Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: Calvin Ralph

35 True Religious Piety and Its Social Implications an Analysis of Calvin’s Thought

Authors: Philip Tachin

Abstract:

Despite the positive contributions that religion has impacted human society, religious discrimination and violence also have been growing globally with extreme negative effects on human life and social relationships. Believers in religious extremism are motivated by a sense of exhibiting true religious piety in which case they do not only withhold their practical benevolence from those who do not belong to their faith but they even seek the elimination of other adherents from human existence. This phenomenon has a very high magnitude in Nigeria over the years, which deserves more research for the purpose of finding sustainable solutions to the problem. Calvin believed that true religious piety must, among other things, be categorized in personal and corporate positive social actions that esteem human needs irrespective of ethnic, ideological and belief differences. It is therefore appropriate to pose the following questions: Should true religious piety be seen in terms of how the actions of adherents positively impact human society? Could Calvin’s idea on this issue be very significant and helpful in the context of the Nigerian situation? In answering these questions, this research will limit its investigation to Calvin’s Institutes and some of his Commentaries. The goal of this research is to offer an instructive orientation to the readers that will help in building a more tolerable, peaceful, and a free and virtuous society.

Keywords: Calvin, human good, religious piety, virtuous society

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34 An Investigation into the Influence of Compression on 3D Woven Preform Thickness and Architecture

Authors: Calvin Ralph, Edward Archer, Alistair McIlhagger

Abstract:

3D woven textile composites continue to emerge as an advanced material for structural applications and composite manufacture due to their bespoke nature, through thickness reinforcement and near net shape capabilities. When 3D woven preforms are produced, they are in their optimal physical state. As 3D weaving is a dry preforming technology it relies on compression of the preform to achieve the desired composite thickness, fibre volume fraction (Vf) and consolidation. This compression of the preform during manufacture results in changes to its thickness and architecture which can often lead to under-performance or changes of the 3D woven composite. Unlike traditional 2D fabrics, the bespoke nature and variability of 3D woven architectures makes it difficult to know exactly how each 3D preform will behave during processing. Therefore, the focus of this study is to investigate the effect of compression on differing 3D woven architectures in terms of structure, crimp or fibre waviness and thickness as well as analysing the accuracy of available software to predict how 3D woven preforms behave under compression. To achieve this, 3D preforms are modelled and compression simulated in Wisetex with varying architectures of binder style, pick density, thickness and tow size. These architectures have then been woven with samples dry compression tested to determine the compressibility of the preforms under various pressures. Additional preform samples were manufactured using Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) with varying compressive force. Composite samples were cross sectioned, polished and analysed using microscopy to investigate changes in architecture and crimp. Data from dry fabric compression and composite samples were then compared alongside the Wisetex models to determine accuracy of the prediction and identify architecture parameters that can affect the preform compressibility and stability. Results indicate that binder style/pick density, tow size and thickness have a significant effect on compressibility of 3D woven preforms with lower pick density allowing for greater compression and distortion of the architecture. It was further highlighted that binder style combined with pressure had a significant effect on changes to preform architecture where orthogonal binders experienced highest level of deformation, but highest overall stability, with compression while layer to layer indicated a reduction in fibre crimp of the binder. In general, simulations showed a relative comparison to experimental results; however, deviation is evident due to assumptions present within the modelled results.

Keywords: 3D woven composites, compression, preforms, textile composites

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33 Variation of Warp and Binder Yarn Tension across the 3D Weaving Process and its Impact on Tow Tensile Strength

Authors: Reuben Newell, Edward Archer, Alistair McIlhagger, Calvin Ralph

Abstract:

Modern industry has developed a need for innovative 3D composite materials due to their attractive material properties. Composite materials are composed of a fibre reinforcement encased in a polymer matrix. The fibre reinforcement consists of warp, weft and binder yarns or tows woven together into a preform. The mechanical performance of composite material is largely controlled by the properties of the preform. As a result, the bulk of recent textile research has been focused on the design of high-strength preform architectures. Studies looking at optimisation of the weaving process have largely been neglected. It has been reported that yarns experience varying levels of damage during weaving, resulting in filament breakage and ultimately compromised composite mechanical performance. The weaving parameters involved in causing this yarn damage are not fully understood. Recent studies indicate that poor yarn tension control may be an influencing factor. As tension is increased, the yarn-to-yarn and yarn-to-weaving-equipment interactions are heightened, maximising damage. The correlation between yarn tension variation and weaving damage severity has never been adequately researched or quantified. A novel study is needed which accesses the influence of tension variation on the mechanical properties of woven yarns. This study has looked to quantify the variation of yarn tension throughout weaving and sought to link the impact of tension to weaving damage. Multiple yarns were randomly selected, and their tension was measured across the creel and shedding stages of weaving, using a hand-held tension meter. Sections of the same yarn were subsequently cut from the loom machine and tensile tested. A comparison study was made between the tensile strength of pristine and tensioned yarns to determine the induced weaving damage. Yarns from bobbins at the rear of the creel were under the least amount of tension (0.5-2.0N) compared to yarns positioned at the front of the creel (1.5-3.5N). This increase in tension has been linked to the sharp turn in the yarn path between bobbins at the front of the creel and creel I-board. Creel yarns under the lower tension suffered a 3% loss of tensile strength, compared to 7% for the greater tensioned yarns. During shedding, the tension on the yarns was higher than in the creel. The upper shed yarns were exposed to a decreased tension (3.0-4.5N) compared to the lower shed yarns (4.0-5.5N). Shed yarns under the lower tension suffered a 10% loss of tensile strength, compared to 14% for the greater tensioned yarns. Interestingly, the most severely damaged yarn was exposed to both the largest creel and shedding tensions. This study confirms for the first time that yarns under a greater level of tension suffer an increased amount of weaving damage. Significant variation of yarn tension has been identified across the creel and shedding stages of weaving. This leads to a variance of mechanical properties across the woven preform and ultimately the final composite part. The outcome from this study highlights the need for optimised yarn tension control during preform manufacture to minimize yarn-induced weaving damage.

