of vehicular traffic on noise pollution levels in the urban environment and further to study population exposed to noise levels. Innovative approaches help curb the noise pollution through modelling the traffic noise pollution spatially and temporally over the city environments.

Keywords: noise pollution, vehicular traffic, urban environment, noise meter

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
104 VANETs Geographic Routing Protocols: A survey

Authors: Ramin Karimi

Abstract:

One of common highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks is Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Hence routing in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) has attracted much attention during the last few years. VANET is characterized by its high mobility of nodes and specific topology patterns. Moreover these networks encounter a significant loss rate and a very short duration of communication. In vehicular ad hoc networks, one of challenging is routing of data due to high speed mobility and changing topology of vehicles. Geographic routing protocols are becoming popular due to advancement and availability of GPS devices. Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) are a class of networks that enable communication where connectivity issues like sparse connectivity, intermittent connectivity; high latency, long delay, high error rates, asymmetric data rate, and even no end-to-end connectivity exist. In this paper, we review the existing Geographic Routing Protocols for VANETs and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

Keywords: vehicular ad hoc networks, mobility, geographic routing, delay tolerant networks

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103 Comparative Study of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks for Smart City

Authors: Khadija Raissi, Bechir Ben Gouissem

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In this paper, we perform the investigation of some routing protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) context. Indeed, we study the efficiency of protocols like Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Optimized Link State Routing convention (OLSR) and Vehicular Multi-hop algorithm for Stable Clustering (VMASC) in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR) and throughput. The performance evaluation and comparison between the studied protocols shows that the VMASC is the best protocols regarding fast data transmission and link stability in VANETs. The validation of all results is done by the NS3 simulator.

Keywords: VANET, smart city, AODV, OLSR, DSR, OLSR, VMASC, routing protocols, NS3

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
102 Economized Sensor Data Processing with Vehicle Platooning

Authors: Henry Hexmoor, Kailash Yelasani

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We present vehicular platooning as a special case of crowd-sensing framework where sharing sensory information among a crowd is used for their collective benefit. After offering an abstract policy that governs processes involving a vehicular platoon, we review several common scenarios and components surrounding vehicular platooning. We then present a simulated prototype that illustrates efficiency of road usage and vehicle travel time derived from platooning. We have argued that one of the paramount benefits of platooning that is overlooked elsewhere, is the substantial computational savings (i.e., economizing benefits) in acquisition and processing of sensory data among vehicles sharing the road. The most capable vehicle can share data gathered from its sensors with nearby vehicles grouped into a platoon.

Keywords: cloud network, collaboration, internet of things, social network

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
101 Driver Behavior Analysis and Inter-Vehicular Collision Simulation Approach

Authors: Lu Zhao, Nadir Farhi, Zoi Christoforou, Nadia Haddadou

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The safety test of deploying intelligent connected vehicles (ICVs) on the road network is a critical challenge. Road traffic network simulation can be used to test the functionality of ICVs, which is not only time-saving and less energy-consuming but also can create scenarios with car collisions. However, the relationship between different human driver behaviors and the car-collision occurrences has been not understood clearly; meanwhile, the procedure of car-collisions generation in the traffic numerical simulators is not fully integrated. In this paper, we propose an approach to identify specific driver profiles from real driven data; then, we replicate them in numerical traffic simulations with the purpose of generating inter-vehicular collisions. We proposed three profiles: (i) 'aggressive': short time-headway, (ii) 'inattentive': long reaction time, and (iii) 'normal' with intermediate values of reaction time and time-headway. These three driver profiles are extracted from the NGSIM dataset and simulated using the intelligent driver model (IDM), with an extension of reaction time. At last, the generation of inter-vehicular collisions is performed by varying the percentages of different profiles.

