Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3514

Search results for: international law

3514 The Historical Framework Of International Crime In International Criminal Law

Authors: Tahraoui Boualem


Researching the historical framework of international crime means examining the historical facts that have contributed to uncovering this serious crime affecting international interests, and the law by which the study of the subject of international crime is determined is international criminal law, which is a branch of public international law. In this context, the historical study of international crime means recognizing the existence of an international community governed by international law, which makes us acknowledge that ancient societies lacked such stable and recurring international relations. Therefore, an attempt to monitor international crime in those ancient societies is only to demonstrate a historical fact that those societies have known some features of this crime, and have contributed in one way or another to the development of international criminal law without defining its concept or legal nature. The international community has affirmed the principle of establishing peace, achieving security, and respecting human rights. As a basis for friendly relations between the people of the international community and in case of prejudice, such as the aggressors breaching the obligations imposed on them, whether in time of peace or war.

Keywords: historical framework, of international crime, peace or war., international law

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3513 Demystifying the Legitimacy of the International Court of Justice

Authors: Roger-Claude Liwanga


Over the last seven decades, there has been a proliferation of international tribunals. Yet, they have not received unanimous approval, raising a question about their legitimacy. A legitimate international tribunal is one whose authority to adjudicate international disputes is perceived as justified. Using the case study of the International Court of Justice (ICJ), this article highlights the three criteria that should be considered in assessing the legitimacy of an international tribunal, which include legal, sociological, and moral elements. It also contends that the ICJ cannot claim 'full' legitimacy if any of these components of legitimacy is missing in its decisions. The article further suggests that the legitimacy of the ICJ has a dynamic nature, as litigating parties may constantly change their perception of the court’s authority at any time before, during, or after the judicial process. The article equally describes other factors that can contribute to maintaining the international court’s legitimacy, including fairness and unbiasedness, sound interpretation of international legal norms, and transparency.

Keywords: international tribunals, legitimacy, human rights, international law

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3512 The International Labor Organization and the Formulation of International Labor Standards

Authors: Tahraoui Boualem


The International Labor Organization is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, and it is the only organization within the United Nations system that is distinguished by its tripartite legitimacy and which simultaneously includes governments, workers' and employers' organizations of its member states in a joint effort to set standards and policies Work to promote decent work in various parts of the world, and the expression of international labor standards basically means two types of documents, namely international labor agreements and international labor recommendations, and so far its general conference, which is held annually, has set a number of standards, the number of which has reached 184 agreements and 192 recommendations so far. For this reason, it is decided to clarify the International Labor Organization and the formulation of international labor standards within two sections. In the first topic, the researcher discusses the concept of the International Labor Organization, and in the second topic, it highlights the legal basis for the authority of the International Labor Organization in protecting the rights of workers.

Keywords: international labor, international labor standards, rights of workers, nation’s system

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3511 The Notion of International Criminal Law: Between Criminal Aspects of International Law and International Aspects of Criminal Law

Authors: Magda Olesiuk-Okomska


Although international criminal law has grown significantly in the last decades, it still remains fragmented and lacks doctrinal cohesiveness. Its concept is described in the doctrine as highly disputable. There is no concrete definition of the term. In the domestic doctrine, the problem of criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise within the national criminal law, is underdeveloped both theoretically and practically. To the best of author’s knowledge, there are no studies describing international aspects of criminal law in a comprehensive manner, taking a more expansive view of the subject. This paper presents results of a part of the doctoral research, undertaking a theoretical framework of the international criminal law. It aims at sorting out the existing terminology on international aspects of criminal law. It demonstrates differences between the notions of international criminal law, criminal law international and law international criminal. It confronts the notion of criminal law with related disciplines and shows their interplay. It specifies the scope of international criminal law. It diagnoses the current legal framework of international aspects of criminal law, referring to both criminal law issues that arise in the international setting, and international issues that arise in the context of national criminal law. Finally, de lege lata postulates were formulated and direction of changes in international criminal law was proposed. The adopted research hypothesis assumed that the notion of international criminal law was inconsistent, not understood uniformly, and there was no conformity as to its place within the system of law, objective and subjective scopes, while the domestic doctrine did not correspond with international standards and differed from the worldwide doctrine. Implemented research methods included inter alia a dogmatic and legal method, an analytical method, a comparative method, as well as desk research.

