Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3168

Search results for: international crimes

3168 Idea of International Criminal Justice in the Function of Prosecution International Crimes

Authors: Vanda Božić, Željko Nikač

Abstract:

The wars and armed conflicts have often resulted in violations of international humanitarian law, and often commit the most serious international crimes such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, aggression and genocide. However, only in the XX century the rule was articulated idea of establishing a body of international criminal justice in order to prosecute these crimes and their perpetrators. The first steps in this field have been made by establishing the International military tribunals for war crimes at Nuremberg and Tokyo, and the formation of ad hoc tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. In the end, The International Criminal Court was established in Rome in 1998 with the aim of justice and in order to give satisfaction the victims of crimes and their families. The aim of the paper was to provide a historical and comparative analysis of the institutions of international criminal justice based on which these institutions de lege lata fulfilled the goals of individual criminal responsibility and justice. Furthermore, the authors suggest de lege ferenda that the Permanent International Criminal Tribunal, in addition to the prospective case, also takes over the current ICTY and ICTR cases.

Keywords: international crimes, international criminal justice, prosecution of crimes, ad hoc tribunal, the international criminal court

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
3167 Limitations of Recent National Enactments on International Crimes: The Case of Kenya, Uganda and Sudan

Authors: Emma Charlene Lubaale

Abstract:

The International Criminal Court (ICC) operates based on the principle of complementarity. On the basis of this principle, states enjoy the primary right to prosecute international crimes, with the ICC intervening only when a state with jurisdiction over an international crime is unable or unwilling to prosecute. To ably exercise their primary right to prosecute international crimes domestically, a number of states are taking steps to criminalise international crimes in their national laws. Significant to note, many of the laws enacted are not being applied in the prosecution of the international crimes allegedly committed. Kenya, Uganda and Sudan are some notable states where commission of international crimes is documented. All these states have recently enacted laws on international crimes. Kenya enacted the International Crimes Act in 2008, Uganda enacted the International Criminal Court Act in 2010 and in 2007, Sudan made provision for international crimes under its Armed Forces Act. However, in all these three states, the enacted national laws on international crimes have thus far not featured in any of the proceedings before these states’ courts. Instead, these states have either relied on ordinary crimes to prosecute international crimes or not prosecuted international crimes altogether. This paper underscores the limitations of the enacted laws, explaining why, even with efforts taken by these states to enact national laws on international crimes, these laws cannot be relied on to advance accountability for the international crimes. Notably, the laws in Kenya and Uganda do not have retroactive application. In Sudan, despite the 2007 reforms, the structure of military justice in Sudan has the effect of placing certain categories of individuals beyond the reach of international criminal justice. For Kenya and Uganda, it is concluded that the only benefit that flows from these enactments is reliance on them to prosecute future international crimes. For Sudan, the 2007 reforms will only have the desired impact if reforms are equally made to the structure of military justice.

Keywords: complementarity, national laws, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, international crimes, limitations

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
3166 Penalization of Transnational Crimes in the Domestic Legal Order: The Case of Poland

Authors: Magda Olesiuk-Okomska

Abstract:

The degree of international interdependence has grown significantly. Poland is a party to nearly 1000 binding multilateral treaties, including international legal instruments devoted to criminal matters and obliging the state to penalize certain crimes. The paper presents results of a theoretical research conducted as a part of doctoral research. The main hypothesis assumed that there was a separate category of crimes to penalization of which Poland was obliged under international legal instruments; that a catalogue of such crimes and a catalogue of international legal instruments providing for Poland’s international obligations had never been compiled in the domestic doctrine, thus there was no mechanism for monitoring implementation of such obligations. In the course of the research, a definition of transnational crimes was discussed and confronted with notions of international crimes, treaty crimes, as well as cross-border crimes. A list of transnational crimes penalized in the Polish Penal Code as well as in non-code criminal law regulations was compiled; international legal instruments, obliging Poland to criminalize and penalize specific conduct, were enumerated and catalogued. It enabled the determination whether Poland’s international obligations were implemented in domestic legislation, as well as the formulation of de lege lata and de lege ferenda postulates. Implemented research methods included inter alia a dogmatic and legal method, an analytical method and desk research.

Keywords: international criminal law, transnational crimes, transnational criminal law, treaty crimes

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
3165 Sexual and Gender Based Crimes in International Criminal Law: Moving Forwards or Backwards

Authors: Khadija Ali

Abstract:

Prosecution of sexual violence in international criminal law requires not only an understanding of the mechanisms employed to prosecute sexual violence but also a critical analysis of the factors facilitating perpetuation of such crimes in armed conflicts. The extrapolations laid out in this essay delve into the jurisprudence of international criminal law pertaining to sexual and gender based violence followed by the core question of this essay: Has the entrenchment of sexual violence as international crimes in the Rome Statute been successful to address such violence in armed conflicts?

Keywords: conflict, gender, international criminal law, sexual violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 443
3164 The Duty of State to Punish Gross Violations of Human Rights

Authors: Yustina Trihoni Nalesti Dewi

Abstract:

Gross violations of human rights consisting of crime against humanity, genocide and war crime, are serious international crimes. Prohibition such crimes have obtain to the level of international norms of jus cogens based on conventions and customary international law. Therefore, the duty of the state to punish the crimes is obligatory. The legal consequence of jus cogens is obligation erga omnes which are a matter of state responsibility. When a state is not willing or neglects to do so in its national law, it results in state responsibility to be imposed by international human rights and humanitarian law. This article reviews the concept of jus cogens and obligatio erga omnes that appear as two sides of the same coin. It also explains how international human rights and humanitarian law set down the duty of the state to punish gross violations of human rights.