Keywords: vehicular collisions, human driving behavior, traffic modeling, car-following models, microscopic traffic simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
100 A Multilevel Authentication Protocol: MAP in VANET for Human Safety

Authors: N. Meddeb, A. M. Makhlouf, M. A. Ben Ayed

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Due to the real-time requirement of message in Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANET), it is necessary to authenticate vehicles to achieve security, efficiency, and conditional privacy-preserving. Privacy is of utmost relevance in VANETs. For this reason, we have proposed a new protocol called ‘Multilevel Authentication Protocol’ (MAP) that considers different vehicle categories. The proposed protocol is based on our Multilevel Authentication protocol for Vehicular networks (MAVnet). But the MAP leads to human safety, where the priority is given to the ambulance vehicles. For evaluation, we used the Java language to develop a demo application and deployed it on the Network Security Simulation (Nessi2). Compared with existing authentication protocols, MAP markedly enhance the communication overhead and decreases the delay of exchanging messages while preserving conditional privacy.

Keywords: Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANET), vehicle categories, safety, databases, privacy, authentication, throughput, delay

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
99 An Enhanced Connectivity Aware Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Ahmadu Maidorawa, Kamalrulnizam Abu Bakar

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This paper proposed an Enhanced Connectivity Aware Routing (ECAR) protocol for Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET). The protocol uses a control broadcast to reduce the number of overhead packets needed in a route discovery process. It is also equipped with an alternative backup route that is used whenever a primary path to destination failed, which highly reduces the frequent launching and re-launching of the route discovery process that waste useful bandwidth and unnecessarily prolonging the average packet delay. NS2 simulation results show that the performance of ECAR protocol outperformed the original connectivity aware routing (CAR) protocol by reducing the average packet delay by 28%, control overheads by 27% and increased the packet delivery ratio by 22%.

Keywords: alternative path, primary path, protocol, routing, VANET, vehicular ad hoc networks

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98 Broadcast Routing in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs)

Authors: Muazzam A. Khan, Muhammad Wasim

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Vehicular adhoc network (VANET) Cars for network (VANET) allowing vehicles to talk to each other, which is committed to building a strong network of mobile vehicles is technical. In VANETs vehicles are equipped with special devices that can get and share info with the atmosphere and other vehicles in the network. Depending on this data security and safety of the vehicles can be enhanced. Broadcast routing is dispersion of any audio or visual medium of mass communication scattered audience distribute audio and video content, but usually using electromagnetic radiation (waves). The lack of server or fixed infrastructure media messages in VANETs plays an important role for every individual application. Broadcast Message VANETs still open research challenge and requires some effort to come to good solutions. This paper starts with a brief introduction of VANET, its applications, and the law of the message-trends in this network starts. This work provides an important and comprehensive study of reliable broadcast routing in VANET scenario.

Keywords: vehicular ad-hoc network , broadcasting, networking protocols, traffic pattern, low intensity conflict

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
97 A Weighted K-Medoids Clustering Algorithm for Effective Stability in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Rejab Hajlaoui, Tarek Moulahi, Hervé Guyennet

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In a highway scenario, the vehicle speed can exceed 120 kmph. Therefore, any vehicle can enter or leave the network within a very short time. This mobility adversely affects the network connectivity and decreases the life time of all established links. To ensure an effective stability in vehicular ad hoc networks with minimum broadcasting storm, we have developed a weighted algorithm based on the k-medoids clustering algorithm (WKCA). Indeed, the number of clusters and the initial cluster heads will not be selected randomly as usual, but considering the available transmission range and the environment size. Then, to ensure optimal assignment of nodes to clusters in both k-medoids phases, the combined weight of any node will be computed according to additional metrics including direction, relative speed and proximity. Empirical results prove that in addition to the convergence speed that characterizes the k-medoids algorithm, our proposed model performs well both AODV-Clustering and OLSR-Clustering protocols under different densities and velocities in term of end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, and throughput.

