Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3142

Search results for: crack density

3142 Concrete Cracking Simulation Using Vector Form Intrinsic Finite Element Method

Authors: R. Z. Wang, B. C. Lin, C. H. Huang

Abstract:

This study proposes a new method to simulate the crack propagation under mode-I loading using Vector Form Intrinsic Finite Element (VFIFE) method. A new idea which is expected to combine both VFIFE and J-integral is proposed to calculate the stress density factor as the crack critical in elastic crack. The procedure of implement the cohesive crack propagation in VFIFE based on the fictitious crack model is also proposed. In VFIFIE, the structure deformation is described by numbers of particles instead of elements. The strain energy density and the derivatives of the displacement vector of every particle is introduced to calculate the J-integral as the integral path is discrete by particles. The particle on the crack tip separated into two particles once the stress on the crack tip satisfied with the crack critical and then the crack tip propagates to the next particle. The internal force and the cohesive force is applied to the particles.

Keywords: VFIFE, crack propagation, fictitious crack model, crack critical

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3141 Modeling Slow Crack Growth under Thermal and Chemical Effects for Fitness Predictions of High-Density Polyethylene Material

Authors: Luis Marquez, Ge Zhu, Vikas Srivastava

Abstract:

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is one of the most commonly used thermoplastic polymer materials for water and gas pipelines. Slow crack growth failure is a well-known phenomenon in high-density polyethylene material and causes brittle failure well below the yield point with no obvious sign. The failure of transportation pipelines can cause catastrophic environmental and economic consequences. Using the non-destructive testing method to predict slow crack growth failure behavior is the primary preventative measurement employed by the pipeline industry but is often costly and time-consuming. Phenomenological slow crack growth models are useful to predict the slow crack growth behavior in the polymer material due to their ability to evaluate slow crack growth under different temperature and loading conditions. We developed a quantitative method to assess the slow crack growth behavior in the high-density polyethylene pipeline material under different thermal conditions based on existing physics-based phenomenological models. We are also working on developing an experimental protocol and quantitative model that can address slow crack growth behavior under different chemical exposure conditions to improve the safety, reliability, and resilience of HDPE-based pipeline infrastructure.

Keywords: mechanics of materials, physics-based modeling, civil engineering, fracture mechanics

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3140 Numerical Analysis of Effect of Crack Location on the Crack Breathing Behavior

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Keqin Xiao

Abstract:

In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the crack breathing behavior at different crack locations considering the effect of unbalance force. A two-disk rotor with a crack is simulated using ABAQUS. The duration of each crack status (open, closed and partially open/closed) during a full shaft rotation was examined to analyse the crack breathing behavior. Unbalanced shaft crack breathing behavior was found to be different at different crack locations. The breathing behavior of crack along the shaft length is divided into different regions depending on the unbalance force and crack location. The simulated results in this work can be further utilised to obtain the time-varying stiffness matrix of the cracked shaft element under the influence of unbalance force.

Keywords: crack breathing, crack location, slant crack, unbalance force, rotating shaft

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3139 Dependence of Shaft Stiffness on the Crack Location

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Chunhui Yang

Abstract:

In this study, an analytical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior under the effect of crack location and unbalance force. Crack breathing behavior is determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change in closed area of the crack. The status of the crack of a balanced shaft is symmetrical about shaft rotational angle and the duration of each crack status remains unchanged. The global stiffness of the balanced shaft is independent of crack location. Different crack breathing behavior for the unbalanced shaft has been observed. The influence of crack location on the unbalanced shaft stiffness can be divided into three regions. When the crack is located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, the unbalanced shaft is less stiff and when located outside this region it is stiffer than the balanced shaft. It was also found that unbalanced shaft stiffness has a maximum value with a crack at 0.1946L, a minimum value at 0.8053L and same value as balanced shaft at 0.3L and 0.8335L.

