Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 992

Search results for: printed circuit boards

992 Pre-Analysis of Printed Circuit Boards Based on Multispectral Imaging for Vision Based Recognition of Electronics Waste

Authors: Florian Kleber, Martin Kampel

Abstract:

The increasing demand of gallium, indium and rare-earth elements for the production of electronics, e.g. solid state-lighting, photovoltaics, integrated circuits, and liquid crystal displays, will exceed the world-wide supply according to current forecasts. Recycling systems to reclaim these materials are not yet in place, which challenges the sustainability of these technologies. This paper proposes a multispectral imaging system as a basis for a vision based recognition system for valuable components of electronics waste. Multispectral images intend to enhance the contrast of images of printed circuit boards (single components, as well as labels) for further analysis, such as optical character recognition and entire printed circuit board recognition. The results show that a higher contrast is achieved in the near infrared compared to ultraviolet and visible light.

Keywords: electronics waste, multispectral imaging, printed circuit boards, rare-earth elements

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991 Feasibilities for Recovering of Precious Metals from Printed Circuit Board Waste

Authors: Simona Ziukaite, Remigijus Ivanauskas, Gintaras Denafas

Abstract:

Market development of electrical and electronic equipment and a short life cycle is driven by the increasing waste streams. Gold Au, copper Cu, silver Ag and palladium Pd can be found on printed circuit board. These metals make up the largest value of printed circuit board. Therefore, the printed circuit boards scrap is valuable as potential raw material for precious metals recovery. A comparison of Cu, Au, Ag, Pd recovery from waste printed circuit techniques was selected metals leaching of chemical reagents. The study was conducted using the selected multistage technique for Au, Cu, Ag, Pd recovery of printed circuit board. In the first and second metals leaching stages, as the elution reagent, 2M H2SO4 and H2O2 (35%) was used. In the third stage, leaching of precious metals used solution of 20 g/l of thiourea and 6 g/l of Fe2 (SO4)3. Verify the efficiency of the method was carried out the metals leaching test with aqua regia. Based on the experimental study, the leaching efficiency, using the preferred methodology, 60 % of Au and 85,5 % of Cu dissolution was achieved. Metals leaching efficiency after waste mechanical crushing and thermal treatment have been increased by 1,7 times (40 %) for copper, 1,6 times (37 %) for gold and 1,8 times (44 %) for silver. It was noticed that, the Au amount in old (> 20 years) waste is 17 times more, Cu amount - 4 times more, and Ag - 2 times more than in the new (< 1 years) waste. Palladium in the new printed circuit board waste has not been found, however, it was established that from 1 t of old printed circuit board waste can be recovered 1,064 g of Pd (leaching with aqua regia). It was found that from 1 t of old printed circuit board waste can be recovered 1,064 g of Ag. Precious metals recovery in Lithuania was estimated in this study. Given the amounts of generated printed circuit board waste, the limits for recovery of precious metals were identified.

Keywords: leaching efficiency, limits for recovery, precious metals recovery, printed circuit board waste

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990 Recovery of Copper from Edge Trims of Printed Circuit Boards Using Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans: Bioleaching

Authors: Shashi Arya, Nand L. Singh, Samiksha Singh, Pradeep K. Mishra, Siddh N. Upadhyay

Abstract:

The enormous generation of E- waste and its recycling have greater environmental concern especially in developing countries like India. A major part of this waste comprises printed circuit boards (PCBs). Edge trims of PCBs have high copper content ranging between 25-60%. The extraction of various metals out of these PCBs is more or less a proven technology, wherein various hazardous chemicals are being used in the resource recovery, resulting into secondary pollution. The current trend of extracting of valuable metals is the utilization of microbial strains to eliminate the problem of a secondary pollutant. Keeping the above context in mind, this work aims at the enhanced recovery of copper from edge trims, through bioleaching using bacterial strain Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The raw material such as motherboards, hard drives, floppy drives and DVD drives were obtained from the warehouse of the University. More than 90% copper could be extracted through bioleaching using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Inoculate concentration has merely insignificant effect over copper recovery above 20% inoculate concentration. Higher concentration of inoculation has the only initial advantage up to 2-4 days. The complete recovery has been obtained between 14- 24 days.