Keywords: communication, clustering algorithm, k-medoids, sensor, vehicular ad hoc network

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
96 Enhanced Cluster Based Connectivity Maintenance in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Manverpreet Kaur, Amarpreet Singh

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The demand of Vehicular ad hoc networks is increasing day by day, due to offering the various applications and marvelous benefits to VANET users. Clustering in VANETs is most important to overcome the connectivity problems of VANETs. In this paper, we proposed a new clustering technique Enhanced cluster based connectivity maintenance in vehicular ad hoc network. Our objective is to form long living clusters. The proposed approach is grouping the vehicles, on the basis of the longest list of neighbors to form clusters. The cluster formation and cluster head selection process done by the RSU that may results it reduces the chances of overhead on to the network. The cluster head selection procedure is the vehicle which has closest speed to average speed will elect as a cluster Head by the RSU and if two vehicles have same speed which is closest to average speed then they will be calculate by one of the new parameter i.e. distance to their respective destination. The vehicle which has largest distance to their destination will be choosing as a cluster Head by the RSU. Our simulation outcomes show that our technique performs better than the existing technique.

Keywords: VANETs, clustering, connectivity, cluster head, intelligent transportation system (ITS)

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
95 Bandwidth Efficient Cluster Based Collision Avoidance Multicasting Protocol in VANETs

Authors: Navneet Kaur, Amarpreet Singh

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In Vehicular Adhoc Networks, Data Dissemination is a challenging task. There are number of techniques, types and protocols available for disseminating the data but in order to preserve limited bandwidth and to disseminate maximum data over networks makes it more challenging. There are broadcasting, multicasting and geocasting based protocols. Multicasting based protocols are found to be best for conserving the bandwidth. One such protocol named BEAM exists that improves the performance of Vehicular Adhoc Networks by reducing the number of in-network message transactions and thereby efficiently utilizing the bandwidth during an emergency situation. But this protocol may result in multicar chain collision as there was no V2V communication. So, this paper proposes a new protocol named Enhanced Bandwidth Efficient Cluster Based Multicasting Protocol (EBECM) that will overcome the limitations of existing BEAM protocol. And Simulation results will show the improved performance of EBECM in terms of Routing overhead, throughput and PDR when compared with BEAM protocol.

Keywords: BEAM, data dissemination, emergency situation, vehicular adhoc network

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
94 Effect of Traffic Volume and Its Composition on Vehicular Speed under Mixed Traffic Conditions: A Kriging Based Approach

Authors: Subhadip Biswas, Shivendra Maurya, Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh

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Use of speed prediction models sometimes appears as a feasible alternative to laborious field measurement particularly, in case when field data cannot fulfill designer’s requirements. However, developing speed models is a challenging task specifically in the context of developing countries like India where vehicles with diverse static and dynamic characteristics use the same right of way without any segregation. Here the traffic composition plays a significant role in determining the vehicular speed. The present research was carried out to examine the effects of traffic volume and its composition on vehicular speed under mixed traffic conditions. Classified traffic volume and speed data were collected from different geometrically identical six lane divided arterials in New Delhi. Based on these field data, speed prediction models were developed for individual vehicle category adopting Kriging approximation technique, an alternative for commonly used regression. These models are validated with the data set kept aside earlier for validation purpose. The predicted speeds showed a great deal of agreement with the observed values and also the model outperforms all other existing speed models. Finally, the proposed models were utilized to evaluate the effect of traffic volume and its composition on speed.

Keywords: speed, Kriging, arterial, traffic volume

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
93 RSU Aggregated Message Delivery for VANET