Keywords: optimisation of preform manufacture, tensile testing of damaged tows, variation of yarn weaving tension, weaving damage

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32 The Effects of Current and Future Priming on Pro-Environmental Attitudes

Authors: Calvin Rong, Regina Agassian, Joel Hernandez, Mindy Engle-Friedman

Abstract:

This study assessed strategies to stimulate engagement with future environmental needs. 32 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions which involved imagining and drawing: 1) a generic person in current life, 2) one’s self in current life or 3) one’s self in the future. Participants before and after the intervention indicated connectedness to their selves 50 years in the future on an adapted Future Self-Continuity Scale. A significant interaction (p = .03) showed no difference in connectedness into one’s future self in the control group, a decrease in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the present and an increase in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the future. Results suggest attention to one’s present life circumstances may interfere with one’s connection with future environmental issues but imagining one’s future life may stimulate actions that result in future environmental protection.

Keywords: environmental psychology, future priming, climate change, global warming

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31 Using AI to Advance Factory Planning: A Case Study to Identify Success Factors of Implementing an AI-Based Demand Planning Solution

Authors: Ulrike Dowie, Ralph Grothmann

Abstract:

Rational planning decisions are based upon forecasts. Precise forecasting has, therefore, a central role in business. The prediction of customer demand is a prime example. This paper introduces recurrent neural networks to model customer demand and combines the forecast with uncertainty measures to derive decision support of the demand planning department. It identifies and describes the keys to the successful implementation of an AI-based solution: bringing together data with business knowledge, AI methods, and user experience, and applying agile software development practices.

Keywords: agile software development, AI project success factors, deep learning, demand forecasting, forecast uncertainty, neural networks, supply chain management

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30 Design Manufacture and Testing of a Combined Alpha-Beta Double Piston Stirling Engine

Authors: A. Calvin Antony, Sakthi Kumar Arul Prakash, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper a unique alpha-beta double piston 'stirling engine' is designed, manufactured and conducted laboratory test to ameliorate the efficiency of the stirling engine. The paper focuses on alpha and beta type engines, capturing their benefits and eradicating their short comings; along with the output observed from the flywheel. In this model alpha engine is kinematically with a piston cylinder arrangement which works quite like a beta engine. The piston of the new cylinder is so designed that it replicates a glued displacer and power piston as similar to that of beta engine. The bigger part of the piston is the power piston, which has a gap around it, while the smaller part of the piston is tightly fit in the cylinder and acts like the displacer piston. We observed that the alpha-beta double piston stirling engine produces 25% increase in power compare to a conventional alpha stirling engine. This working model is a pointer towards for the design and development of an alpha-beta double piston Stirling engine for industrial applications for producing electricity from the heat producing exhaust gases.

Keywords: alpha-beta double piston stirling engine , alpha stirling engine , beta double piston stirling engine , electricity from stirling engine

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29 Subsea Control Module (SCM) - A Vital Factor for Well Integrity and Production Performance in Deep Water Oil and Gas Fields

Authors: Okoro Ikechukwu Ralph, Fuat Kara

Abstract:

The discoveries of hydrocarbon reserves has clearly drifted offshore, and in deeper waters - areas where the industry still has limited knowledge; and that were hitherto, regarded as being out of reach. This shift presents significant and increased challenges in technology requirements needed to guarantee safety of personnel, environment and equipment; ensure high reliability of installed equipment; and provide high level of confidence in security of investment and company reputation. Nowhere are these challenges more apparent than on subsea well integrity and production performance. The past two decades has witnessed enormous rise in deep and ultra-deep water offshore field developments for the recovery of hydrocarbons. Subsea installed equipment at the seabed has been the technology of choice for these developments. This paper discusses the role of Subsea Control module (SCM) as a vital factor for deep-water well integrity and production performance. A case study for Deep-water well integrity and production performance is analysed.

Keywords: offshore reliability, production performance, subsea control module, well integrity

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28 Intersections and Consequences of the Epistemology and Methodology used in Equity-Related Chemistry Education Research

Authors: Vanessa R. Ralph, Kathryn N. Hosbein, Megan Y. Deshaye, Paulette Vincent-Ruz

Abstract:

The language of the statement “persistent achievement gaps between demographic groups” communicates much about the philosophies inherent to the author. In this synthesis of two flagship journals of Chemistry Education Research: Chemistry Education Research and Practice and the Journal of Chemical Education, the use and investigation of equity was examined by the language, epistemology, and methodologies of the researchers. Findings include a considerable increase in the use and investigation of equity in these journals following the years 2012 and 2020. While an increase in consciousness of equity was apparent, epistemologies were stagnated. The majority reflects a deficit-oriented perspective wherein deficits are attributed to students as a “lack of achievement” inherent to specific “demographic groups” and minimized as “gaps” rather than systemic inequities. The lack of epistemological progress may be the result of reading and citing literature within discipline-based education research, failing to acknowledge the efforts propagated for decades by equity theory advancement in disciplines of sociology and psychology. To envision liberated educational systems across the globe, one must first contend with the biases within.