Keywords: acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, bioleaching, e-waste, printed circuit boards

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
989 Integration from Laboratory to Industrialization for Hybrid Printed Electronics

Authors: Ahmed Moulay, Mariia Zhuldybina, Mirko Torres, Mike Rozel, Ngoc Duc Trinh, Chloé Bois

Abstract:

Hybrid printed electronics technology (HPE) provides innovative opportunities to enhance conventional electronics applications, which are often based on printed circuit boards (PCB). By combining the best of both performance from conventional electronic components and the flexibility from printed circuits makes it possible to manufacture HPE at high volumes using roll-to-roll printing processes. However, several challenges must be overcome in order to accurately integrate an electronic component on a printed circuit. In this presentation, we will demonstrate the integration process of electronic components from the lab scale to the industrialization. Both the printing quality and the integration technique must be studied to define the optimal conditions. To cover the parameters that influence the print quality of the printed circuit, different printing processes, flexible substrates, and conductive inks will be used to determine the optimized printing process/ink/substrate system. After the systems is selected, an electronic component of 2.5 mm2 chip size will be integrated to validate the functionality of the printed, electronic circuit. Critical information such as the conductive adhesive, the curing conditions, and the chip encapsulation will be determined. Thanks to these preliminary results, we are able to demonstrate the chip integration on a printed circuit using industrial equipment, showing the potential of industrialization, compatible using roll-to-roll printing and integrating processes.

Keywords: flat bed screen-printing, hybrid printed electronics, integration, large-scale production, roll-to-roll printing, rotary screen printing

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988 Mechanical Study Printed Circuit Boards Bonding for Jefferson Laboratory Detector

Authors: F. Noto, F. De Persio, V. Bellini, G. Costa. F. Mammoliti, F. Meddi, C. Sutera, G. M. Urcioli

Abstract:

One plane X and one plane Y of silicon microstrip detectors will constitute the front part of the Super Bigbite Spectrometer that is under construction and that will be installed in the experimental Hall A of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory), located in Newport News, Virgina, USA. Each plane will be made up by two nearly identical, 300 μm thick, 10 cm x 10.3 cm wide silicon microstrip detectors with 50 um pitch, whose electronic signals will be transferred to the front-end electronic based on APV25 chips through C-shaped FR4 Printed Circuit Boards (PCB). A total of about 10000 strips are read-out. This paper treats the optimization of the detector support structure, the materials used through a finite element simulation. A very important aspect of the study will also cover the optimization of the bonding parameters between detector and electronics.

Keywords: FEM analysis, bonding, SBS tracker, mechanical structure

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987 The Performance of Typical Kinds of Coating of Printed Circuit Board under Accelerated Degradation Test

Authors: Xiaohui Wang, Liwei Sun, Guilin Zhang

Abstract:

Printed circuit board (PCB) is the carrier of electronic components. Its coating is the first barrier for protecting itself. If the coating is damaged, the performance of printed circuit board will decrease rapidly until failure. Therefore, the coating plays an important role in the entire printed circuit board. There are common four kinds of coating of printed circuit board that the material of the coatings are paryleneC, acrylic, polyurethane, silicone. In this paper, we designed an accelerated degradation test of humid and heat for these four kinds of coating. And chose insulation resistance, moisture absorption and surface morphology as its test indexes. By comparing the change of insulation resistance of the coating before and after the test, we estimate failure time of these coatings based on the degradation of insulation resistance. Based on the above, we estimate the service life of the four kinds of PCB.

Keywords: printed circuit board, life assessment, insulation resistance, coating material

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986 Studies on Toxicity and Mechanical Properties of Nonmetallic Printed Circuit Boards Waste in Recycled HDPE Composites

Authors: Shantha Kumari Muniyandi, Johan Sohaili, Siti Suhaila Mohamad

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reusing nonmetallic printed circuit boards (PCBs) waste in recycled HDPE (rHDPE) in terms of toxicity and mechanical properties. A series of X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) analysis tests have been conducted on raw nonmetallic PCBs waste to determine the chemical compositions. It can be seen that the nonmetallic PCBs approximately 72% of glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin materials such as SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, BaO, Na2O, and SrO, 9.4% of metallic materials such as CuO, SnO2, and Fe2O3, and 6.53% of Br. Total Threshold Limit Concentration (TTLC) and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests also have been done to study the toxicity characteristics of raw nonmetallic PCB powders, rHDPE/PCB and virgin HDPE for comparison purposes. For both of the testing, Cu was identified as the highest metal element contained in raw PCBs with the concentration of 905 mg/kg and 59.09 mg/L for TTLC and TCLP, respectively. However, once the nonmetallic PCB was filled in rHDPE composites, the concentrations of Cu were reduced to 134 mg/kg for TTLC and to 3 mg/L for TCLP testing. For mechanical properties testing, incorporation of 40 wt% nonmetallic PCB into rHDPE has increased the flexural modulus and flexural strength by 140% and 36%, respectively. While, Izod Impact strength decreased steadily with incorporation of 10 – 40 wt% nonmetallic PCBs.