Authors: Auxeeliya Jesudoss, Ashraph Sulaiman, Ratnakar Kotnana

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V2V communication brings up several questions of scalability issues although message sharing in vehicular ad-hoc networks comprises of both Vehicle-to-Vehicle communications (V2V) and Vehicle to Infrastructure communication (V2I). It is not an easy task for a vehicle to verify all signatures of the messages sent by its neighboring vehicles in a timely manner, without resulting in message loss. Moreover, the communication overhead of a vehicle to authenticate another vehicle would increase together with the security of the system. Another issue to be addressed is the continuous mobility of vehicles which requires at least some information on the node’s own position to be revealed to the neighboring vehicles. This may facilitate the attacker to congregate information on a node’s position or its mobility patterns. In order to tackle these issues, this paper introduces a RSU aggregated message deliverance scheme called RAMeD. With RAMeD, roadside units (RSUs) are responsible for verifying the identity of the vehicles entering in its range, collect messages from genuine vehicles and to aggregate similar messages into groups before sending them to all the vehicles in its communication range. This aggregation will tremendously improve the rate of message delivery and reduce the message lose ratio by avoiding similar messages being sent to the vehicles redundantly. The proposed protocol is analyzed extensively to evaluate its merits and efficiency for vehicular communication.

Keywords: vehicular ad-hoc networks, V2V, V2I, VANET communication, scalability, message aggregation

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92 Proposal of Commutation Protocol in Hybrid Sensors and Vehicular Networks for Intelligent Transport Systems

Authors: Taha Bensiradj, Samira Moussaoui

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Hybrid Sensors and Vehicular Networks (HSVN), represent a hybrid network, which uses several generations of Ad-Hoc networks. It is used especially in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). The HSVN allows making collaboration between the Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) deployed on the border of the road and the Vehicular Network (VANET). This collaboration is defined by messages exchanged between the two networks for the purpose to inform the drivers about the state of the road, provide road safety information and more information about traffic on the road. Moreover, this collaboration created by HSVN, also allows the use of a network and the advantage of improving another network. For example, the dissemination of information between the sensors quickly decreases its energy, and therefore, we can use vehicles that do not have energy constraint to disseminate the information between sensors. On the other hand, to solve the disconnection problem in VANET, the sensors can be used as gateways that allow sending the messages received by one vehicle to another. However, because of the short communication range of the sensor and its low capacity of storage and processing of data, it is difficult to ensure the exchange of road messages between it and the vehicle, which can be moving at high speed at the time of exchange. This represents the time where the vehicle is in communication range with the sensor. This work is the proposition of a communication protocol between the sensors and the vehicle used in HSVN. The latter has as the purpose to ensure the exchange of road messages in the available time of exchange.

Keywords: HSVN, ITS, VANET, WSN

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
91 Mobility Management via Software Defined Networks (SDN) in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs)

Authors: Bilal Haider, Farhan Aadil

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A Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) provides various services to end-users traveling on the road at high speeds. However, this high-speed mobility of mobile nodes can cause frequent service disruptions. Various mobility management protocols exist for managing node mobility, but due to their centralized nature, they tend to suffer in the VANET environment. In this research, we proposed a distributed mobility management protocol using software-defined networks (SDN) for VANETs. Instead of relying on a centralized mobility anchor, the mobility functionality is distributed at multiple infrastructural nodes. The protocol is based on the classical Proxy Mobile IP version 6 (PMIPv6). It is evident from simulation results that this work has improved the network performance with respect to nodes throughput, delay, and packet loss.

Keywords: SDN, VANET, mobility management, optimization

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90 Impact of Node Density and Transmission Range on the Performance of OLSR and DSDV Routing Protocols in VANET City Scenarios

Authors: Yassine Meraihi, Dalila Acheli, Rabah Meraihi

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Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special case of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) used to establish communications and exchange information among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed infrastructure. VANET is seen as a promising technology used to provide safety, efficiency, assistance and comfort to the road users. Routing is an important issue in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network to find and maintain communication between vehicles due to the highly dynamic topology, frequently disconnected network and mobility constraints. This paper evaluates the performance of two most popular proactive routing protocols OLSR and DSDV in real city traffic scenario on the basis of three metrics namely Packet delivery ratio, throughput and average end to end delay by varying vehicles density and transmission range.