Keywords: liberating education research, philosophy of research, synthesis, review

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27 Optimization of Alkali Silicate Glass Heat Treatment for the Improvement of Thermal Expansion and Flexural Strength

Authors: Stephanie Guerra-Arias, Stephani Nevarez, Calvin Stewart, Rachel Grodsky, Denis Eichorst

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to describe the framework for optimizing the heat treatment of alkali silicate glasses, to enhance the performance of hermetic seals in extreme environments. When connectors are exposed to elevated temperatures, residual stresses develop due to the mismatch of thermal expansions between the glass, metal pin, and metal shell. Excessive thermal expansion mismatch compromises the reliability of hermetic seals. In this study, a series of heat treatment schedules will be performed on two commercial sealing glasses (one conventional sealing glass and one crystallizable sealing glass) using a design of experiments (DOE) approach. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) will be measured pre- and post-heat treatment using thermomechanical analysis (TMA). Afterwards, the flexural strength of the specimen will be measured using a four-point bend fixture mounted in a static universal testing machine. The measured material properties will be statistically analyzed using MiniTab software to determine which factors of the heat treatment process have a strong correlation to the coefficient of thermal expansion and/or flexural strength. Finally, a heat-treatment will be designed and tested to ensure the optimal performance of the hermetic seals in connectors.

Keywords: glass-ceramics, design of experiment, hermetic connectors, material characterization

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26 Evaluating the Prominence of Chemical Phenomena in Chemistry Courses

Authors: Vanessa R. Ralph, Leah J. Scharlott, Megan Y. Deshaye, Ryan L. Stowe

Abstract:

Given the traditions of chemistry teaching, one may not question whether chemical phenomena play a prominent role. Yet, the role of chemical phenomena in an introductory chemistry course may define the extent to which the course is introductory, chemistry, and equitable. Picture, for example, the classic Ideal Gas Law problem. If one envisions a prompt wherein students are tasked with calculating a missing variable, then one envisions a prompt that relies on chemical phenomena as a context rather than as a model to understand the natural world. Consider a prompt wherein students are tasked with applying molecular models of gases to explain why the vapor pressure of a gaseous solution of water differs from that of carbon dioxide. Here, the chemical phenomenon is not only the context but also the subject of the prompt. Deliveries of general and organic chemistry were identified as ranging wildly in the integration of chemical phenomena. The more incorporated the phenomena, the more equitable the assessment task was for students of varying access to pre-college math and science preparation. How chemical phenomena are integrated may very well define whether courses are chemistry, are introductory, and are equitable. Educators of chemistry are invited colleagues to discuss the role of chemical phenomena in their courses and consider the long-lasting impacts of replicating tradition for tradition’s sake.

Keywords: equitable educational practices, chemistry curriculum, content organization, assessment design

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25 A New Social Vulnerability Index for Evaluating Social Vulnerability to Climate Change at the Local Scale

Authors: Cuong V Nguyen, Ralph Horne, John Fien, France Cheong

Abstract:

Social vulnerability to climate change is increasingly being acknowledged, and proposals to measure and manage it are emerging. Building upon this work, this paper proposes an approach to social vulnerability assessment using a new mechanism to aggregate and account for causal relationships among components of a Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). To operationalize this index, the authors propose a means to develop an appropriate primary dataset, through application of a specifically-designed household survey questionnaire. The data collection and analysis, including calibration and calculation of the SVI is demonstrated through application in case study city in central coastal Vietnam. The calculation of SVI at the fine-grained local neighbourhood scale provides high resolution in vulnerability assessment, and also obviates the need for secondary data, which may be unavailable or problematic, particularly at the local scale in developing countries. The SVI household survey is underpinned by the results of a Delphi survey, an in-depth interview and focus group discussions with local environmental professionals and community members. The research reveals inherent limitations of existing SVIs but also indicates the potential for their use in assessing social vulnerability and making decisions associated with responding to climate change at the local scale.

Keywords: climate change, local scale, social vulnerability, social vulnerability index

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24 Analysis Customer Loyalty Characteristic and Segmentation Analysis in Mobile Phone Category in Indonesia

Authors: A. B. Robert, Adam Pramadia, Calvin Andika

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The main purpose of this study is to explore consumer loyalty characteristic of mobile phone category in Indonesia. Second, this research attempts to identify consumer segment and to explore their profile in each segment as the basis of marketing strategy formulation. This study used some tools of multivariate analysis such as discriminant analysis and cluster analysis. Discriminate analysis used to discriminate consumer loyal and not loyal by using particular variables. Cluster analysis used to reveal various segment in mobile phone category. In addition to having better customer understanding in each segment, this study used descriptive analysis and cross tab analysis in each segment defined by cluster analysis. This study expected several findings. First, consumer can be divided into two large group of loyal versus not loyal by set of variables. Second, this study identifies customer segment in mobile phone category. Third, exploring customer profile in each segment that has been identified. This study answer a call for additional empirical research into different product categories. Therefore, a replication research is advisable. By knowing the customer loyalty characteristic, and deep analysis of their consumption behavior and profile for each segment, this study is very advisable for high impact marketing strategy development. This study contributes body of knowledge by adding empirical study of consumer loyalty, segmentation analysis in mobile phone category by multiple brand analysis.

Keywords: customer loyalty, segmentation, marketing strategy, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, mobile phone

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23 Energetics of Photosynthesis with Respect to the Environment and Recently Reported New Balanced Chemical Equation

Authors: Suprit Pradhan, Sushil Pradhan

Abstract:

Photosynthesis is a physiological process where green plants prepare their food from carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water being absorbed from the soil in presence of sun light and chlorophyll. From this definition it is clear that four reactants (Carbon Dioxide, Water, Light and Chlorophyll) are essential for the process to proceed and the product is a sugar or carbohydrate ultimately stored as starch. The entire process has “Light Reaction” (Photochemical) and “Dark Reaction” (Biochemical). Biochemical reactions are very much complicated being catalysed by various enzymes and the path of carbon is known as “Calvin Cycle” according to the name of its discover. The overall reaction which is now universally accepted can be explained like this. Six molecules of carbon dioxide react with twelve molecules of water in presence of chlorophyll and sun light to give only one molecule of sugar (Carbohydrate) six molecules of water and six molecules of oxygen is being evolved in gaseous form. This is the accepted equation and also chemically balanced. However while teaching the subject the author came across a new balanced equation from among the students who happened to be the daughter of the author. In the new balanced equation in place of twelve water molecules in the reactant side seven molecules can be expressed and accordingly in place of six molecules of water in the product side only one molecule of water is produced. The energetics of the photosynthesis as related to the environment and the newly reported balanced chemical equation has been discussed in detail in the present research paper presentation in this international conference on energy, environmental and chemical engineering.