Keywords: duty of states, gross violations of human rights, jus cogens, obligatio erga omnes

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
3163 The “Functional Participation” Theory and Its Application in the Trials of Temporally Distant Crimes: German Practice and the Possible Application in the Bangladeshi Context

Authors: MD Mustakimur Rahman

Abstract:

Prosecuting temporally distant international crimes is always challenging due to numerous challenges. Because these crimes are often prosecuted many years or decades after they were committed, old evidence is particularlyrelevant to prosecutors and investigators. While it is true that managing eyewitnesses become more difficult when acrime is committed decades ago, can a suspect of a decades-old crime be convicted even if there is no direct evidence ofkilling any specific victim In Germany, John Demjanjuk was convicted of distant atrocity crimes based on anidentification card showing his service status at Sobibór extermination camp, the nature of the military operation, including mass killing at the camp, and the daily tasks of a camp guard. The prosecutor applied the “functional participation” approach for jointly committed crimes since individualguilt was challenging to establish due to a lack of eyewitnesses. Regarding the “functional perpetration” theory, theMunich court states that burden follows the function of the perpetrator rather than individual activities. Without aquestion, the Munich decision has established a watershed moment in international criminal law and provides us hope indealing with a decades-old crime in a challenging situation where there are no witnesses. While applying the “functionalparticipation” theory is limited to the Second World War suspects, the question is whether this doctrine applies to otherold crimes committed elsewhere. In Bangladesh, for example, the Pakistani Army and local Bengali perpetrators carriedout a massacre in 1971. Although Bangladesh has begun prosecuting local suspects, Pakistan has yet to take actionagainst its military. The purpose of this research is to see if the “functional perpetration” theory applies to any PakistaniArmy officer engaged in the 1971 massacre.

Keywords: international criminal law, international criminal punishment, international crimes tribunal, temporally distant international crimes

Procedia PDF Downloads 11
3162 Jurisdictional Problem of International Criminal Court over National of Non-Parties: A Legal Analysis in the Light of Rome Statute

Authors: Nour Mohammad

Abstract:

The concept of International Criminal Court is not a new idea.It goes back to the late 19th century and was first mooted in 1872 by Gustave Moynier of the International Commitee of the Red Cross(ICRC). This paper attempts to focus on jurisdictional problem of the international criminal court (ICC) over national of states of non parties to the Rome statute. Mor than 120 countries are state parties to the Rome Statute representing all regions, Afria, the Asia-pacofoc Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribben as well as Western Europe and North America.The Statute is the core document of internationa criminal law todaycontaining 128 Articles and divided in 13 parts.The Rome Statute provides that the court may sit elsewhere the judge consider it desirable.The International Criminal Court is not in a position to adjudicate all international crimes but its jurisdiction is limited to the four categories of crime viz. genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes and crime of aggression as stipulated in Article 5 of the ICC Statute. It also mention here that the Court will be able to exercise its jurisdiction over the crime of aggression only when this crime is defined. Due to the highly political nature of this crime, it is unlikely that a consensus in this regard would be arrived at in the near future.The main point of this article is to discuss the mandate of international criminal court to prosecute and punish persons responsible for the henious crimes of concern to the international community.The author highlighted the principles which support the delegation of criminal jurisdiction by state to international tribunals and discuss the precedents of such delegation.It also argued that the exercise of ICC jurisdiction over acts done pursuant to the officially policy of non-party state would not be contrary to the principles requiring consent for the exercise of jurisdiction by international tribunals. The article explore the limit to jurisdiction of ICC over non-party nationals.

Keywords: jurisdiction, international, criminal, court, non-parties

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
3161 Protection of Victims’ Rights in International Criminal Proceedings

Authors: Irina Belozerova

Abstract:

In the recent years, the number of crimes against peace and humanity has constantly been increasing. The development of the international community is inseparably connected to the compliance with the law which protects the rights and interests of citizens in all of their manifestations. The provisions of the law of criminal procedure are no exception. The rights of the victims of genocide, of the war crimes and the crimes against humanity, require particular attention. These crimes fall within the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court governed by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. These crimes have the following features. First, any such crime has a mass character and therefore requires specific regulation in the international criminal law and procedure and the national criminal law and procedure of different countries. Second, the victims of such crimes are usually children, women and old people; the entire national, ethnic, racial or religious groups are destroyed. These features influence the classification of victims by the age criterion. Article 68 of the Rome Statute provides for protection of the safety, physical and psychological well-being, dignity and privacy of victims and witnesses and thus determines the procedural status of these persons. However, not all the persons whose rights have been violated by the commission of these crimes acquire the status of victims. This is due to the fact that such crimes affect a huge number of persons and it is impossible to mention them all by name. It is also difficult to assess the entire damage suffered by the victims. While assessing the amount of damages it is essential to take into account physical and moral harm, as well as property damage. The procedural status of victims thus gains an exclusive character. In order to determine the full extent of the damage suffered by the victims it is necessary to collect sufficient evidence. However, it is extremely difficult to collect the evidence that would ensure the full and objective protection of the victims’ rights. While making requests for the collection of evidence, the International Criminal Court faces the problem of protection of national security information. Religious beliefs and the family life of victims are of great importance. In some Islamic countries, it is impossible to question a woman without her husband’s consent which affects the objectivity of her testimony. Finally, the number of victims is quantified by hundreds and thousands. The assessment of these elements demands time and highly qualified work. These factors justify the creation of a mechanism that would help to collect the evidence and establish the truth in the international criminal proceedings. This mechanism will help to impose a just and appropriate punishment for the persons accused of having committed a crime, since, committing the crime, criminals could not misunderstand the outcome of their criminal intent.