Keywords: DSDV, OLSR, quality of service, routing protocols, VANET

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
89 Automated Driving Deep Neural Networks Model Accuracy and Performance Assessment in a Simulated Environment

Authors: David Tena-Gago, Jose M. Alcaraz Calero, Qi Wang

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The evolution and integration of automated vehicles have become more and more tangible in recent years. State-of-the-art technological advances in the field of camera-based Artificial Intelligence (AI) and computer vision greatly favor the performance and reliability of the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS), leading to a greater knowledge of vehicular operation and resembling human behavior. However, the exclusive use of this technology still seems insufficient to control vehicular operation at 100%. To reveal the degree of accuracy of the current camera-based automated driving AI modules, this paper studies the structure and behavior of one of the main solutions in a controlled testing environment. The results obtained clearly outline the lack of reliability when using exclusively the AI model in the perception stage, thereby entailing using additional complementary sensors to improve its safety and performance.

Keywords: accuracy assessment, AI-driven mobility, artificial intelligence, automated vehicles

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88 Minimization of Denial of Services Attacks in Vehicular Adhoc Networking by Applying Different Constraints

Authors: Amjad Khan

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The security of Vehicular ad hoc networking is of great importance as it involves serious life threats. Thus to provide secure communication amongst Vehicles on road, the conventional security system is not enough. It is necessary to prevent the network resources from wastage and give them protection against malicious nodes so that to ensure the data bandwidth availability to the legitimate nodes of the network. This work is related to provide a non conventional security system by introducing some constraints to minimize the DoS (Denial of services) especially data and bandwidth. The data packets received by a node in the network will pass through a number of tests and if any of the test fails, the node will drop those data packets and will not forward it anymore. Also if a node claims to be the nearest node for forwarding emergency messages then the sender can effectively identify the true or false status of the claim by using these constraints. Consequently the DoS(Denial of Services) attack is minimized by the instant availability of data without wasting the network resources.

Keywords: black hole attack, grey hole attack, intransient traffic tempering, networking

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
87 Neural Network Approach to Classifying Truck Traffic

Authors: Ren Moses

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The process of classifying vehicles on a highway is hereby viewed as a pattern recognition problem in which connectionist techniques such as artificial neural networks (ANN) can be used to assign vehicles to their correct classes and hence to establish optimum axle spacing thresholds. In the United States, vehicles are typically classified into 13 classes using a methodology commonly referred to as “Scheme F”. In this research, the ANN model was developed, trained, and applied to field data of vehicles. The data comprised of three vehicular features—axle spacing, number of axles per vehicle, and overall vehicle weight. The ANN reduced the classification error rate from 9.5 percent to 6.2 percent when compared to an existing classification algorithm that is not ANN-based and which uses two vehicular features for classification, that is, axle spacing and number of axles. The inclusion of overall vehicle weight as a third classification variable further reduced the error rate from 6.2 percent to only 3.0 percent. The promising results from the neural networks were used to set up new thresholds that reduce classification error rate.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, vehicle classification, traffic flow, traffic analysis, and highway opera-tions

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
86 Artificial Neural Network Based Approach for Estimation of Individual Vehicle Speed under Mixed Traffic Condition

Authors: Subhadip Biswas, Shivendra Maurya, Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh

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Developing speed model is a challenging task particularly under mixed traffic condition where the traffic composition plays a significant role in determining vehicular speed. The present research has been conducted to model individual vehicular speed in the context of mixed traffic on an urban arterial. Traffic speed and volume data have been collected from three midblock arterial road sections in New Delhi. Using the field data, a volume based speed prediction model has been developed adopting the methodology of Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The model developed in this work is capable of estimating speed for individual vehicle category. Validation results show a great deal of agreement between the observed speeds and the predicted values by the model developed. Also, it has been observed that the ANN based model performs better compared to other existing models in terms of accuracy. Finally, the sensitivity analysis has been performed utilizing the model in order to examine the effects of traffic volume and its composition on individual speeds.