Keywords: criminal law, international crimes, international criminal law, international law

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3510 Idea of International Criminal Justice in the Function of Prosecution International Crimes

Authors: Vanda Božić, Željko Nikač


The wars and armed conflicts have often resulted in violations of international humanitarian law, and often commit the most serious international crimes such as war crimes, crimes against humanity, aggression and genocide. However, only in the XX century the rule was articulated idea of establishing a body of international criminal justice in order to prosecute these crimes and their perpetrators. The first steps in this field have been made by establishing the International military tribunals for war crimes at Nuremberg and Tokyo, and the formation of ad hoc tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. In the end, The International Criminal Court was established in Rome in 1998 with the aim of justice and in order to give satisfaction the victims of crimes and their families. The aim of the paper was to provide a historical and comparative analysis of the institutions of international criminal justice based on which these institutions de lege lata fulfilled the goals of individual criminal responsibility and justice. Furthermore, the authors suggest de lege ferenda that the Permanent International Criminal Tribunal, in addition to the prospective case, also takes over the current ICTY and ICTR cases.

Keywords: international crimes, international criminal justice, prosecution of crimes, ad hoc tribunal, the international criminal court

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3509 Human Rights Violations and the Inability of International Law to Solve Them

Authors: Amin Osama Amin Mohamed Elbaramawy


In the last period of time, about ten years ago, wars caused violations of human rights in many places, and despite international condemnations, they did not stop, and the truth is that international law was unable to stop them. The global wars and conflicts that the world has been witnessing for more than ten years have caused the displacement of millions of people in all parts of the earth, causing a violation of the human rights of those people. Despite international condemnations of these conflicts, these conflicts have not stopped and have not been resolved until now. Therefore, I call for international law and international courts to be more effective and not just in words, taking into account the speed in this due to the increase in those wars and conflicts every day and new violations every day.

Keywords: war, freedom, human rights, international law

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3508 The Role of State Practices and Custom in Outer Space Law

Authors: Biswanath Gupta, Raju Kd


Space law is the new entry in the basket of international law in the latter half of the 20th Century. In the last hundred and fifty years, courts and scholars developed a consensus that, the custom is an important source of international law. Article 38(1) (b) of the statute of the International Court of Justice recognized international custom as a source of international law. State practices and usages have a greater role to play in formulating customary international law. This paper examines those state practices which can be qualified to become international customary law. Since, 1979 (after Moon Treaty) no hard law have been developed in the area of space exploration. It tries to link between state practices and custom in space exploration and development of customary international law in space activities. The paper uses doctrinal method of legal research for examining the current questions of international law. The paper explores different international legal documents such as General Assembly Resolutions, Treaty principles, working papers of UN, cases relating to customary international law and writing of jurists relating to space law and customary international law. It is argued that, principles such as common heritage of mankind, non-military zone, sovereign equality, nuclear weapon free zone and protection of outer space environment, etc. developed state practices among the international community which can be qualified to become international customary law.

Keywords: customary international law, state practice, space law, treaty

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3507 An Extended Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning: Impact of New International Business Processes

Authors: D. De Matías Batalla


This paper develops and extended eclectic paradigm to fit the firm internationalization process with the real international business world. The approach is based on Dunning´s, introducing new concepts like mode of entry, international joint venture o international mergers and acquisitions. At the same time is presented a model to describe the Spanish international mergers and acquisitions in order to determinate the most important factor that influence in this type of foreign direct investment.

Keywords: dunning, eclectic paradigm, foreign direct investment, IJV, international business, international management, multinational firms, firm internationalization process, M&A

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3506 Power, Pluralism, and History: Norms in International Societies

Authors: Nicole Cervenka


On the question of norms in international politics, scholars are divided over whether norms are a tool for power politics or a genuine reflection of an emergent international society. The line is drawn between rationalism and idealism, but this dialectical relationship needs to be broken down if we hope to come to a comprehensive understanding of how norms play out in international society. The concept of an elusive international society is a simplification of a more pluralistic, cosmopolitan, and diverse collection of international societies. The English School effectively overcomes realist-idealist dichotomies and provides a pluralistic, comprehensive explanation and description of international societies through its application to two distinct areas: human rights as well as security and war. We argue that international norms have always been present in human rights, war, and international security, forming international societies that can be complimentary or oppositional, beneficial or problematic. Power politics are present, but they can only be regarded as partially explanatory of the role of norms in international politics, which must also include history, international law, the media, NGOs, and others to fully represent the normative influences in international societies. A side-by-side comparison of international norms of war/security and human rights show how much international societies converge. World War II was a turning point in terms of international law, these forces of international society have deeper historical roots. Norms of human rights and war/security are often norms of restraint, guiding appropriate treatment of individuals. This can at times give primacy to the individual over the sovereign state. However, state power politics and hegemony are still intact. It cannot be said that there is an emergent international society—international societies are part of broader historical backdrops. Furthermore, states and, more generally, power politics, are important components in international societies, but international norms are far from mere tools of power politics. They define a more diverse, complicated, and ever-present conception of international societies.