Keywords: nonmetallic printed circuit board, recycled HDPE, composites, mechanical properties, total threshold limit concentration, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
985 Characterization of Thin Woven Composites Used in Printed Circuit Boards by Combining Numerical and Experimental Approaches

Authors: Gautier Girard, Marion Martiny, Sebastien Mercier, Mohamad Jrad, Mohamed-Slim Bahi, Laurent Bodin, Francois Lechleiter, David Nevo, Sophie Dareys

Abstract:

Reliability of electronic devices has always been of highest interest for Aero-MIL and space applications. In any electronic device, Printed Circuit Board (PCB), providing interconnection between components, is a key for reliability. During the last decades, PCB technologies evolved to sustain and/or fulfill increased original equipment manufacturers requirements and specifications, higher densities and better performances, faster time to market and longer lifetime, newer material and mixed buildups. From the very beginning of the PCB industry up to recently, qualification, experiments and trials, and errors were the most popular methods to assess system (PCB) reliability. Nowadays OEM, PCB manufacturers and scientists are working together in a close relationship in order to develop predictive models for PCB reliability and lifetime. To achieve that goal, it is fundamental to characterize precisely base materials (laminates, electrolytic copper, …), in order to understand failure mechanisms and simulate PCB aging under environmental constraints by means of finite element method for example. The laminates are woven composites and have thus an orthotropic behaviour. The in-plane properties can be measured by combining classical uniaxial testing and digital image correlation. Nevertheless, the out-of-plane properties cannot be evaluated due to the thickness of the laminate (a few hundred of microns). It has to be noted that the knowledge of the out-of-plane properties is fundamental to investigate the lifetime of high density printed circuit boards. A homogenization method combining analytical and numerical approaches has been developed in order to obtain the complete elastic orthotropic behaviour of a woven composite from its precise 3D internal structure and its experimentally measured in-plane elastic properties. Since the mechanical properties of the resin surrounding the fibres are unknown, an inverse method is proposed to estimate it. The methodology has been applied to one laminate used in hyperfrequency spatial applications in order to get its elastic orthotropic behaviour at different temperatures in the range [-55°C; +125°C]. Next; numerical simulations of a plated through hole in a double sided PCB are performed. Results show the major importance of the out-of-plane properties and the temperature dependency of these properties on the lifetime of a printed circuit board. Acknowledgements—The support of the French ANR agency through the Labcom program ANR-14-LAB7-0003-01, support of CNES, Thales Alenia Space and Cimulec is acknowledged.

Keywords: homogenization, orthotropic behaviour, printed circuit board, woven composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
984 Optical Imaging Based Detection of Solder Paste in Printed Circuit Board Jet-Printing Inspection

Authors: D. Heinemann, S. Schramm, S. Knabner, D. Baumgarten

Abstract:

Purpose: Applying solder paste to printed circuit boards (PCB) with stencils has been the method of choice over the past years. A new method uses a jet printer to deposit tiny droplets of solder paste through an ejector mechanism onto the board. This allows for more flexible PCB layouts with smaller components. Due to the viscosity of the solder paste, air blisters can be trapped in the cartridge. This can lead to missing solder joints or deviations in the applied solder volume. Therefore, a built-in and real-time inspection of the printing process is needed to minimize uncertainties and increase the efficiency of the process by immediate correction. The objective of the current study is the design of an optimal imaging system and the development of an automatic algorithm for the detection of applied solder joints from optical from the captured images. Methods: In a first approach, a camera module connected to a microcomputer and LED strips are employed to capture images of the printed circuit board under four different illuminations (white, red, green and blue). Subsequently, an improved system including a ring light, an objective lens, and a monochromatic camera was set up to acquire higher quality images. The obtained images can be divided into three main components: the PCB itself (i.e., the background), the reflections induced by unsoldered positions or screw holes and the solder joints. Non-uniform illumination is corrected by estimating the background using a morphological opening and subtraction from the input image. Image sharpening is applied in order to prevent error pixels in the subsequent segmentation. The intensity thresholds which divide the main components are obtained from the multimodal histogram using three probability density functions. Determining the intersections delivers proper thresholds for the segmentation. Remaining edge gradients produces small error areas which are removed by another morphological opening. For quantitative analysis of the segmentation results, the dice coefficient is used. Results: The obtained PCB images show a significant gradient in all RGB channels, resulting from ambient light. Using different lightings and color channels 12 images of a single PCB are available. A visual inspection and the investigation of 27 specific points show the best differentiation between those points using a red lighting and a green color channel. Estimating two thresholds from analyzing the multimodal histogram of the corrected images and using them for segmentation precisely extracts the solder joints. The comparison of the results to manually segmented images yield high sensitivity and specificity values. Analyzing the overall result delivers a Dice coefficient of 0.89 which varies for single object segmentations between 0.96 for a good segmented solder joints and 0.25 for single negative outliers. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the presented optical imaging system and the developed algorithm can robustly detect solder joints on printed circuit boards. Future work will comprise a modified lighting system which allows for more precise segmentation results using structure analysis.