Keywords: speed model, artificial neural network, arterial, mixed traffic

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85 The State Estimation Strategy of Vehicular Batteries under a Cyber-Physical System Architecture

Authors: Jingwei Dou, Hongwen He, Jianwei Li, Yingjuan Tang, Xuyang Zhao, Yunlong Wang

Abstract:

Battery state estimation is always a crucial issue in electric vehicles (EVs), where the state-of-health (SOH) estimation and the state-of-charge (SOC) estimation are especially important. Given that, a state estimation strategy is proposed for vehicular power batteries in this paper. The cloud platform is connected to the vehicle terminal under a Cyber-Physical System (CPS) architecture. On the cloud platform, the SOH estimation is implemented with the long short-term memory (LSTM) algorithm, extracting three features from discharging processes as the inputs of the LSTM model. On the vehicle terminal, the SOC estimation is accomplished with the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm, utilizing the estimated battery capacity to update the EKF equation. To identify the performance of the battery state estimation strategy, power batteries are experimented vehicularly on urban roads. Results illustrate that the proposed approach acquires high SOH and SOC estimation accuracy.

Keywords: cyber-physical system, state-of-health, state-of-charge, long short-term memory, extended Kalman filter

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84 Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Vehicular Adhoc Networks

Authors: Salman Naseer, Usman Zafar, Iqra Zafar

Abstract:

This study explores the implication of Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET) - in the rural and urban scenarios that is one domain of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET). VANET provides wireless communication between vehicle to vehicle and also roadside units. The Federal Commission Committee of United States of American has been allocated 75 MHz of the spectrum band in the 5.9 GHz frequency range for dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) that are specifically designed to enhance any road safety applications and entertainment/information applications. There are several vehicular related projects viz; California path, car 2 car communication consortium, the ETSI, and IEEE 1609 working group that have already been conducted to improve the overall road safety or traffic management. After the critical literature review, the selection of routing protocols is determined, and its performance was well thought-out in the urban and rural scenarios. Numerous routing protocols for VANET are applied to carry out current research. Its evaluation was conceded with the help of selected protocols through simulation via performance metric i.e. throughput and packet drop. Excel and Google graph API tools are used for plotting the graphs after the simulation results in order to compare the selected routing protocols which result with each other. In addition, the sum of the output from each scenario was computed to undoubtedly present the divergence in results. The findings of the current study present that DSR gives enhanced performance for low packet drop and high throughput as compared to AODV and DSDV in an urban congested area and in rural environments. On the other hand, in low-density area, VANET AODV gives better results as compared to DSR. The worth of the current study may be judged as the information exchanged between vehicles is useful for comfort, safety, and entertainment. Furthermore, the communication system performance depends on the way routing is done in the network and moreover, the routing of the data based on protocols implement in the network. The above-presented results lead to policy implication and develop our understanding of the broader spectrum of VANET.

Keywords: AODV, DSDV, DSR, Adhoc network

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
83 Vehicular Speed Detection Camera System Using Video Stream

Authors: C. A. Anser Pasha

Abstract:

In this paper, a new Vehicular Speed Detection Camera System that is applicable as an alternative to traditional radars with the same accuracy or even better is presented. The real-time measurement and analysis of various traffic parameters such as speed and number of vehicles are increasingly required in traffic control and management. Image processing techniques are now considered as an attractive and flexible method for automatic analysis and data collections in traffic engineering. Various algorithms based on image processing techniques have been applied to detect multiple vehicles and track them. The SDCS processes can be divided into three successive phases; the first phase is Objects detection phase, which uses a hybrid algorithm based on combining an adaptive background subtraction technique with a three-frame differencing algorithm which ratifies the major drawback of using only adaptive background subtraction. The second phase is Objects tracking, which consists of three successive operations - object segmentation, object labeling, and object center extraction. Objects tracking operation takes into consideration the different possible scenarios of the moving object like simple tracking, the object has left the scene, the object has entered the scene, object crossed by another object, and object leaves and another one enters the scene. The third phase is speed calculation phase, which is calculated from the number of frames consumed by the object to pass by the scene.

Keywords: radar, image processing, detection, tracking, segmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 366