Keywords: biochemistry, enzyme , isotope, photosynthesis

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22 Supporting the ESL Student in a Tertiary Setting: Carrot and Stick

Authors: Ralph Barnes

Abstract:

The internationalization and globalization of education are now a huge, multi-million dollar industry. The movement of international students across the globe has provided a rich vein of revenue for universities and institutions of higher learning to exploit and harvest. A concerted effort has been made by universities worldwide to court students from overseas, with some countries relying up to one-third of student fees, coming from international students. Australian universities and English Language Centres are coming under increased government scrutiny in respect to such areas as the academic progression of international students, management and understanding of student visa requirements and the design of higher education courses and effective assessment regimes. As such, universities and other higher education institutions are restructuring themselves more as service providers rather than as strictly education providers. In this paper, the high-touch, tailored academic model currently followed by some Australian educational institutions to support international students, is examined and challenged. Academic support services offered to international students need to be coordinated, sustained and reviewed regularly, in order to assess their effectiveness. Maintaining the delivery of high-quality educational programs and learning outcomes for this high income-generating student cohort is vital, in order to continue the successful academic and social engagement by international students across the Australian university and higher education landscape.

Keywords: ESL, engagement, tertiary, learning

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21 Role of Social Workers in Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change in Makonde Communal Lands, Zimbabwe

Authors: Louis Nyahunda, Frans Koketso Matlakala, Jabulani Calvin Makhubele

Abstract:

Climate change is among the most vital environmental aspects that the human community is endowed with. Climate as a factor of life is particularly strong to low income rural communities whose livelihoods heavily depend on rain-fed subsistence agriculture like Makonde communal lands. The purpose of social work within the context of climate change is to enhance community expertise and empower members for participation in the decision-making process through all stages of risk assessment, rescue, planning and intervention for recovery and preparedness. This paper sought to explore the role of social workers in mitigating the effects of climate change in Makonde communal lands of Zimbabwe. The objectives of the study were to identify what roles if any are social workers playing in mitigating the effects of climate change and if not, what are the impediments in that sphere. A qualitative research approach was followed within the traditional framework of descriptive and exploratory designs. Simple random, purposive and snowballing sampling techniques were used to gather twenty-five participants in the study. The Thematic Content Analysis was followed to analyse data inductively. The study found that Social Workers are not directly involved in climate change interventions in the Makonde area owing it to lack of training on climate change issues. The study recommends that climate change falls within the purview of the social work practice therefore social workers must take the lead in supporting families and communities affected by climate change following the values, knowledge base, skills and principles of the profession.

Keywords: role, social workers, mitigation, climate change, Makonde communal lands

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20 Assessing Transition to Renewable Energy for Transportation in Indonesia through Drop-in Biofuel Utilization

Authors: Maslan Lamria, Ralph E. H. Sims, Tatang H. Soerawidjaja

Abstract:

In increasing its self-sufficiency on transportation fuel, Indonesia is currently developing commercial production and use of drop-in biofuel (DBF) from vegetable oil. To maximize the level of success, it is necessary to get insights on how the implementation would develop as well as any important factors. This study assessed the dynamics of transition from existing fossil fuel system to a renewable fuel system, which involves the transition from existing biodiesel to projected DBF. A systems dynamics approach was applied and a model developed to simulate the dynamics of liquid biofuel transition. The use of palm oil feedstock was taken as a case study to assess the projected DBF implementation by 2045. The set of model indicators include liquid fuel self-sufficiency, liquid biofuel share, foreign exchange savings and green-house gas emissions reduction. The model outputs showed that supports on DBF investment and use play an important role in the transition progress. Given assumptions which include application of a maximum level of supports over time, liquid fuel self-sufficiency would be still unfulfilled in which palm biofuel contribution is 0.2. Thus, other types of feedstock such as algae and oil feedstock from marginal lands need to be developed synergically. Regarding support on DBF use, this study recommended that removal of fossil subsidy would be necessary prior to applying a carbon tax policy effectively.

Keywords: biofuel, drop-in biofuel, energy transition, liquid fuel

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19 Between Ralph Waldo Emerson and the Dying Infidel

Authors: Michael Keller

Abstract:

Beyond the heterodoxy expressed in his now-famous 1838 address to the Harvard Divinity School, Emerson’s timing was particularly dangerous. Ideologically, New England faced a severe crisis of identity, as traditional categories of class and religion were growing increasingly unstable. Jones Very, influenced by Emerson, crossed the perceived border between acceptable religious zeal and insane enthusiasm. Abner Kneeland, on the other hand, crossed the uncomfortable border between post-Puritan Unitarian rationalism and blasphemous Enlightenment skepticism. More importantly, Kneeland oversaw a more overtly subversive brand of resistance (in the form of freethought periodicals) that not only threatened religious orthodoxy but also threatened to destabilize the class structure of New England. Very and Kneeland provide instructive case studies of how religious ideologies could run afoul of the social contract and the law itself. By looking closely at the social and religious forces that led to Kneeland’s prosecution for blasphemy, Jones Very’s forced committal to McLean Asylum, and Emerson’s escape from these fates, we gain a greater understanding of the shifting cultural landscape of 1830s New England. This paper will examine Emerson’s resistance to the traditional forces of class and ideology in Massachusetts by situating his early work in the context of the ideological battles of his time. More specifically, I will explore how Emerson was able to resist the conservative cultural forces of his time without experiencing the extremity of their wrath.