Keywords: crimes against humanity, evidence in international criminal proceedings, international criminal proceedings, protection of victims

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
3160 The Political and Academic Consideration of Unregulated Concept of Rome Statute in Law No. 26 Year 2000 about Indonesia’s Human Right Court

Authors: Muhammad Iqbal Rachman, Mohammad Faisol Soleh

Abstract:

The Law No. 26 Year 2000 about Indonesia’s Human Right Court became a new legal enforcement frame of human right law in Indonesia. The new spirit based on some international propulsion in order to enforce human right which basic right of everyone that appearance since in fetus. This matters indicated how crucial the arrangement of human right law, considering the role of state on human right enforcement in this context which became main pillar or instrument to accommodate citizen interest. Basically, the adopting of Law No. 26 Year 2000 came from the womb of concept international crimes regulation based on Rome Statute which became the international law instrument in order to legal enforce of international crimes. But in the other side, the enactment Rome Statute concept in Indonesia has facing with political and academics interest which resulted unaccommodating every type of international crimes in Law No. 26 Year 2000. The analyzing of political and academics background became the fundamental point to find out the solutions based on the regulation of Rome Statute concept matters in Indonesia.

Keywords: academic consideration, human right, political consideration, rome statute, unregulated concept

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
3159 Punishing Unfit Defendants for International Crimes Committed Decades Ago

Authors: MD Mustakimur Rahman

Abstract:

On the one hand, while dealing with temporally distant international crimes (TDICs), prosecutors are likely to encounter many defendants suffering from severe physical or mental disorders. The concept of a defendant's "fitness," on the other hand, is based on the notion that an alleged perpetrator must be protected from a conviction resulting from a lack of participation or competence in making proper judgments. As a result, if a defendant is temporarily or permanently mentally ill, going through a formal criminal trial may be highly unlikely. TheExtraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia(ECCC), for example, arrested and tried IengThirth for crimes against humanity, grave breaches of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, and genocide. Still, the Trial Chamber found her incompetent to stand trial and released her in 2011. Although the prosecution had a lot of evidence against her, she was free from prosecution. It suggests that alleged war criminals may be granted immunity due to their unfitness, implying that unfitness is a hurdle to combating impunity. Given the absence of a formal criminal trial, international criminal law (ICL) should take steps to address this issue. ICL, according to Mark A. Drumbl, has yet to develop its penology; hence it borrows penological rationales from domestic criminal law. For example, international crimes tribunals such as the Nuremberg Tribunal and the Tokyo Tribunal, ad hoc tribunals have used retribution, utilitarianism, and rehabilitation as punishment justifications. On the other hand, like in the case of IengThirth, a criminal trial may not always be feasible. As a result, instead of allowing impunity, this paper proposes informal trials. This paper, for example, suggests two approaches to dealing with unfit defendants: 1) trial without punishment and 2) punishment without trial. Trial without punishment is a unique method of expressing condemnation without incarceration. "Expressivism has a broader basis than communication of punishment and sentencing," says Antony Duff. According to Drumbl, we can untangle our understanding of punishment from "the iconic preference for jailhouses" to include a larger spectrum of non-incarcerative measures like "recrimination, shame, consequence, and sanction." Non-incarcerative measures allow offenders to be punished without going through a formal criminal trial. This strategy denotes accountability for unlawful behavior. This research concludes that in many circumstances, prosecuting elderly war crimes suspects is difficult or unfeasible, but their age or illness should not be grounds for impunity. They should be accountable for their heinous activities through criminal trials or other mechanisms.

Keywords: international criminal law, international criminal punishment, international crimes tribunal, temporally distant international crimes

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
3158 An Investigation of Cyber Financial Crimes After the Enactment of PECA: A Case Study of Pakistan’s Banking Sector During 2016 to 2022

Authors: Zain Khalid

Abstract:

The paper outlines the trends of cyber financial crimes and frauds – approximating upto – in Pakistan after the enactment of The Prevention of Electronic Crimes Act in 2016. The paper elaborates on the newer methods that fraudsters have adopted after tighter preventive and counter measures were employed in Pakistan partly as a result of following the international finance related commitments, particularly the FATF regulations. The paper adopts case studies methods to highlight various aspects of the financial frauds and crimes committed and later investigated jointly by Pakistan’s one of the federal law enforcement agencies, the Federal Investigation Agency, and Mobilink Microfinance Bank , Pakistan’s premier microfinance bank. It additionally enriches the data through expert interviews – with crime investigators and the experts to carry out an in-depth analysis of the various factors involving the crime. This paper emphasizes the structural and situational factors that shape up the cyber financial crimes in Pakistan vis-à-vis digital illiteracy and lack of awareness among the users of financial services. This paper, thus, on the basis of findings and expert interviews, suggests policy reforms to reduce the instances of the financial crimes, especially in the remotest areas of the country.