Keywords: English school, international societies, norms, pluralism

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3505 The Targeted Killing of Soleimani between International Law and US Domestic Law

Authors: Mohammad Yousef


The issue of targeted killing has become a part of modern international law topics, as its spread has been accompanied by the technological development of weapons and military equipment, especially armed drones. Until now, there is no specific definition or legal framework for targeted killing in international law, and the issue of its compatibility with international law is still subject to debate and controversy. The case of the targeted killing of General Qassem Soleimani sparked waves of reactions and discussions between legal scholars and US officials in an argument about the legality of killing him in the light of international law rules and US domestic law. This paper firstly discusses the legality of targeted killing in international law and US domestic law; after that, it studies the legal bases and the legal system that governs these operations, while in the second section, it sheds light on the case of Soleimani’s targeted killing in light of international law and US domestic law, by examining the different views of jurists in this regard.

Keywords: targeted killing, international law, US domestic law, Qassem Soleimani

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3504 International Criminal Prosecution and Core International Crimes

Authors: Ikediobi Lottanna Samuel


Days are gone when perpetrators of core international crimes hide under the cloak of sovereignty to go with impunity. The principle of international criminal responsibility is a reality. This move to end impunity for violation of human rights has led to the creation of international and hybrid tribunals, a permanent international criminal court, and increased prosecution of human rights violations in domestic courts. This article examines the attempts by the international community to bring perpetrators of heinous crimes to book. The work reveals the inadequacy of the current international mechanism for prosecuting core international crimes in order to end the culture of impunity and entrench the culture of accountability. It also identifies that ad hoc international criminal tribunals and the international criminal court face similar challenges ranging from lack of cooperation by nation states, non-existence of hierarchy of crimes, lack of effective enforcement mechanism, limited prosecutorial capacity and agenda, difficulty in apprehending suspects, difficulty in blending different legal tradition, absence of a coherent sentencing guideline, distant location of courts, selective indictment, etc. These challenges adversely affect the functioning of these courts. It is suggested that a more helpful way to end impunity would be to have a more robust and synergistic relationship between national, regional, and international approaches to prosecuting core international crimes.

Keywords: prosecution, criminal, international, tribunal, justice, ad hoc

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3503 The Doctrine of Military Necessity under Customary International Law: A Breach of International Humanitarian Law

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi


This paper examines an essential and complex part of International humanitarian law standards of military necessity. Military necessity is an unpredictable phenomenon. The unpredictability of this regulation likewise originates from the fact that is one of the most fundamental, yet most misjudged and distorted standards of international law of armed conflict. This rule has been censured as essentially wrong in light of its non-compliance with the principles of international humanitarian law in recent past. The author noted in this study that military necessity runs counter to humanitarian exigencies. These have generated debate among researchers for them to propose that for international law to be considered more important, it is indispensable that the procedures and substance of custom be illuminated and made accessible to every one of the individuals who may utilize it or be influenced by it. However, a significant number of analysts have attributed particular weaknesses to this doctrine. This study relied on both primary and secondary sources of data collection. Significantly, the recommendation made in this paper, if completely adopted, shall go a long way in guaranteeing a better application of the principles of international humanitarian law.

Keywords: military necessity, international law, international humanitarian law, customary law

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3502 Scientific Forecasting in International Relations

Authors: Djehich Mohamed Yousri


In this research paper, the future of international relations is believed to have an important place on the theoretical and applied levels because policy makers in the world are in dire need of such analyzes that are useful in drawing up the foreign policies of their countries, and protecting their national security from potential future threats, and in this context, The topic raised a lot of scientific controversy and intellectual debate, especially in terms of the extent of the effectiveness, accuracy, and ability of foresight methods to identify potential futures, and this is what attributed the controversy to the scientific foundations for foreseeing international relations. An arena for intellectual discussion between different thinkers in international relations belonging to different theoretical schools, which confirms to us the conceptual and implied development of prediction in order to reach the scientific level.