Keywords: American literature, cultural studies, emerson, religious studies

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18 Polymer Patterning by Dip Pen Nanolithography

Authors: Ayse Cagil Kandemir, Derya Erdem, Markus Niederberger, Ralph Spolenak

Abstract:

Dip Pen nanolithography (DPN), which is a tip based method, serves a novel approach to produce nano and micro-scaled patterns due to its high resolution and pattern flexibility. It is introduced as a new constructive scanning probe lithography (SPL) technique. DPN delivers materials in the form of an ink by using the tip of a cantilever as pen and substrate as paper in order to form surface architectures. First studies rely on delivery of small organic molecules on gold substrate in ambient conditions. As time passes different inks such as; polymers, colloidal particles, oligonucleotides, metallic salts were examined on a variety of surfaces. Discovery of DPN also enabled patterning with multiple inks by using multiple cantilevers for the first time in SPL history. Specifically, polymer inks, which constitute a flexible matrix for various materials, can have a potential in MEMS, NEMS and drug delivery applications. In our study, it is aimed to construct polymer patterns using DPN by studying wetting behavior of polymer on semiconductor, metal and polymer surfaces. The optimum viscosity range of polymer and effect of environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature are examined. It is observed that there is an inverse relation with ink viscosity and depletion time. This study also yields the optimal writing conditions to produce consistent patterns with DPN. It is shown that written dot sizes increase with dwell time, indicating that the examined writing conditions yield repeatable patterns.

Keywords: dip pen nanolithography, polymer, surface patterning, surface science

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17 A Combined Activated Sludge-Filtration-Ozonation Process for Abattoir Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Pello Alfonso-Muniozguren, Madeleine Bussemaker, Ralph Chadeesingh, Caryn Jones, David Oakley, Judy Lee, Devendra Saroj

Abstract:

Current industrialized livestock agriculture is growing every year leading to an increase in the generation of wastewater that varies considerably in terms of organic content and microbial population. Therefore, suitable wastewater treatment methods are required to ensure the wastewater quality meet regulations before discharge. In the present study, a combined lab scale activated sludge-filtration-ozonation system was used to treat a pre-treated abattoir wastewater. A hydraulic retention time of 24 hours and a solid retention time of 13 days were used for the activated sludge process, followed by a filtration step (4-7 µm) and using ozone as tertiary treatment. An average reduction of 93% and 98% was achieved for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), respectively, obtaining final values of 128 mg/L COD and 12 mg/L BOD. For the Total Suspended Solids (TSS), the average reduction increased to 99% in the same system, reducing the final value down to 3 mg/L. Additionally, 98% reduction in Phosphorus (P) and a complete inactivation of Total Coliforms (TC) was obtained after 17 min ozonation time. For Total Viable Counts (TVC), a drastic reduction was observed with 30 min ozonation time (6 log inactivation) at an ozone dose of 71 mg O3/L. Overall, the combined process was sufficient to meet discharge requirements without further treatment for the measured parameters (COD, BOD, TSS, P, TC, and TVC).

Keywords: abattoir waste water, activated sludge, ozone, waste water treatment

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16 Modelling the Tensile Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Freestanding Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Coatings

Authors: Supriya Patibanda, Xiaopeng Gong, Krishna N. Jonnalagadda, Ralph Abrahams

Abstract:

Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as a top coat in thermal barrier coatings in high-temperature turbine/jet engine applications. The mechanical behaviour of YSZ depends on the microstructural features like crack density and porosity, which are a result of coating method. However, experimentally ascertaining their individual effect is difficult due to the inherent challenges involved like material synthesis and handling. The current work deals with the development of a phenomenological model to replicate the tensile behavior of air plasma sprayed YSZ obtained from experiments. Initially, uniaxial tensile experiments were performed on freestanding YSZ coatings of ~300 µm thick for different crack densities and porosities. The coatings exhibited a nonlinear behavior and also a huge variation in strength values. With the obtained experimental tensile curve as a base and crack density and porosity as prime variables, a phenomenological model was developed using ABAQUS interface with new user material defined employing VUMAT sub routine. The relation between the tensile stress and the crack density was empirically established. Further, a parametric study was carried out to investigate the effect of the individual features on the non-linearity in these coatings. This work enables to generate new coating designs by varying the key parameters and predicting the mechanical properties with the help of a simulation, thereby minimizing experiments.

Keywords: crack density, finite element method, plasma sprayed coatings, VUMAT

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15 A Framework for Secure Information Flow Analysis in Web Applications

Authors: Ralph Adaimy, Wassim El-Hajj, Ghassen Ben Brahim, Hazem Hajj, Haidar Safa

Abstract:

Huge amounts of data and personal information are being sent to and retrieved from web applications on daily basis. Every application has its own confidentiality and integrity policies. Violating these policies can have broad negative impact on the involved company’s financial status, while enforcing them is very hard even for the developers with good security background. In this paper, we propose a framework that enforces security-by-construction in web applications. Minimal developer effort is required, in a sense that the developer only needs to annotate database attributes by a security class. The web application code is then converted into an intermediary representation, called Extended Program Dependence Graph (EPDG). Using the EPDG, the provided annotations are propagated to the application code and run against generic security enforcement rules that were carefully designed to detect insecure information flows as early as they occur. As a result, any violation in the data’s confidentiality or integrity policies is reported. As a proof of concept, two PHP web applications, Hotel Reservation and Auction, were used for testing and validation. The proposed system was able to catch all the existing insecure information flows at their source. Moreover and to highlight the simplicity of the suggested approaches vs. existing approaches, two professional web developers assessed the annotation tasks needed in the presented case studies and provided a very positive feedback on the simplicity of the annotation task.