Keywords: financial crimes, cyber crimes, digital literacy, terrorism financing, banking sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
3157 An Analysis of African Solutions to African Problems: Practical Effects of International Criminal Court Withdrawals in Favour of Regional Court Systems

Authors: Jeanne-Mari Retief

Abstract:

As of November 2016, three African states have withdrawn from the International Criminal Court (ICC) and more are expected to follow. The alleged abuse of universal jurisdiction and targeting of African states by the ICC motivated the withdrawals. These historical exits raise many questions, especially in regard to the adequate investigation and prosecution of international crimes in a continent with a history of impunity. Even though African courts exist and one more is proposed, many issues remain i.e. adequate access to the courts, the extent of the courts’ jurisdiction, and proposed methods of effectively dealing with international crimes in Africa. This paper seeks to address the practical effects of the withdrawal from the ICC and the problems posed through utilizing regional courts. It will specifically look at the practical challenges existing courts face, the lack of access to the latter, issues concerning the proposed African Court for Justice and Human Rights, and the shocking promotion of impunity in Africa. These all have severe implications for African citizens and victims of the most heinous crimes. The mantra of African solutions to African problems places an important duty on states to ensure the actual provision of these solutions, which can only be achieved through a critical analysis of the questions above.

Keywords: ACJHR, Africa, impunity, justice, Malabo protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
3156 Victims and Violators: Open Source Information, Admissibility Standards, and War Crimes Investigations in Iraq and Syria

Authors: Genevieve Zingg

Abstract:

Modern technology and social media platforms have fundamentally altered the nature of war crimes investigations by providing new forms of data, evidence, and documentation, and pose a unique opportunity to expand the efficacy of international law. However, much of the open source information available is deemed inadmissible in subsequent legal proceedings and fails to function as evidence largely due to issues of reliability and verifiability. Focusing on current judicial investigations related to ongoing conflicts in Syria and Iraq, this paper will examine key challenges and opportunities for the effective use of open source information in securing justice. This paper will consider strategies and approaches that can be used to ensure that information collected by affected populations meets basic admissibility standards. This paper argues that the critical failure to equip civilian populations in conflict zones with knowledge and information regarding established admissibility standards and guidelines both jeopardizes the potential of open source information and compromises the ability of victims to participate effectively in justice and accountability processes. The ultimate purpose of this paper is, therefore, to examine how to maximize the value of open source information based on the rules of evidence in international, regional, and national courts, and how to maximize the participation of affected populations in holding their abusers to account.

Keywords: human rights, international criminal law, international justice, international law, Iraq, open source information, social media, Syria, transitional justice, war crimes

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
3155 The Analysis of Computer Crimes Act 1997 in the Circumvention and Prevention of Computer Crimes in Malaysia

Authors: Nooraneda Mutalip Laidey

Abstract:

Computer Crimes Act 1997 (CCA 1997) was conceded by Malaysia’s legislative body in 1997 and the Act was enforced in June 2000. The purpose of CCA 1997 is to provide for offences related to misuse of computers such as hacking, cracking and phishing. CCA 1997 was modelled after United Kingdom’s Computer Misuses Act 1990 as a response to the emerging computer crimes. This legislation is divided into three parts and 12 Sections. The first part outlines preliminary matters that include short title and relevant definitions, second part provides for the offenses related to misuse of computers and specifies penalties for each offences, and the last part deals with ancillary provisions such as jurisdictional and investigational issues of cybercrime. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the development of computer crimes and its deterrence in Malaysia. Specific sections of CCA 1997 will be analysed in details and detail assessment on the prevention and prosecution of computer crimes in Malaysia will be accessed to determine whether CCA 1997 is so far adequate in preventing computer crimes in Malaysia.

Keywords: computer, computer crimes, CCA 1997, circumvention, deterrence

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
3154 An Examination of Criminology and Cyber Crime in Contemporary Society

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

Abstract:

The evolving global environment has as of late seen formative difficulties bordering on cyber crime and its attendant effects. This paper looks at what constitutes an offense of cyber crime under the tenets of International Law as no nation can lay bona-fide claim in managing cyber crime as a criminal phenomenon. Therefore, there has been a plethora of ideological, conceptual and mental propositions of policies aimed at domesticating cyber crimes – an international crime. These policies were as a result of parochial consideration and social foundations which negate the spirit of internationally accepted procedures. The study also noted that the non-domestication of cyber crime laws by most countries has led to an increase in cyber crimes and its attendant effects have remained unabated. The author has pointed out emerging international rules as a panacea for a sustainable cyber crime-free society. The paper relied on documentary evidence and hence scooped much of the data from secondary sources such as text books, journals, articles and periodicals and more so, opinion papers, emanating from international criminal court. It concludes that the necessary recommendations made in this paper, if fully adopted, shall go a long way in maintaining a cyber crime-free society. Ultimately, the domestic and international law mechanisms capable of dealing with cyber crime offenses should be expanded and be made proactive in order to deal with the demands of modern day challenges.