Keywords: foresight, forecasting, international relations, international relations theory, concept of international relations

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3501 An Examination of the Challenges of Domestication of International Laws and Human Rights Laws in Nigeria

Authors: Uche A. Nnawulezi


This study evolved from the need to look at and evaluate the difficulties in the domestication of International Laws and Human Rights Laws in Nigeria. Essentially, the paper-based its examination on documentary evidence and depended much on secondary sources, for example, textbooks, journals, articles, periodicals and research reports emanating from suggestions of international law experts, jurists and human rights lawyers on the development challenges in domesticating international laws and human rights laws in Nigeria. These data were analyzed by the application of content analysis and careful observation of the current municipal laws which has posed great challenges in the domestication of International laws. This paper might follow the historical backdrop of the practices in the use of International law in Nigeria and should likewise consider the challenges inherent in these practices. The paper suggests that a sustainable domestication of International Laws and its application in Nigerian courts will ensure a better enforcement of human rights within the domestic jurisdiction.

Keywords: international law, human rights, domestication, challenges

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3500 Changing Landscape of International Law of Governance: ‘One Belt One Road Initiative’ as a Case Study

Authors: Tikumporn Rodkhunmuang


The importance of ‘international law of governance’ is the means and end to deal with international affairs. This research paper seeks to first study the historical development of international law of governance from the classical period of the international legal framework of global governance until the contemporary period of its framework. Second, the international law of governance is extremely turning into the crucial point in its long history because of the changing of China's foreign policies towards ‘One Belt One Road Initiative’. Third, the proposing model of the existing international law of governance within Chinese characteristics will be the new rules and modalities of modern diplomacy and governed international affairs. Methodologically speaking, this research paper is conducting under mixed methods research, which are also included numerical analysis and theoretical considerations. As a result, this research paper is the critical point of the international legal framework of global governance that changing the diplomatic paradigm as well as turning China into a great-power in international politics. So, this research paper is useful for international legal scholars and diplomats for slightly changing their understanding of the rapidly changing their norms from western norms to the eastern norms of international law. Therefore, the outcome of the research is the modern model of China to make a diplomatic relationship with other countries in the global society.

Keywords: global governance, international law, landscape, one belt one road

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3499 Limitations of Recent National Enactments on International Crimes: The Case of Kenya, Uganda and Sudan

Authors: Emma Charlene Lubaale


The International Criminal Court (ICC) operates based on the principle of complementarity. On the basis of this principle, states enjoy the primary right to prosecute international crimes, with the ICC intervening only when a state with jurisdiction over an international crime is unable or unwilling to prosecute. To ably exercise their primary right to prosecute international crimes domestically, a number of states are taking steps to criminalise international crimes in their national laws. Significant to note, many of the laws enacted are not being applied in the prosecution of the international crimes allegedly committed. Kenya, Uganda and Sudan are some notable states where commission of international crimes is documented. All these states have recently enacted laws on international crimes. Kenya enacted the International Crimes Act in 2008, Uganda enacted the International Criminal Court Act in 2010 and in 2007, Sudan made provision for international crimes under its Armed Forces Act. However, in all these three states, the enacted national laws on international crimes have thus far not featured in any of the proceedings before these states’ courts. Instead, these states have either relied on ordinary crimes to prosecute international crimes or not prosecuted international crimes altogether. This paper underscores the limitations of the enacted laws, explaining why, even with efforts taken by these states to enact national laws on international crimes, these laws cannot be relied on to advance accountability for the international crimes. Notably, the laws in Kenya and Uganda do not have retroactive application. In Sudan, despite the 2007 reforms, the structure of military justice in Sudan has the effect of placing certain categories of individuals beyond the reach of international criminal justice. For Kenya and Uganda, it is concluded that the only benefit that flows from these enactments is reliance on them to prosecute future international crimes. For Sudan, the 2007 reforms will only have the desired impact if reforms are equally made to the structure of military justice.