Keywords: printed circuit board jet-printing, inspection, segmentation, solder paste detection

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983 Surface Coatings of Boards Made from Alternative Materials

Authors: Stepan Hysek, Petra Gajdacova

Abstract:

In recent years, alternative materials, such as annual plants or recycled and waste materials are becoming more and more popular input material for the production of composite materials. They can be used for the production of insulation boards, construction boards or furniture boards. Surface finishing of those boards is essential for utilization in furniture. However, some difficulties could occur during coating of boards from alternative materials; physical and chemical differences from conventional particleboards need to be considered. From the physical aspects, surface soundness and surface roughness mainly determine the quality of the surface. Since surface layers of boards from alternative materials have often lower density, these characteristics could be deteriorated and thus the production process needs to be optimized. Also, chemical reactions of board’s material with coating could be undesirable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the parameters affecting the surface quality of boards made form alternative materials and to find possibilities of the coating of these boards. In this study, boards of particles from rapeseed stems were produced using a laboratory press. Surface soundness, as representatives of mechanical properties and surface roughness, as representative of physical properties, were measured on boards from rapeseed stems. Results clearly indicated that produced boards had lower surface quality than commercially produced particle boards from wood. Therefore, higher thickness of surface coating on rapeseed based boards is needed.

Keywords: coating, surface, annual plant, composites, particleboard

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982 Improved Pattern Matching Applied to Surface Mounting Devices Components Localization on Automated Optical Inspection

Authors: Pedro M. A. Vitoriano, Tito. G. Amaral

Abstract:

Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) Systems are commonly used on Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) manufacturing. The use of this technology has been proven as highly efficient for process improvements and quality achievements. The correct extraction of the component for posterior analysis is a critical step of the AOI process. Nowadays, the Pattern Matching Algorithm is commonly used, although this algorithm requires extensive calculations and is time consuming. This paper will present an improved algorithm for the component localization process, with the capability of implementation in a parallel execution system.

Keywords: AOI, automated optical inspection, SMD, surface mounting devices, pattern matching, parallel execution

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
981 Smart and Active Package Integrating Printed Electronics

Authors: Joana Pimenta, Lorena Coelho, José Silva, Vanessa Miranda, Jorge Laranjeira, Rui Soares

Abstract:

In this paper, the results of R&D on an innovative food package for increased shelf-life are presented. SAP4MA aims at the development of a printed active device that enables smart packaging solutions for food preservation, targeting the extension of the shelf-life of the packed food through the controlled release of active natural antioxidant agents at the onset of the food degradation process. To do so, SAP4MA focuses on the development of active devices such as printed heaters and batteries/supercapacitors in a label format to be integrated on packaging lids during its injection molding process, promoting the passive release of natural antioxidants after the product is packed, during transportation and in the shelves, and actively when the end-user activates the package, just prior to consuming the product at home. When the active device present on the lid is activated, the release of the natural antioxidants embedded in the inner layer of the packaging lid in direct contact with the headspace atmosphere of the food package starts. This approach is based on the use of active functional coatings composed of nano encapsulated active agents (natural antioxidants species) in the prevention of the oxidation of lipid compounds in food by agents such as oxygen. Thus keeping the product quality during the shelf-life, not only when the user opens the packaging, but also during the period from food packaging up until the purchase by the consumer. The active systems that make up the printed smart label, heating circuit, and battery were developed using screen-printing technology. These systems must operate under the working conditions associated with this application. The printed heating circuit was studied using three different substrates and two different conductive inks. Inks were selected, taking into consideration that the printed circuits will be subjected to high pressures and temperatures during the injection molding process. The circuit must reach a homogeneous temperature of 40ºC in the entire area of the lid of the food tub, promoting a gradual and controlled release of the antioxidant agents. In addition, the circuit design involves a high level of study in order to guarantee maximum performance after the injection process and meet the specifications required by the control electronics component. Furthermore, to characterize the different heating circuits, the electrical resistance promoted by the conductive ink and the circuit design, as well as the thermal behavior of printed circuits on different substrates, were evaluated. In the injection molding process, the serpentine-shaped design developed for the heating circuit was able to resolve the issues connected to the injection point; in addition, the materials used in the support and printing had high mechanical resistance against the pressure and temperature inherent to the injection process. Acknowledgment: This research has been carried out within the Project “Smart and Active Packing for Margarine Product” (SAP4MA) running under the EURIPIDES Program being co-financed by COMPETE 2020 – the Operational Programme for Competitiveness and Internationalization and under Portugal 2020 through the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).