Keywords: criminology, cyber crime, domestic law, international law

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
3153 Criminals not Addicts: Newspaper Framing of Gambling-Related Crimes

Authors: Cameron Brown, Jessica Vanburen, Scott Hunt

Abstract:

This study analyzed 411 international newspaper stories pertaining to gambling-related crimes from January 2013 to December 2014. These stories included accounts of crimes committed to fund gambling or pay gambling debts or that occurred at gambling establishments. Our analysis pays particular attention to those crimes that were imputed to be committed by “problem” or “addictive” gamblers, who commit crimes to fund gambling or pay gambling debts. Previous research on problem/addictive gambling has focused on its etiology or prevalence rates and has not attended to the media portrayals of this behavior and its association with crime. Using frame analysis concepts, the data demonstrate that the newspaper stories typically frame the events as “crimes” and not the result of illness or addiction. The “evidence” of motive that could have indicated psychological problems or additions were rather framed as “criminal motive.” This framing practice advances an identity of a “problem/addictive gambler” as a deviant criminal perpetrator and not a victim of addiction. The paper concludes with a discussion of how these findings can be used to advance research on social portrayals of problem/addictive gamblers. Specifically, we consider how these media frames impede an understanding of problem/addictive gambling as a public health problem.

Keywords: problem gambling, addictive gambling, identity resonace, frame analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
3152 The Notion of International Criminal Law: Between Criminal Aspects of International Law and International Aspects of Criminal Law

Authors: Magda Olesiuk-Okomska

Abstract:

Although international criminal law has grown significantly in the last decades, it still remains fragmented and lacks doctrinal cohesiveness. Its concept is described in the doctrine as highly disputable. There is no concrete definition of the term. In the domestic doctrine, the problem of criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise within the national criminal law, is underdeveloped both theoretically and practically. To the best of author’s knowledge, there are no studies describing international aspects of criminal law in a comprehensive manner, taking a more expansive view of the subject. This paper presents results of a part of the doctoral research, undertaking a theoretical framework of the international criminal law. It aims at sorting out the existing terminology on international aspects of criminal law. It demonstrates differences between the notions of international criminal law, criminal law international and law international criminal. It confronts the notion of criminal law with related disciplines and shows their interplay. It specifies the scope of international criminal law. It diagnoses the current legal framework of international aspects of criminal law, referring to both criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise in the context of national criminal law. Finally, de lege lata postulates were formulated and direction of changes in international criminal law was proposed. The adopted research hypothesis assumed that the notion of international criminal law was inconsistent, not understood uniformly, and there was no conformity as to its place within the system of law, objective and subjective scopes, while the domestic doctrine did not correspond with international standards and differed from the worldwide doctrine. Implemented research methods included inter alia a dogmatic and legal method, an analytical method, a comparative method, as well as desk research.

Keywords: criminal law, international crimes, international criminal law, international law

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
3151 China and the Criminalization of Aggression. The Juxtaposition of Justice and the Maintenance of International Peace and Security

Authors: Elisabetta Baldassini

Abstract:

Responses to atrocities are always unique and context-dependent. They cannot be foretold nor easily prompted. However, the events of the twentieth century had set the scene for the international community to explore new and more robust systems in response to war atrocities, with the ultimate goal being the restoration and maintenance of peace and security. The outlawry of war and the attribution of individual liability for international crimes were two major landmarks that set the roots for the development of international criminal law. From the London Conference (1945) for the establishment of the first international military tribunal in Nuremberg to Rome at the inauguration of the first permanent international criminal court, the development of international criminal law has shaped in itself a fluctuating degree of tensions between justice and maintenance of international peace and security, the cardinal dichotomy of this article. The adoption of judicial measures to achieve peace indeed set justice as an essential feature at the heart of the new international system. Blackhole of this dichotomy is the crime of aggression. Aggression was at first the key component of a wide body of peace projects prosecuted under the charges of crimes against peace. However, the wide array of controversies around aggression mostly related to its definition, determination and the involvement of the Security Council silenced, partly, a degree of efforts and agreements. Notwithstanding the establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC), jurisdiction over the crime of aggression was suspended until an agreement over the definition and the conditions for the Court’s exercise of jurisdiction was reached. Compromised over the crime was achieved in Kampala in 2010 and the Court’s jurisdiction over the crime of aggression was eventually activated on 17 July 2018. China has steadily supported the advancement of international criminal justice together with the establishment of a permanent international judicial body to prosecute grave crimes and has proactively participated at the various stages of the codification and development of the crime of aggression. However, China has also expressed systematic reservations and setbacks. With the use of primary and secondary sources, including semi-structured interviews, this research aims at analyzing the role that China has played throughout the substantive historical development of the crime of aggression, demonstrating a sharp inclination in the maintenance of international peace and security. Such state behavior seems to reflect national and international political mechanisms that gravitate around a distinct rationale that involves a share of culture and tradition.