Keywords: complementarity, national laws, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, international crimes, limitations

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3498 The Education-Development Nexus: The Vision of International Organizations

Authors: Thibaut Lauwerier


This presentation will cover the vision of international organizations on the link between development and education. This issue is very relevant to address the general topic of the conference. 'Educating for development' is indeed at the heart of their discourse. For most of international organizations involved in education, it is important to invest in this field since it is at the service of development. The idea of this presentation is to better understand the vision of development according to these international organizations and how education can contribute to this type of development. To address this issue, we conducted a comparative study of three major international organizations (OECD, UNESCO and World Bank) influencing education policy at the international level. The data come from the strategic reports of these organizations over the period 1990-2015. The results show that the visions of development refer mainly to the neoliberal agenda, despite evolutions, even contradictions. And so, education must increase productivity, improve economic growth, etc. UNESCO, which has a less narrow conception of the development and therefore the aims of education, does not have the same means as the two other organizations to advocate for an alternative vision.

Keywords: development, education, international organizations, poilcy

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3497 Sexual and Gender Based Crimes in International Criminal Law: Moving Forwards or Backwards

Authors: Khadija Ali


Prosecution of sexual violence in international criminal law requires not only an understanding of the mechanisms employed to prosecute sexual violence but also a critical analysis of the factors facilitating perpetuation of such crimes in armed conflicts. The extrapolations laid out in this essay delve into the jurisprudence of international criminal law pertaining to sexual and gender based violence followed by the core question of this essay: Has the entrenchment of sexual violence as international crimes in the Rome Statute been successful to address such violence in armed conflicts?

Keywords: conflict, gender, international criminal law, sexual violence

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3496 Recruitment Strategies and Migration Regulations for International Students in the United States and Canada: A Comparative Study

Authors: Aynur Charkasova


The scientific and economic contributions of international students cannot be underestimated. International education continues to be a competitive global industry, and many countries are seeking to recruit the best and the brightest to reinforce scientific innovations, boost intercultural learning, and bring more funding to the universities and colleges. Substantial changes in international educational policies and migration regulations have been made in the hopes of recruiting global talent. This paper explores and compares recruitment strategies, employment opportunities, and a legal path to permanent residency policies related to international students in the United States of America and Canada. This study will utilize the legal information available by the government websites of both countries, peer-reviewed scholarly articles and will highlight which approach promises a better path in recruiting and retention of international students. The findings from the study will be discussed and recommendations will be provided.

Keywords: international students, current immigration policies, STEM, visa reforms for international students

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3495 Fundamentals of Theorizing Power in International Relations

Authors: Djehich Mohamed Yousri


The field of political science is one of the sciences in which there is much controversy, in terms of the multiplicity of schools, trends, and goals. This overlap and complexity in the interpretation of the political phenomenon in political science has been linked to other disciplines associated with it, and the science of international relations and the huge amount of theories that have found a wide range and a decisive position after the national tide in the history of Western political thought, especially after the Westphalia Conference 1648, and as a result was approved The new foundations of international politics, the most important of which is respect for state sovereignty. Historical events continued and coincided with scientific, intellectual, and economic developments following the emergence of the industrial revolution, followed by the technological revolutions in all their contents, which led to the rooting and establishment of a comprehensive political system that is more complex and overlapping than it was in the past during the First and Second World Wars. The international situation has become dependent on the digital revolution and its aspirations in The comprehensive transformation witnessed by international political relations after the Cold War.

Keywords: theorizing, international relations, approaches to international relations, political science, the political system

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3494 International Law and Its Role in Protecting Human Rights

Authors: Yrfet Shkreli


To determine the content of human rights norms in national constitutions, international law - in the form of treaties, declarations and case law from international monitoring bodies, and comparative case law from other countries - is often discussed in the judgments of domestic courts. This paper explores the extent to which international law has influenced domestic human rights case law in Africa. The paper first explores how the human rights provisions of African constitutions came into being before turning to the role played by international law in the constitutional order of various African states and how treaties, declarations and findings of international monitoring bodies have been used in African countries to interpret and expand on constitutional human rights provisions.

Keywords: European Union, global governance, globalization, normative power

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3493 Recruitment Strategies and Migration Regulations for International Students in the United States and Canada: A Comparative Study

Authors: Aynur Charkasova


The scientific and economic contributions of international students cannot be underestimated. International education continues to be a competitive global industry, and many countries are seeking to recruit the best and the brightest to reinforce scientific innovations, boost intercultural learning, and bring more funding to universities and colleges. Substantial changes in international educational policies and migration regulations have been made in the hopes of recruiting global talent. This paper explores and compares recruitment strategies, employment opportunities, and a legal path to permanent residency policies related to international students in the United States of America and Canada. This study will utilize the legal information available from the government websites of both countries and peer-reviewed scholarly articles and will highlight which approach promises a better path in recruiting and retention of international students. The findings from the study will be discussed and recommendations will be provided.