Keywords: smart package, printed heat circuits, printed batteries, flexible and printed electronic

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980 Time-Domain Analysis of Pulse Parameters Effects on Crosstalk in High-Speed Circuits

Authors: Loubna Tani, Nabih Elouzzani

Abstract:

Crosstalk among interconnects and printed-circuit board (PCB) traces is a major limiting factor of signal quality in high-speed digital and communication equipments especially when fast data buses are involved. Such a bus is considered as a planar multiconductor transmission line. This paper will demonstrate how the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method provides an exact solution of the transmission-line equations to analyze the near end and the far end crosstalk. In addition, this study makes it possible to analyze the rise time effect on the near and far end voltages of the victim conductor. The paper also discusses a statistical analysis, based upon a set of several simulations. Such analysis leads to a better understanding of the phenomenon and yields useful information.

Keywords: multiconductor transmission line, crosstalk, finite difference time domain (FDTD), printed-circuit board (PCB), rise time, statistical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
979 A Study on the Reliability Evaluation of a Timer Card for Air Dryer of the Railway Vehicle

Authors: Chul Su Kim, Jun Ku Lee, Won Jun Lee

Abstract:

The EMU (electric multiple unit) vehicle timer card is a PCB (printed circuit board) for controlling the air-dryer to remove the moisture of the generated air from the air compressor of the braking device. This card is exposed to the lower part of the railway vehicle, so it is greatly affected by the external environment such as temperature and humidity. The main cause of the failure of this timer card is deterioration of soldering area of the PCB surface due to temperature and humidity. Therefore, in the viewpoint of preventive maintenance, it is important to evaluate the reliability of the timer card and predict the replacement cycle to secure the safety of the air braking device is one of the main devices for driving. In this study, the existing and the improved products were evaluated on the reliability through ALT (accelerated life test). In addition, the acceleration factor by the 'Coffin-Manson' equation was obtained, and the remaining lifetime was compared and examined.

Keywords: reliability evaluation, timer card, Printed Circuit Board, Accelerated Life Test

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
978 Gender Diversity on the Board and Asymmetry Information: An Empirical Analysis for Spanish Listed Firms

Authors: David Abad, M. Encarnación Lucas-Pérez, Antonio Minguez-Vera, José Yagüe

Abstract:

We examine explicitly the relation between the gender diversity on corporate boards and the levels of information asymmetry in the stock market. Based on prior evidence that suggests that the presence of women on director boards increases the quantity and quality of public disclosure by firms, we expect firms with higher gender diversity on their boards to show lower levels of information asymmetry in the market. Using a Spanish sample for the period 2004-2009, proxies for information asymmetry estimated from high-frequency data, and a system GMM methodology, we find that the gender diversity on boards is negative associated with the level of information asymmetry in the stock market. Our findings support legislative changes implemented to increase the presence of women on boards in several European countries by providing evidence that gender diverse boards have beneficial effects on stock markets.

Keywords: corporate board, female directors, gender diversity, information asymmetry, market microstructure

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977 Design of 900 MHz High Gain SiGe Power Amplifier with Linearity Improved Bias Circuit

Authors: Guiheng Zhang, Wei Zhang, Jun Fu, Yudong Wang

Abstract:

A 900 MHz three-stage SiGe power amplifier (PA) with high power gain is presented in this paper. Volterra Series is applied to analyze nonlinearity sources of SiGe HBT device model clearly. Meanwhile, the influence of operating current to IMD3 is discussed. Then a β-helper current mirror bias circuit is applied to improve linearity, since the β-helper current mirror bias circuit can offer stable base biasing voltage. Meanwhile, it can also work as predistortion circuit when biasing voltages of three bias circuits are fine-tuned, by this way, the power gain and operating current of PA are optimized for best linearity. The three power stages which fabricated by 0.18 μm SiGe technology are bonded to the printed circuit board (PCB) to obtain impedances by Load-Pull system, then matching networks are done for best linearity with discrete passive components on PCB. The final measured three-stage PA exhibits 21.1 dBm of output power at 1 dB compression point (OP1dB) with power added efficiency (PAE) of 20.6% and 33 dB power gain under 3.3 V power supply voltage.

Keywords: high gain power amplifier, linearization bias circuit, SiGe HBT model, Volterra series

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
976 Power Supply Feedback Regulation Loop Design Using Cadence PSpice Tool: Determining Converter Stability by Simulation

Authors: Debabrata Das

Abstract:

This paper explains how to design a regulation loop for a power supply circuit. It also discusses the need of a regulation loop and the improvement of a circuit with regulation loop. A sample design is used to demonstrate how to use PSpice to design feedback loop to control output voltage of a power supply and how to check if the power supply is stable or oscillatory. A sample design is made using a specific Integrated Circuit (IC) available in the PSpice library. A designer can experiment feedback loop design using Cadence Pspice tool. PSpice is easy to use, reliable, and convenient. To test a feedback loop, generally, engineers use trial and error method with the hardware which takes a lot of time and manpower. Moreover, it is expensive because component and Printed Circuit Board (PCB) may go bad. PSpice can be used by designers to test their loop designs without using hardware circuits. A designer can save time, cost, manpower and simulate his/her power supply circuit accurately before making a real hardware using this software package.