Keywords: maintenance of peace and security, cultural expression of justice, crime of aggression, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
3150 Anti-Money Laundering and Countering of Terrorist Financing: The Role of Domestic Financial Institutions to Prevent Money Laundering

Authors: Dinesh Sivaguru, Kamal Thilakasiri

Abstract:

Preventing money laundering and terrorist financing is a major national and international problem today. Several attempts have been made to prevent money laundering by national and international dimension. These are often counteracted by the multi dynamic nature of the crimes. However, launders are often to use remittance systems to clean their ill-gotten money. This study presents the role of domestic financial institutions and the effective practices and actions should implement within domestic financial institutions to control and prevent financial crimes. This thesis highlights the progress that is required to prevent money laundering and terrorist financing, further it is an original contribution to the knowledge in an under researched field in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: money laundering, terrorists financing, financial institutions, regulatory bodies

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
3149 Cybercrimes in Nigeria: Its Causes, Effects and Solutions

Authors: Uzoma Igboji

Abstract:

Cybercrimes involves crimes committed on the internet using the computer as a tool or targeted victim. In Nigeria today, there are many varieties of crimes that are committed on the internet daily, some are directed to the computers while the others are directed to the computer users. Cyber terrorism, identity theft, internet chat room, piracy and hacking are identified as types of cyber crimes. Usually, these crimes are perpetrated in forms of like sending of fraudulent and bogus financial proposals from cyber crimes to innocent internet users. The increasing rates of cyber crimes have become strong threats to the society, organizations and country’s reputation, E-commerce growth, denial of innocent Nigerian opportunity abroad and reduced productivity. This study identified some of the causes of cybercrimes to include urbanization, high rate of unemployment, corruption, easy accessibility to internet and weak implementation of cyber crimes in Nigeria. Therefore, internet users should inculcate the habit of continuously updating their knowledge about the ever changing ICTs through this, they can be well informed about the current trends in cybercrimes and how the cybercrimes carryout their dubious activities. Thus, how they can devise means of protecting their information from cyber criminals. Internet users should be security conscious at all times .Recommendations were proposed on how these crimes can be minimized if not completely eradicated.

Keywords: cyber-crimes, cyber-terrorism, cyber-criminals, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
3148 The Situation in Afghanistan as a Step Forward in Putting an End to Impunity

Authors: Jelena Radmanovic

Abstract:

On 5 March 2020, the International Criminal Court has decided to authorize the investigation into the crimes allegedly committed on the territory of Afghanistan after 1 May 2003. The said determination has raised several controversies, including the recently imposed sanctions by the United States, furthering the United States' long-standing rejection of the authority of the International Criminal Court. The purpose of this research is to address the said investigation in light of its importance for the prevention of impunity in the cases where the perpetrators are nationals of Non-Party States to the Rome Statute. Difficulties that the International Criminal Court has been facing, concerning the establishment of its jurisdiction in those instances where an involved state is not a Party to the Rome Statute, have become the most significant stumbling block undermining the importance, integrity, and influence of the Court. The Situation in Afghanistan raises even further concern, bearing in mind that the Prosecutor’s Request for authorization of an investigation pursuant to article 15 from 20 November 2017 has initially been rejected with the ‘interests of justice’ as an applied rationale. The first method used for the present research is the description of the actual events regarding the aforementioned decisions and the following reactions in the international community, while with the second method – the method of conceptual analysis, the research will address the decisions pertaining to the International Criminal Court’s jurisdiction and will attempt to address the mentioned Decision of 5 March 2020 as an example of good practice and a precedent that should be followed in all similar situations. The research will attempt parsing the reasons used by the International Criminal Court, giving rather greater attention to the latter decision that has authorized the investigation and the points raised by the officials of the United States. It is a find of this research that the International Criminal Court, together with other similar judicial instances (Nuremberg and Tokyo Tribunals, The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda), has presented the world with the possibility of non-impunity, attempting to prosecute those responsible for the gravest of crimes known to the humanity and has shown that such persons should not enjoy the benefits of their immunities, with its focus primarily on the victims of such crimes. Whilst it is an issue that will most certainly be addressed further in the future, with the situations that will be brought before the International Criminal Court, the present research will make an attempt at pointing to the significance of the situation in Afghanistan, the International Criminal Court as such and the international criminal justice as a whole, for the purpose of putting an end to impunity.

Keywords: Afghanistan, impunity, international criminal court, sanctions, United States

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
3147 World on the Edge: Migration and Cross Border Crimes in West Africa

Authors: Adeyemi Kamil Hamzah

Abstract:

The contiguity of nations in international system suggests that world is a composite of socio-economic unit with people exploring and exploiting the potentials in the world via migrations. Thus, cross border migration has made positive contributions to social and economic development of individuals and nations by increasing the household incomes of the host countries. However, the cross border migrations in West Africa are becoming part of a dynamic and unstable world migration system. This is due to the nature and consequences of trans-border crimes in West Africa, with both short and long term effects on the socio-economic viability of developing countries like West African States. The paper identified that migration influenced cross-border crimes as well as the high spate of insurgencies in the sub-region. Furthermore, the consequential effect of a global village has imbalanced population flows, making some countries host and parasites to others. Also, stern and deft cross-border rules and regulations, as well as territorial security and protections, ameliorate cross border crimes and migration in West African sub-regions. Therefore, the study concluded that cross border migration is the linchpin of all kinds of criminal activities which affect the security of states in the sub-region.