Keywords: web applications security, secure information flow, program dependence graph, database annotation

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14 Development of Electric Generator and Water Purifier Cart

Authors: Luisito L. Lacatan, Gian Carlo J. Bergonia, Felipe C. Buado III, Gerald L. Gono, Ron Mark V. Ortil, Calvin A. Yap

Abstract:

This paper features the development of a Mobile Self-sustaining Electricity Generator for water distillation process with MCU- based wireless controller & indicator designed to solve the problem of scarcity of clean water. It is a fact that pure water is precious nowadays and its value is more precious to those who do not have or enjoy it. There are many water filtration products in existence today. However, none of these products fully satisfies the needs of families needing clean drinking water. All of the following products require either large sums of money or extensive maintenance, and some products do not even come with a guarantee of potable water. The proposed project was designed to alleviate the problem of scarcity of potable water in the country and part of the purpose was also to identify the problem or loopholes of the project such as the distance and speed required to produce electricity using a wheel and alternator, the required time for the heating element to heat up, the capacity of the battery to maintain the heat of the heating element and the time required for the boiler to produce a clean and potable water. The project has three parts. The first part included the researchers’ effort to plan every part of the project from the conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy, from purifying water to potable drinking water to the controller and indicator of the project using microcontroller unit (MCU). This included identifying the problem encountered and any possible solution to prevent and avoid errors. Gathering and reviewing related studies about the project helped the researcher reduce and prevent any problems before they could be encountered. It also included the price and quantity of materials used to control the budget.

Keywords: mobile, self – sustaining, electricity generator, water distillation, wireless battery indicator, wireless water level indicator

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13 Effect of Cladding Direction on Residual Stress Distribution in Laser Cladded Rails

Authors: Taposh Roy, Anna Paradowska, Ralph Abrahams, Quan Lai, Michael Law, Peter Mutton, Mehdi Soodi, Wenyi Yan

Abstract:

In this investigation, a laser cladding process with a powder feeding was used to deposit stainless steel 410L (high strength, excellent resistance to abrasion and corrosion, and great laser compatibility) onto railhead (higher strength, heat treated hypereutectoid rail grade manufactured in accordance with the requirements of European standard EN 13674 Part 1 for R400HT grade), to investigate the development and controllability of process-induced residual stress in the cladding, heat-affected zone (HAZ) and substrate and to analyse their correlation with hardness profile during two different laser cladding directions (across and along the track). Residual stresses were analysed by neutron diffraction at OPAL reactor, ANSTO. Neutron diffraction was carried out on the samples in longitudinal (parallel to the rail), transverse (perpendicular to the rail) and normal (through thickness) directions with high spatial resolution through the thickness. Due to the thick rail and thin cladding, 4 mm thick reference samples were prepared from every specimen by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). Metallography across the laser claded sample revealed four distinct zones: The clad zone, the dilution zone, HAZ and the substrate. Compressive residual stresses were found in the clad zone and tensile residual stress in the dilution zone and HAZ. Laser cladding in longitudinally cladding induced higher tensile stress in the HAZ, whereas transversely cladding rail showed lower tensile behavior.

Keywords: laser cladding, residual stress, neutron diffraction, HAZ

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12 Synthesis of a Hybrid of PEG-b-PCL and G1-PEA Dendrimer Based Six-Armed Star Polymer for Nano Delivery of Vancomycin

Authors: Calvin A. Omolo, Rahul S. Kalhapure, Mahantesh Jadhav, Sanjeev Rambharose, Chunderika Mocktar, Thirumala Govender

Abstract:

Treatment of infections is compromised by limitations of conventional dosage forms and drug resistance. Nanocarrier system is a strategy to overcome these challenges and improve therapy. Thus, the development of novel materials for drug delivery via nanocarriers is essential. The aim of the study was to synthesize a multi-arm polymer (6-mPEPEA) for enhanced activity of vancomycin (VM) against susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The synthesis steps of the star polymer followed reported procedures. The synthesized 6-mPEPEA was characterized by FTIR, ¹H and ¹³CNMR and MTT assays. VM loaded micelles were prepared from 6-mPEPEA and characterized for size, polydispersity index (PI) and surface charge (ZP) (Dynamic Light Scattering), morphology by TEM, drug loading (UV Spectrophotometry), drug release (dialysis bag), in vitro and in vivo efficacy against sensitive and resistant S. aureus. 6-mPEPEA was synthesized, and its structure was confirmed. MTT assays confirmed its nontoxic nature with a high cell viability (77%-85%). Unimolecular spherical micelles were prepared. Size, PI, and ZP was 52.48 ± 2.6 nm, 0.103 ± 0.047, -7.3 ± 1.3 mV, respectively and drug loading was 62.24 ± 3.8%. There was a 91% drug release from VCM-6-mPEPEA after 72 hours. In vitro antibacterial test revealed that VM-6-mPEPEA had 8 and 16-fold greater activity against S. aureus and MRSA when compared to bare VM. Further investigations using flow cytometry showed that VM-6-mPEPEA had 99.5% killing rate of MRSA at the MIC concentration. In vivo antibacterial activity revealed that treatment with VM-6-mPEPEA had a 190 and a 15-fold reduction in the MRSA load in untreated and VM treated respectively. These findings confirmed the potential of 6-mPEPEA as a promising bio-degradable nanocarrier for antibiotic delivery to improve treatment of bacterial infections.