Keywords: power electronics, feedback loop, regulation, stability, pole, zero, oscillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
975 Towards Printed Green Time-Temperature Indicator

Authors: Mariia Zhuldybina, Ahmed Moulay, Mirko Torres, Mike Rozel, Ngoc-Duc Trinh, Chloé Bois

Abstract:

To reduce the global waste of perishable goods, a solution for monitoring and traceability of their environmental conditions is needed. Temperature is the most controllable environmental parameter determining the kinetics of physical, chemical, and microbial spoilage in food products. To store the time-temperature information, time-temperature indicator (TTI) is a promising solution. Printed electronics (PE) has shown a great potential to produce customized electronic devices using flexible substrates and inks with different functionalities. We propose to fabricate a hybrid printed TTI using environmentally friendly materials. The real-time TTI profile can be stored and transmitted to the smartphone via Near Field Communication (NFC). To ensure environmental performance, Canadian Green Electronics NSERC Network is developing green materials for the ink formulation with different functionalities. In terms of substrate, paper-based electronics has gained the great interest for utilization in a wide area of electronic systems because of their low costs in setup and methodology, as well as their eco-friendly fabrication technologies. The main objective is to deliver a prototype of TTI using small-scale printed techniques under typical printing conditions. All sub-components of the smart labels, including a memristor, a battery, an antenna compatible with NFC protocol, and a circuit compatible with integration performed by an offsite supplier will be fully printed with flexography or flat-bed screen printing.

Keywords: NFC, printed electronics, time-temperature indicator, hybrid electronics

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
974 Treatment and Reuse of Nonmetallic PCBs Waste

Authors: Johan Sohaili, Siti Suhaila Mohamad, Shantha Kumari Muniyandi

Abstract:

The strength development, durability and leachability aspects of mortar added with nonmetallic printed circuit board (NMPCBs) were investigated. This study aims to propose methods for treatment and reuse of NMPCBs waste. The leachability of raw NMPCBs was tested for toxicity by performing the Crushed Block Leachability (CBL) test. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by performing compressive, flexural strength, durability and whole block leachability (WBL) tests on the mortar. The results indicated that the concentration of metals leach from the raw NMPCBs are within the standard limits and higher than the concentration of metals from WBL test. The compressive and flexural strength of the NMPCBs mortar was generally lower than the standard mortar. From durability tests, weight and compressive strength both of mortars was decrease after soaking in acid solution. As a conclusion, the treated NMPCBs can be reused in profitable and environmentally friendly ways and has broad application prospects.

Keywords: nonmetallic, printed circuit board, treatment, reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
973 Adapting the Chemical Reaction Optimization Algorithm to the Printed Circuit Board Drilling Problem

Authors: Taisir Eldos, Aws Kanan, Waleed Nazih, Ahmad Khatatbih

Abstract:

Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO) is an optimization metaheuristic inspired by the nature of chemical reactions as a natural process of transforming the substances from unstable to stable states. Starting with some unstable molecules with excessive energy, a sequence of interactions takes the set to a state of minimum energy. Researchers reported successful application of the algorithm in solving some engineering problems, like the quadratic assignment problem, with superior performance when compared with other optimization algorithms. We adapted this optimization algorithm to the Printed Circuit Board Drilling Problem (PCBDP) towards reducing the drilling time and hence improving the PCB manufacturing throughput. Although the PCBDP can be viewed as instance of the popular Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), it has some characteristics that would require special attention to the transactions that explore the solution landscape. Experimental test results using the standard CROToolBox are not promising for practically sized problems, while it could find optimal solutions for artificial problems and small benchmarks as a proof of concept.

Keywords: evolutionary algorithms, chemical reaction optimization, traveling salesman, board drilling

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
972 Thermal Properties of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes/Polyimide Nanocomposite

Authors: Seyfullah Madakbas, Hatice Birtane, Memet Vezir Kahraman

Abstract:

In this study, we aimed to synthesize and characterize polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite. Polyimide nanocomposites widely have been used in membranes in fuel cell, solar cell, gas filtration, sensors, aerospace components, printed circuit boards. Firstly, polyamic acid was synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared. Then, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes containing polyimide nanocomposite was prepared with thermal imidization method. The obtained polyimide nanocomposite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared, Scanning Electron Microscope, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Thermal stability of polyimide nanocomposite was evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Surface morphology of composite samples was investigated by scanning electron microscope. The obtained results prove that successfully prepared polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes are containing polyimide nanocomposite. The obtained nanocomposite can be used in many industries such as electronics, automotive, aerospace, etc.