Keywords: cross-border migration, border crimes, security, West Africa, development, globalisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
3146 Challenge of the Credibility of Witnesses in the International Criminal Court and the Precondition to Establish the Truth

Authors: Romina Beqiri

Abstract:

In the context of the prosecution of those responsible for the commission of the most hideous crimes and the fight against impunity, a fundamental role is played by witnesses of the crimes who contribute to ascertaining the ‘procedural truth’. This article examines recent decisions and legislation of the Hague-based International Criminal Court in terms of the endangerment of the integrity of the criminal proceedings in consequence of witness tampering. The analysis focuses on the new developments in the courtroom and the academia, in particular, on the first-ever sentence confirming the charges of corruptly influencing witnesses, interpretation of presenting false evidence and giving false testimony when under an obligation to tell the truth. Confronted with recent tampering with witnesses and their credibility at stake in the ongoing cases, the research explores different Court’s decisions and scholars’ legal disputes concerning the deterrence approach to punish the authors of offences against the administration of justice when committed intentionally. Therefore, the analysis concludes that the Court cannot tolerate any witness false testimony and should enhance consistency and severity of sanctions for the sake of fair trial and end impunity.

Keywords: International Criminal Court, administration of justice, credibility of witness, fair trial, false testimony, witness tampering

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
3145 The ICC, International Criminal Justice and International Politics

Authors: Girma Y. Iyassu Menelik

Abstract:

The international community has gone through indescribable atrocities resulting from acts of war. These atrocities turned Europe and Africa into a wilderness of bloodshed and crime. In the period 1960- 1970s Africa witnessed unprecedented and well-documented assaults on life and property. This necessitated the adoption, signing and ratification of the International Criminal Court, establishment of the International Court of Justice which is a great achievement for the protection and fulfilling of human rights in the context of international political instability. The ICC came as an important opportunity to advance justice for serious crimes committed in violation of international law. Thus the Rome statute has become a formidable contribution to peace and security. There are concerns that the ICC is targeting African states. However, the ICC cannot preside over cases that are not parties to the Rome statute unless the UN Security council refers the situation or the relevant state asks the court to become involved. The instable international political situation thus deals with criminal prosecutions where amnesty is not permissible or is strongly repudiated. The court has become important justice instruments for states that are unable or unwilling to fulfill their obligation to address legacies of massive human rights violations. The ICJ as a court has a twofold role; to settle legal disputes submitted to it by states, and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by duly authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies. All members of the UN are ipso facto parties to the statute of the ICJ. The court gives advisory opinion on any legal question. These courts are the most appropriate fora to pronounce on international crimes and are in a better position to know and apply international law. Cases that have been brought to the courts include Rwanda’s genocide, Liberia’s Charles Taylor etc. The receptiveness and cooperation of the local populations are important to the courts and if the ICC and ICJ can provide appropriate protections for the physical and economic safety of victims then peace and human rights observance can be attained. This paper will look into the effectiveness and impediments of these courts in handling criminal and injustices in international politics as while as what needs to be done to strengthen the capacity of these courts.

Keywords: ICC, international politics, justice, UN security council, violence, protection, fulfilling

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
3144 Capital Punishment as a Contradiction to International Law and Indonesian Constitution

Authors: Akbar

Abstract:

Pros and cons of the capital punishment in Indonesia have been out of the date. The discourse of capital punishment has no relevance to the theory of punishment and theories of cultural relativism. In fact, the provisions of exceptions to the right to life by administering the death penalty against the perpetrators of serious crimes in Indonesia is a narrow perspective that does not pay attention to the development of the punishment of the crime. This thing is aggravated by an error to understand the natural right and legal right where the prohibition of those rights is result from a failure to distinguish the characteristic of the rights and to remember the raison d’être of law. To parse the irrational above, this paper will try to analyze normatively the error referring to the complementary theory between the sources of international law and the sources of municipal law of Indonesia. Both sources of the law above should be understood in the mutually reinforcing relationship enforceability because of false perceptions against those will create the disintegration between international law and municipal law of Indonesia. This disintegration is explicit not only contrary to the integrative theory of international law but also integrative theory of municipal law of Indonesia.

Keywords: capital punishment, municipal law, right to life, international law, the raison d’être of law, complementary theory, integrative theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
3143 International Humanitarian Law and the Challenges of New Technologies of Warfare

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi

Abstract:

Undoubtedly, despite all efforts made to achieve overall peace through the application of the principles of international humanitarian law, crimes against mankind which are of unprecedented concern to the whole world have remained unabated. The fall back on war as a technique for settling disputes between nations, individuals, countries and ethnic groups with accompanying toll of deaths and destruction of properties have remained a conspicuous component of human history. Indeed, to control this conduct of warfare and the dehumanization of individuals, a body of law aimed at regulating the impacts of conflicts and hostilities in the theater of war has become necessary. Thus, it is to examine the conditions in which international humanitarian law will apply and also to determine the extent of the challenges of new progressions of warfare that this study is undertaken. All through this examination, we grasped doctrinal approach wherein we used text books, journals, international materials and supposition of law specialists in the field of international humanitarian law. This paper shall examine the distinctive factors responsible for the rebelliousness to the rules of International Humanitarian Law and furthermore, shall proffer possible courses of action that will address the challenges of new technologies of warfare all over the world. Essentially, the basic proposals made in this paper if totally utilized may go far in ensuring a sufficient standard in the application of the rules of international humanitarian law as it relates to an increasingly frequent phenomenon of contemporary developments in technologies of warfare which has in recent past, made it more difficult for the most ideal application of the rules of international humanitarian law. This paper deduces that for a sustainable global peace to be achieved, the rules of International Humanitarian Law as it relates to the utilization of new technologies of warfare should be completely clung to and should be made a strict liability offense. Likewise, this paper further recommends the introduction of domestic criminal law punishment of serious contraventions of the rules of international humanitarian law.