Keywords: biosafe, MRSA, nanocarrier, resistance, unimolecular-micelles

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11 The Effects of Future Priming on Resource Concern

Authors: Calvin Rong, Regina Agassian, Mindy Engle-Friedman

Abstract:

Climate changes, including rising sea levels and increases in global temperature, can have major effects on resource availability, leading to increased competition for resources and rising food prices. The abstract nature and often delayed consequences of many ecological problems cause people focus on immediate, specific, and personal events and circumstances that compel immediate and emotional involvement. This finding may be explained by the challenges humans have in imagining themselves in the future, a shortcoming that interferes with decision-making involving far-off rewards, and leads people to indicate a lower concern toward the future than to present circumstances. The present study sought to assess whether priming people to think of themselves in the future might strengthen the connection to their future selves and stimulate environmentally-protective behavior. We hypothesize that priming participants to think about themselves in the future would increase concern for the future environment. 45 control participants were primed to think about themselves in the present, and 42 participants were primed to think about themselves in the futures. After priming, the participants rated their concern over access to clean water, food, and energy on a scale of 1 to 10. They also rated their predicted care levels for the environment at age points 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 on a scale of 1(not at all) to 10 (very much). Predicted care levels at age 90 for the experimental group was significantly higher than for the control group. Overall the experimental group rated their concern for resources higher than the control. In comparison to the control group (M=7.60, SD=2.104) participants in the experimental group had greater concern for clean water (M=8.56, SD=1.534). In comparison to the control group (M=7.49, SD=2.041) participants in the experimental group were more concerned about food resources (M=8.41, SD=1.830). In comparison to the control group (M=7.22, SD=1.999) participants in the experimental group were more concerned about energy resources (M=8.07, SD=1.967). This study assessed whether a priming strategy could be used to encourage pro-environmental practices that protect limited resources. Future-self priming helped participants see past short term issues and focus on concern for the future environment.

Keywords: climate change, future, priming, global warming

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10 The Impact of Barefoot versus Shod Running on Lower Limb Gait Cycle Pattern among Recreational Club Runners in Durban, South Africa

Authors: Siyabonga Kunene, Calvin Shipley

Abstract:

Introduction: Despite health benefits that come with running, injuries are common with prevalence ranging between 18.2% and 92.4% worldwide. Differences in gait patterns between barefoot and shod running, can determine traits that could lead to running injuries. The aim was to assess and compare lower limb gait cycle patterns between barefoot and shod running among runners. Methods: An experimental same-subject study design was used. The study population consisted of male and female adult recreational runners who were injury free from a running club in Durban. A convenience sampling method was used and 14 participants were recruited. The study was conducted in the physiotherapy performance laboratory at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. A Woodway Desmo Treadmill and KinePro gait analysis system were used. Descriptive & inferential statistics were analysed using Microsoft Excel and Intercooled Stata. Results: Participants included a greater percentage of females (57.1%, n = 8) than males (42.9%, n = 6). The mean population age was 38.57. A significant difference (p < 0.0009) between barefoot cadence (177.9236steps/min) and shod cadence (171.9445steps/min) was observed. Right (0.261s) and left (0.257s) barefoot stand phase was shorter than right (0.273s) and left (0.270s) shod stand phase. Right barefoot swing phase exhibited less significant (0.420s) results when compared to right shod swing phase (0.427s), whereas left barefoot swing phase was quicker (0.416s) than left shod swing phase (0.432s). Significant differences between barefoot and shod stand (p < 0.009) and swing (p < 0.040) phase symmetry occurred. Conclusion: A considerable difference was found between barefoot and shod running gait cycle patterns among participants. This difference may play a role in prevention of running related injuries.

Keywords: barefoot running, shod running, gait cycle pattern, same-subject study design

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9 Effects of Modified Low-Dye Taping on First Ray Mobility Test and Sprint Time

Authors: Yu-Ju Tsai, Ching-Chun Wang, Wen-Tzu Tang, Huei-Ming Chai

Abstract:

A pronated foot is frequently associated with a hypermobile first ray, then developing further severe foot problems. Low-Dye taping with athletic tape has been widely used to restrict excessive first ray motion and re-build height of the medial longitudinal arch in general population with pronated foot. It is not the case, however, for sprinters since they feel too much restriction of foot motions. Currently, the kinesio tape, more elastic than the athletic tape, has been widely used to re-adjust joint positions. It was interesting whether modified low-Dye taping using kinesio tape was beneficial for altering first ray mobility and still giving enough arch support. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of modified low-Dye taping on first ray mobility test and 60-m sprint time for sprinters with pronated foot. The significance of this study provides new insight into a treatment alternative of modified low-Dye taping for sprinter with pronated foot. Ten young male sprinters, aged 20.8±1.6 years, with pronated foot were recruited for this study. The pronated foot was defined as the foot that the navicular drop test was greater than 1.0 cm. Three optic shutters were placed at the start, 30-m, and 60-m sites to record sprint time. All participants were asked to complete 3 trials of the 60-m dash with both taping and non-taping conditions in a random order. The low-Dye taping was applied using the method postulated by Ralph Dye in 1939 except the kinesio tape was used instead. All outcome variables were recorded for taping and non-taping conditions. Paired t-tests were used to analyze all outcome variables between 2 conditions. Although there were no statistically significant differences in dorsal and plantar mobility between taping and non-taping conditions, a statistical significance was found in a total range of motion (dorsiflexion plus plantarflexion angle) of the first ray when a modified low-Dye taping was applied (p < 0.05). Time to complete 60-m sprint was significantly increased with low-Dye taping (p < 0.05) while no significance was found for time to 30-m. it indicated that modified low-Dye taping changed maximum sprint speed of 60-m dash. Conclusively, modified low-Dye taping was capable of increasing first ray mobility and further altered maximum sprint speed.