Keywords: polyimide, nanocomposite, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
971 Analysis of SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit on Holding Voltage Characteristics

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Jong Ho Nam, Yong Nam Choi, Dae Yeol Yoo, Jung Woo Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection circuit for IC. The proposed ESD protection circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR ESD protection circuit. Electrical characteristics of the proposed ESD protection circuit are simulated and analyzed using TCAD simulator. The proposed ESD protection circuit verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage.

Keywords: electro-static discharge (ESD), silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), holding voltage, protection circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
970 Recovery of Metals from Electronic Waste by Physical and Chemical Recycling Processes

Authors: Muammer Kaya

Abstract:

The main purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of various physical and chemical processes for electronic waste (e-waste) recycling, their advantages and shortfalls towards achieving a cleaner process of waste utilization, with especial attention towards extraction of metallic values. Current status and future perspectives of waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) recycling are described. E-waste characterization, dismantling/ disassembly methods, liberation and classification processes, composition determination techniques are covered. Manual selective dismantling and metal-nonmetal liberation at – 150 µm at two step crushing are found to be the best. After size reduction, mainly physical separation/concentration processes employing gravity, electrostatic, magnetic separators, froth floatation etc., which are commonly used in mineral processing, have been critically reviewed here for separation of metals and non-metals, along with useful utilizations of the non-metallic materials. The recovery of metals from e-waste material after physical separation through pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical or biohydrometallurgical routes is also discussed along with purification and refining and some suitable flowsheets are also given. It seems that hydrometallurgical route will be a key player in the base and precious metals recoveries from e-waste. E-waste recycling will be a very important sector in the near future from economic and environmental perspectives.

Keywords: e-waste, WEEE, recycling, metal recovery, hydrometallurgy, pirometallurgy, biometallurgy

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
969 A Comparative Study of Techniques Applied for Offline Recognition of Electric Circuit Schematic Diagrams

Authors: W. Uzair, D. Chai, A. Rassau

Abstract:

Electric circuit schematic diagrams are a symbolic representation of electric circuits. Due to their ease of use, it is common practice for students and professionals to use circuit diagrams to construct an idea or an initial design on paper. Computer recognition of circuit diagrams would be very useful to enable the translation of paper-based circuit diagrams to digital form for simulation of the circuits using computer tools. The accuracy of classification techniques applied to circuit diagrams plays is a dominant factor in the overall accuracy of the process. This paper presents a review and analysis of different techniques and their combinations that have been applied for the recognition of circuit diagrams. Several works relating to the recognition of circuit diagrams are analysed for their limitations and practicality based on defined criteria. Object-detection models proved to be highly accurate, and these models eliminated the need for pre-classification stages. There is still much work needed to completely understand a hand-drawn circuit.

Keywords: image recognition, document understanding, support vector machine, schematic diagrams, electric circuit recognition, offline recognition

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968 Efficacy of Modified Bottom Boards to Control Varroa Mite (Varroa Destructor) in Honeybee Colonies

Authors: Marwan Keshlaf, Hassan Fellah

Abstract:

This study was designed to test whether hive bottom boards modified with polyvinyl chloride pipe or screen-mesh reduces number of Varroa mites in naturally infested honeybee colonies comparing to chemical control. Fifty six colonies distributed equally between two location each received one of four experimental treatment 1) conventional solid board “control”, 2) Apistan in conventional solid board, 3) Mesh bottom board and 4) tube bottom board. Varroa infestation level on both adult bees and on capped brood was estimated. Stored pollen, capped brood area and honey production were also measured. Results of varroa infestation were inconsistent between apiaries. In apiary 1, colonies with Apistan had fewer Varroa destructor than other treatments, but this benefit was not apparent in Apiary 2. There were no effects of modified bottom boards on bee flight activity, brood production, honey yield and stored pollen. We conclude that the efficacy of modified bottom boards in reducing varroa mites population in bee colonies remains uncertain due to observed differences of hygienic behavior.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, modified bottom boards, Varroa destructor, Honeybee colonies

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967 Accuracy of a 3D-Printed Polymer Model for Producing Casting Mold

Authors: Ariangelo Hauer Dias Filho, Gustavo Antoniácomi de Carvalho, Benjamim de Melo Carvalho

Abstract:

The work´s purpose was to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing casting tools utilizing Fused Filament Fabrication, a 3D printing technique, without any post-processing on the printed part. Taguchi Orthogonal array was used to evaluate the influence of extrusion temperature, bed temperature, layer height, and infill on the dimensional accuracy of a 3D-Printed Polymer Model. A Zeiss T-SCAN CS 3D Scanner was used for dimensional evaluation of the printed parts within the limit of ±0,2 mm. The mold capabilities were tested with the printed model to check how it would interact with the green sand. With little adjustments in the 3D model, it was possible to produce rapid tools without the need for post-processing for iron casting. The results are important for reducing time and cost in the development of such tools.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, Taguchi method, rapid tooling, fused filament fabrication, casting mold