Keywords: International students, current immigration policies, STEM, employability, visa reforms for international students, Canadian recruitment policy

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3492 The Influence of COVID-19 Pandemic: Global Policies Towards Chinese International Students

Authors: Xuefan Li, Donghua Li, Juanjuan Li


This study explores the changes in policies toward Chinese students studying abroad in different countries during the pre-pandemic, pandemic, and post-pandemic periods. Interviews and questionnaire surveys were conducted with participating institutions at the China International Education Exhibition. The results indicate that institutions were impacted by the pandemic differently, with a gradual recovery in the two years following the initial outbreak. Institutions encourage and support Chinese students to resume offline studies during the post-pandemic period. The impact of the pandemic on the recruitment of Chinese students by international institutions varied, with different measures being adopted by different institutions. Compared with universities, colleges were more affected in terms of student employment rates. Some institutions were able to respond quickly and effectively to the pandemic due to their online teaching platforms. Overall, this study is expected to provide insights into the changes in policies toward Chinese students studying abroad during the pandemic and highlights the diverse responses of international institutions.

Keywords: international education, Chinese international education, COVID-19 pandemic, international institutions

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3491 The Relevance of Sustainability Skills for International Students

Authors: Mary Panko, Rashika Sharma


Sustainability often appears to be an unfamiliar concept to many international students that enrol in a New Zealand technological degree. Lecturers’ experiences with classroom interactions and evaluation of assessments indicate that studying the concept enlightens and enhances international students understanding of sustainability. However, in most cases, even after studying sustainability in their degree programme, students are not given an opportunity to practice and apply this concept into their professions in their home countries. Therefore, using a qualitative approach, the academics conducted research to determine the change in international students understanding of sustainability before and after their enrolment in an Applied Technology degree. The research also aimed to evaluate if international students viewed sustainability of relevance to their professions and whether the students felt that they will be provided with an opportunity to apply their knowledge about sustainability in the industry. The findings of the research are presented in this paper.

Keywords: education for sustainability, international students, vocational education

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3490 The Strategy of the International Organization for Migration in Dealing with the Phenomenon of Migration

Authors: Djehich Mohamed Yousri


Nowadays, migration has become a phenomenon that attracts the attention of researchers, countries, agencies, and national and international bodies. Wars and climate change, demographics, poverty, natural disasters, and epidemics are all threats that are contributing daily to forcing more people to migrate. There are those who resort to emigration because of the deteriorating political conditions in their country, others resort to emigration to improve their financial situation, and others emigrate from their country for fear of some penalties and judgments issued against them. In the field of migration, becoming a member of the United Nations as a "relevant organization" gives the United Nations a clear mandate on migration. Its primary goal is to facilitate the management of international migration in an orderly and humane manner. In order to achieve this goal, the organization adopts an international policy to meet the challenges posed in the field of migration. This paper attempts to study the structure of this international organization and its strategy in dealing with the phenomenon of international migration.

Keywords: international organization for migration, immigrants, immigrant rights, resettlement, migration organization strategy

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3489 Cyber Security in Russia: Offense, Defense and Strategy in Cyberspace

Authors: Da Eun Sung


In today’s world, cyber security has become an important international agenda. As the information age has arrived, the need for cyber defense against cyber attacks is mounting, and the significance of cyber cooperation in the international community is drawing attention. Through the course, international society has agreed that the institutionalization of international norms dealing with cyber space and cyber security is crucial ever. Nevertheless, the West, led by the United States of America, and 'the East', composed of Russia and China, have shown conflicting views on forming international norms and principles which would regulate and ward off the possible threats in cyber space. Thus, the international community hasn’t yet to reach an agreement on cyber security. In other words, the difference between both sides on the approach and understanding of principles, objects, and the definition has rendered such. Firstly, this dissertation will cover the Russia’s perception, strategy, and definition on cyber security through analyzing primary source. Then, it will delve into the two contrasting cyber security strategy between Russia and the US by comparing them. And in the conclusion, it will seek the possible solution for the cooperation in the field of cyber security. It is quite worthwhile to look into Russia’s views, which is the main counterpart to the US in this field, especially when the efforts to institutionalize cyber security by the US-led international community have met with their boundaries, and when the legitimacy of them have been challenged.