Keywords: first ray mobility, kinesio taping, pronated foot, sprint time

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8 Attenuation of Amyloid beta (Aβ) (1-42)-Induced Neurotoxicity by Luteolin

Authors: Dona Pamoda W. Jayatunga, Veer Bala Gupta, Eugene Hone, Ralph N. Martins

Abstract:

Being a neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects a majority of the elderly demented worldwide. The key risk factors for AD are age, metabolic syndrome, allele status of APOE gene, head injuries and lifestyle. The progressive nature of AD is characterized by symptoms of multiple cognitive deficits exacerbated over time, leading to death within a decade from clinical diagnosis. However, it is revealed that AD originates via a prodromal phase that spans from one to few decades before symptoms first manifest. The key pathological hallmarks of AD brains are deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). However, the yet unknown etiology of the disease fails to distinguish mitochondrial dysfunction between a cause or an outcome. The absence of early diagnosis tools and definite therapies for AD have permitted recruits of nutraceutical-based approaches aimed at reducing the risk of AD by modulating lifestyle or be used as preventive tools during AD prodromal state before widespread neurodegeneration begins. The objective of the present study was to investigate beneficial effects of luteolin, a plant-based flavone compound, against AD. The neuroprotective effects of luteolin on amyloid beta (Aβ) (1-42)-induced neurotoxicity was measured using cultured human neuroblastoma BE(2)-M17 cells. After exposure to 20μM Aβ (1-42) for 48 h, the neuroblastoma cells exhibited marked apoptotic death. Co-treatment of 20μM Aβ (1-42) with luteolin (0.5-5μM) significantly protected the cells against Aβ (1-42)-induced toxicity, as assessed by the MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2(4sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] reduction assay and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cell death assay. The results suggest that luteolin prevents Aβ (1-42)-induced apoptotic neuronal death. However, further studies are underway to determine its protective mechanisms in AD including the activity against tau hyperphosphorylation and mitochondrial dysfunction.

Keywords: Aβ (1-42)-induced toxicity, Alzheimer’s disease, luteolin, neuroblastoma cells

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7 Structural Development and Multiscale Design Optimization of Additively Manufactured Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Blended Wing Body Configuration

Authors: Malcolm Dinovitzer, Calvin Miller, Adam Hacker, Gabriel Wong, Zach Annen, Padmassun Rajakareyar, Jordan Mulvihill, Mostafa S.A. ElSayed

Abstract:

The research work presented in this paper is developed by the Blended Wing Body (BWB) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) team, a fourth-year capstone project at Carleton University Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Here, a clean sheet UAV with BWB configuration is designed and optimized using Multiscale Design Optimization (MSDO) approach employing lattice materials taking into consideration design for additive manufacturing constraints. The BWB-UAV is being developed with a mission profile designed for surveillance purposes with a minimum payload of 1000 grams. To demonstrate the design methodology, a single design loop of a sample rib from the airframe is shown in details. This includes presentation of the conceptual design, materials selection, experimental characterization and residual thermal stress distribution analysis of additively manufactured materials, manufacturing constraint identification, critical loads computations, stress analysis and design optimization. A dynamic turbulent critical load case was identified composed of a 1-g static maneuver with an incremental Power Spectral Density (PSD) gust which was used as a deterministic design load case for the design optimization. 2D flat plate Doublet Lattice Method (DLM) was used to simulate aerodynamics in the aeroelastic analysis. The aerodynamic results were verified versus a 3D CFD analysis applying Spalart-Allmaras and SST k-omega turbulence to the rigid UAV and vortex lattice method applied in the OpenVSP environment. Design optimization of a single rib was conducted using topology optimization as well as MSDO. Compared to a solid rib, weight savings of 36.44% and 59.65% were obtained for the topology optimization and the MSDO, respectively. These results suggest that MSDO is an acceptable alternative to topology optimization in weight critical applications while preserving the functional requirements.

Keywords: blended wing body, multiscale design optimization, additive manufacturing, unmanned aerial vehicle

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6 Soft Pneumatic Actuators Fabricated Using Soluble Polymer Inserts and a Single-Pour System for Improved Durability

Authors: Alexander Harrison Greer, Edward King, Elijah Lee, Safa Obuz, Ruhao Sun, Aditya Sardesai, Toby Ma, Daniel Chow, Bryce Broadus, Calvin Costner, Troy Barnes, Biagio DeSimone, Yeshwin Sankuratri, Yiheng Chen, Holly Golecki

Abstract:

Although a relatively new field, soft robotics is experiencing a rise in applicability in the secondary school setting through The Soft Robotics Toolkit, shared fabrication resources and a design competition. Exposing students outside of university research groups to this rapidly growing field allows for development of the soft robotics industry in new and imaginative ways. Soft robotic actuators have remained difficult to implement in classrooms because of their relative cost or difficulty of fabrication. Traditionally, a two-part molding system is used; however, this configuration often results in delamination. In an effort to make soft robotics more accessible to young students, we aim to develop a simple, single-mold method of fabricating soft robotic actuators from common household materials. These actuators are made by embedding a soluble polymer insert into silicone. These inserts can be made from hand-cut polystyrene, 3D-printed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), or molded sugar. The insert is then dissolved using an appropriate solvent such as water or acetone, leaving behind a negative form which can be pneumatically actuated. The resulting actuators are seamless, eliminating the instability of adhering multiple layers together. The benefit of this approach is twofold: it simplifies the process of creating a soft robotic actuator, and in turn, increases its effectiveness and durability. To quantify the increased durability of the single-mold actuator, it was tested against the traditional two-part mold. The single-mold actuator could withstand actuation at 20psi for 20 times the duration when compared to the traditional method. The ease of fabrication of these actuators makes them more accessible to hobbyists and students in classrooms. After developing these actuators, they were applied, in collaboration with a ceramics teacher at our school, to a glove used to transfer nuanced hand motions used to throw pottery from an expert artist to a novice. We quantified the improvement in the users’ pottery-making skill when wearing the glove using image analysis software. The seamless actuators proved to be robust in this dynamic environment. Seamless soft robotic actuators created by high school students show the applicability of the Soft Robotics Toolkit for secondary STEM education and outreach. Making students aware of what is possible through projects like this will inspire the next generation of innovators in materials science and robotics.

Keywords: pneumatic actuator fabrication, soft robotic glove, soluble polymers, STEM outreach

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