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966 Thermodynamic Performance Tests for 3D Printed Steel Slag Powder Concrete Walls

Authors: Li Guoyou, Zhang Tao, Ji Wenzhan, Huo Liang, Lin Xiqiang, Zhang Nan

Abstract:

The three dimensional (3D) printing technology has undergone rapid development in the last few years and it is possible to print engineering structures. 3D printing buildings use wastes from constructions, industries and mine tailings as “ink”, and mix it with property improved materials, such as cement, fiber etc. This paper presents a study of the Thermodynamic performance of 3D printed walls using cement and steel slag powder. Analyses the thermal simulation regarding 3D printed walls and solid brick wall by the way of the hot-box methods and the infrared technology, and the results were contrasted with theoretical calculation. The results show that the excellent thermodynamic performance of 3D printed concrete wall made it suitable as the partial materials for self-thermal insulation walls in residential buildings. The thermodynamic performance of 3D printed concrete walls depended on the density of materials, distribution of holes, and the filling materials. Decreasing the density of materials, increasing the number of holes or replacing the filling materials with foamed concrete could improve its thermodynamic performance significantly. The average of heat transfer coefficient and thermal inertia index of 3D printed steel slag powder concrete wall all better than the traditional solid brick wall with a thickness of 240mm.

Keywords: concrete, 3D printed walls, thermodynamic performance, steel slag powder

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965 Effect of Pressing Pressure on Mechanical Properties of Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Fronds-Based Composite Board

Authors: Ellisha Iling, Dayang Siti Hazimmah Ali

Abstract:

Experimental composite boards were fabricated using oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) fronds particles by applying hot press pressure of 5MPa, 6MPa and 7MPa respectively. Modulus of rupture (MOR) and internal bond strength (IB) of the composite boards made with target density of 0.80 g/cm³ were evaluated. Composite board fabricated under hot press pressure of 5MPa had MOR and IB values of 16.27 and 4.34 N/mm² respectively. Corresponding values for composite board fabricated under hot press pressure of 6MPa were 16.76 and 5.41 N/mm² respectively. Whereas, the MOR and IB values of composite board fabricated under hot press pressure of 7MPa were 17.24 and 6.19 N/mm² respectively. All composite boards met the MOR and IB requirement stated in Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). Based on results of this work, the strength of mechanical properties of composite board increased with increase of hot press pressure. This study revealed that the selection of applied pressure during fabrication of composite board is important to improve mechanical properties of composite boards.

Keywords: composite board, Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Fronds, hot press pressure, mechanical properties

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964 Fully Printed Strain Gauges: A Comparison of Aerosoljet-Printing and Micropipette-Dispensing

Authors: Benjamin Panreck, Manfred Hild

Abstract:

Strain sensors based on a change in resistance are well established for the measurement of forces, stresses, or material fatigue. Within the scope of this paper, fully additive manufactured strain sensors were produced using an ink of silver nanoparticles. Their behavior was evaluated by periodic tensile tests. Printed strain sensors exhibit two advantages: Their measuring grid is adaptable to the use case and they do not need a carrier-foil, as the measuring structure can be printed directly onto a thin sprayed varnish layer on the aluminum specimen. In order to compare quality characteristics, the sensors have been manufactured using two different technologies, namely aerosoljet-printing and micropipette-dispensing. Both processes produce structures which exhibit continuous features (in contrast to what can be achieved with droplets during inkjet printing). Briefly summarized the results show that aerosoljet-printing is the preferable technology for specimen with non-planar surfaces whereas both technologies are suitable for flat specimen.

Keywords: aerosoljet-printing, micropipette-dispensing, printed electronics, printed sensors, strain gauge

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963 Investigating the Fiber Content, Fiber Length, and Curing Characteristics of 3D Printed Recycled Carbon Fiber

Authors: Peng Hao Wang, Ronald Sterkenburg, Garam Kim, Yuwei He

Abstract:

As composite materials continue to gain popularity in the aerospace industry; large airframe sections made out of composite materials are becoming the standard for aerospace manufacturers. However, the heavy utilization of these composite materials also increases the importance of the recycling of these composite materials. A team of Purdue University School of Aviation and Transportation Technology (SATT) faculty and students have partnered to investigate the characteristics of 3D printed recycled carbon fiber. A prototype of a 3D printed recycled carbon fiber part was provided by an industry partner and different sections of the prototype were used to create specimens. A furnace was utilized in order to remove the polymer from the specimens and the specimen’s fiber content and fiber length was calculated from the remaining fibers. A differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) test was also conducted on the 3D printed recycled carbon fiber prototype in order to determine the prototype’s degree of cure at different locations. The data collected from this study provided valuable information in the process improvement and understanding of 3D printed recycled carbon fiber.

Keywords: 3D printed, carbon fiber, fiber content, recycling

Procedia PDF Downloads 87