Keywords: cyber security, cyber security strategic, international relation in cyberspace, Russia

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3488 Terrorism Is a Crime under International Law

Authors: Miguel Manero De Lemos


The ‘innovative and creative’ seminal decision of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) was not welcomed by academic opinion. The court recognized that terrorism is a crime under international law in times of peace. Scholars widely – and sometimes aggressively – criticize this conclusion. This article asserts that, while some aspects of the decision of the STL might be defective, the basic premise, that it is indeed such a crime, is sound. This article delves into the method that the court used to attain such an outcome and explains why the conclusion of the court is correct, albeit the use of a different method is to be preferred. It also argues that subsequent developments leave little room to keep arguing that there is no international crime of terrorism.

Keywords: terrorism, STL, crime, international criminal law

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3487 Loving is Universal, Dating is not: Dating Experiences of International Students in Vancouver

Authors: Nel Jayson Santos


The growing number of international students in post-secondary institutions in Canada has positively contributed to the country’s economy and educational systems while also enriching cultural diversity in the classrooms. However, international students face social and relational challenges as they try to adapt to their host nation’s culture. One specific area of cultural adaptation among international students that has yet to be studied extensively is dating experiences and romantic relationships. Although numerous studies have been done regarding the relational challenges and dating experiences of American international students, only a few studies have focused on international students based in Canada. Hence, this study examines the dating preferences, dating challenges, and dating adaptations of international students based in Vancouver, Canada. Using a social constructivist approach, a semi-structured interview was conducted among fifteen heterosexual international college students. Inductive thematic analysis was then used to analyze the gathered data and identify common themes. Findings suggest that students’ (1) preferences were influenced by racial background and parental approval of dating partners; (2) students experienced language barriers and cultural differences; (3) students adapted through constant communication and being open-minded. Finally, the analysis intends to help counselors and psychologists in various colleges to help understand the issues of international students in terms of intimate and romantic relationships.

Keywords: higher education, international students, dating experiences, cultural adaptation

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3486 Federalism and Foreign Affairs: The International Relations of Mexican Sub-State Governments

Authors: Jorge A. Schiavon


This article analyzes the international relations of sub-State governments (IRSSG) in Mexico. It aims to answer five questions: 1) What explains the recent and dramatic increase in their international activities? 2) What is the impact of federalism on the foreign affairs of the federal units? 3) What are the levels or degrees of IRSSG and how have they changed over the last years? 4) How do Mexican federal units institutionalize their international activities? 5) What are the perceptions and capacities of the federal units in their internationalization process? The first section argues that the growth in the IRSSG is generated by growing interdependence and globalization in the international system, and democratization, decentralization and structural reform in the national arena. The second section sustains that the renewed Mexican federalism has generated the incentives for SSG to participate more intensively in international affairs. The third section defends that there is a wide variation in their degree of international participation, which is measured in three moments in time (2004 2009 and 2014), and explains how this activity has changed in the last decade. The fourth section studies the institutionalization of the IRSSG in Mexico through the analysis of Inter-Institutional Agreements (IIA). Finally, the last section concentrates in explaining the perceptions and capacities of Mexican sub-State governments to conduct international relations.

Keywords: federalism, foreign policy, international relations of sub-state governments, paradiplomacy, Mexico

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3485 International Student Mobility to China: A Fastest and Emerging Market for International Students among Developing Countries

Authors: Yasir Khan, Qiu Bin, Antonio-Mihi Ramirez


This study determines the inflow of international students to China in recent years and the corresponding internationalization strategies in the higher education sector. China has placed attracting international students on in its plan along with the growing of global impact. Acknowledging the stable economy, growth rate, trade, lower renminbi rate, high wages, employment opportunities, high level income per capita, relative low taxes and political system consolidate to attract more international students. A large number of international students making a vast contribution to the higher education sector of China. Understanding the significance of education mission as well as of financial ‘bottom line’ the Chinese government gave great importance to invite more international students from worldwide. The large number of international students in the China has been particularly notable from Asian countries specifically neighboring countries, Pakistan, Thailand, India, Vietnam, South Korea, Magnolia, Malaysia, and Russia. This study summarizes internationalization of higher education in China and also provides directions for future research in this regard.

Keywords: international student mobility, 2020 Govt Planning, emerging market, internationalization of higher education

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