Keywords: international, humanitarian law, new technologies, warfare

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
3142 The Road to Abolition of Death Penalty in China: With the Perspective of the Ninth Amendment

Authors: Huang Gui

Abstract:

This paper supplies some possible approaches of the death penalty reform in China basic on the analyzing the reformation conducted by the Ninth Amendment. There now are 46 crimes punishable by death, and this penalty still plays a significant role in the criminal punishment structure. In order to abolish entirely the death penalty in Penal Code, the legislature of China should gradually abolish the death penalty for the nonviolent crimes and then for the nonlethal violent crimes and finally for the lethal violent crimes. In the case where the death penalty has not yet been abolished completely, increasing the applicable conditions of suspension of execution of death penalty and reducing the scope of applicable objects (elderly defendant and other kinds of special objects) of death penalty would be an effective road to control and limit the use of death penalty in judicial practice.

Keywords: death penalty, the eighth amendment, the ninth amendment, suspension of execution of death, immediate execution of death, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
3141 The Anti-Cyber and Information Technology Crimes Law on Information Access and Dissemination by Egyptian Journalists

Authors: Miral Sabry AlAshry

Abstract:

The main objective of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of Egyptian Journalists through the Anti-Cyber and Information Technology Crimes Law, as well as its implications for journalistic practice and the implications for press freedom in Egypt. Questionnaires were undertaken with 192 journalists representing four official newspapers, and in-depth interviews were held with 15 journalists. The study used an Authoritarian theory as a theoretical framework. The study revealed that the government placed restrictions on journalists by using the law to oppress them.

Keywords: anti-cyber and information technology crimes law, media legislation, personal information, Egyptian constitution

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
3140 A Comparative Analysis on the Impact of the Prevention and Combating of Hate Crimes and Hate Speech Bill of 2016 on the Rights to Human Dignity, Equality, and Freedom in South Africa

Authors: Tholaine Matadi

Abstract:

South Africa is a democratic country with a historical record of racially-motivated marginalisation and exclusion of the majority. During the apartheid era the country was run along pieces of legislation and policies based on racial segregation. The system held a tight clamp on interracial mixing which forced people to remain in segregated areas. For example, a citizen from the Indian community could not own property in an area allocated to white people. In this way, a great majority of people were denied basic human rights. Now, there is a supreme constitution with an entrenched justiciable Bill of Rights founded on democratic values of social justice, human dignity, equality and the advancement of human rights and freedoms. The Constitution also enshrines the values of non-racialism and non-sexism. The Constitutional Court has the power to declare unconstitutional any law or conduct considered to be inconsistent with it. Now, more than two decades down the line, despite the abolition of apartheid, there is evidence that South Africa still experiences hate crimes which violate the entrenched right of vulnerable groups not to be discriminated against on the basis of race, sexual orientation, gender, national origin, occupation, or disability. To remedy this mischief parliament has responded by drafting the Prevention and Combatting of Hate Crimes and Hate Speech Bill. The Bill has been disseminated for public comment and suggestions. It is intended to combat hate crimes and hate speech based on sheer prejudice. The other purpose of the Bill is to bring South Africa in line with international human rights instruments against racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related expressions of intolerance identified in several international instruments. It is against this backdrop that this paper intends to analyse the impact of the Bill on the rights to human dignity, equality, and freedom. This study is significant because the Bill was highly contested and creates a huge debate. This study relies on a qualitative evaluative approach based on desktop and library research. The article recurs to primary and secondary sources. For comparative purpose, the paper compares South Africa with countries such as Australia, Canada, Kenya, Cuba, and United Kingdom which have criminalised hate crimes and hate speech. The finding from this study is that despite the Bill’s expressed positive intentions, this draft legislation is problematic for several reasons. The main reason is that it generates considerable controversy mostly because it is considered to infringe the right to freedom of expression. Though the author suggests that the Bill should not be rejected in its entirety, she notes the brutal psychological effect of hate crimes on their direct victims and the writer emphasises that a legislature can succeed to combat hate-crimes only if it provides for them as a separate stand-alone category of offences. In view of these findings, the study recommended that since hate speech clauses have a negative impact on freedom of expression it can be promulgated, subject to the legislature enacting the Prevention and Combatting of Hate-Crimes Bill as a stand-alone law which criminalises hate crimes.

Keywords: freedom of expression, hate crimes, hate speech, human dignity

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
3139 Improve the Provisions in the Life Imprisonment Law in Vietnam

Authors: Nguyen Xuan Thuy

Abstract:

The provisions on life imprisonment in the legal system enable to differentiate criminal liability and individualize the penalties for particularly serious crimes. This punishment acts as an intermediary between the determined imprisonment of a maximum of 20 years and the capital punishment, enabling the penalty system to maintain its internal unity. However, the practice of applying the punishment has been posing many problems that need to be studied in order to come up with solutions to improve the provisions related to the penalty and its effectiveness in the fight against crimes. The article summarizes the law on life imprisonment sentence in the current criminal law to highlight its characteristics and role in Vietnam's Penal Code. It also suggests some solutions to improve the law and its effectiveness in preventing and combating crimes.

Keywords: life imprisonment, Vietnam, law, penalty, provisions

Procedia PDF Downloads 15