Keywords: cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force

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3138 Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of the Harmfulness of Defects in Oil Pipes

Authors: B. Medjadji, L. Aminallah, B. Serier, M. Benlebna

Abstract:

In this study, the finite element method in 3-D is used to calculate the integral J in the semi-elliptical crack in a pipe subjected to internal pressure. The stress-strain curve of the pipe has been determined experimentally. The J-integral was calculated in two fronts crack (Ф = 0 and Ф = π/2). The effect of the configuration of the crack on the J integral is analysed. The results show that an external longitudinal crack in a pipe is the most dangerous. It also shows that the increase in the applied pressure causes a remarkable increase of the integral J. The effect of the depth of the crack becomes important when the ratio between the depth of the crack and the thickness of the pipe (a / t) tends to 1.

Keywords: J integral, pipeline, crack, MEF

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
3137 Finite Element and Experimental Investigation of Ductile Crack Growth of Surface Cracks

Authors: Osama A. Terfas, Abdelhakim A. Hameda, Abdusalam A. Alktiwi

Abstract:

An investigation on ductile crack growth of shallow semi-elliptical surface cracks with a/w=0.2, a/c=0.33 under bending was carried out, where a is the crack depth, w is the plate thickness and c is the crack length at surface. Finite element analysis and experiments were modelling and the crack growth model were verified with experimental data. The results showed that the initial crack shape was no longer maintained as the crack developed under ductile tearing. The maximum growth at the deepest point at early stages was stopped when the crack depth reached half thickness and growth occurred beneath surface. Excellent agreement in the crack shape patterns was observed between the experiments and the crack growth model.

Keywords: crack growth, ductile tearing, mean stress, surface cracks

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3136 Modelling the Tensile Behavior of Plasma Sprayed Freestanding Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Coatings

Authors: Supriya Patibanda, Xiaopeng Gong, Krishna N. Jonnalagadda, Ralph Abrahams

Abstract:

Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as a top coat in thermal barrier coatings in high-temperature turbine/jet engine applications. The mechanical behaviour of YSZ depends on the microstructural features like crack density and porosity, which are a result of coating method. However, experimentally ascertaining their individual effect is difficult due to the inherent challenges involved like material synthesis and handling. The current work deals with the development of a phenomenological model to replicate the tensile behavior of air plasma sprayed YSZ obtained from experiments. Initially, uniaxial tensile experiments were performed on freestanding YSZ coatings of ~300 µm thick for different crack densities and porosities. The coatings exhibited a nonlinear behavior and also a huge variation in strength values. With the obtained experimental tensile curve as a base and crack density and porosity as prime variables, a phenomenological model was developed using ABAQUS interface with new user material defined employing VUMAT sub routine. The relation between the tensile stress and the crack density was empirically established. Further, a parametric study was carried out to investigate the effect of the individual features on the non-linearity in these coatings. This work enables to generate new coating designs by varying the key parameters and predicting the mechanical properties with the help of a simulation, thereby minimizing experiments.

Keywords: crack density, finite element method, plasma sprayed coatings, VUMAT

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3135 Crack Width Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Members under Shrinkage Effect by Pseudo-Discrete Crack Model

Authors: F. J. Ma, A. K. H. Kwan

Abstract:

Crack caused by shrinkage movement of concrete is a serious problem especially when restraint is provided. It may cause severe serviceability and durability problems. The existing prediction methods for crack width of concrete due to shrinkage movement are mainly numerical methods under simplified circumstances, which do not agree with each other. To get a more unified prediction method applicable to more sophisticated circumstances, finite element crack width analysis for shrinkage effect should be developed. However, no existing finite element analysis can be carried out to predict the crack width of concrete due to shrinkage movement because of unsolved reasons of conventional finite element analysis. In this paper, crack width analysis implemented by finite element analysis is presented with pseudo-discrete crack model, which combines traditional smeared crack model and newly proposed crack queuing algorithm. The proposed pseudo-discrete crack model is capable of simulating separate and single crack without adopting discrete crack element. And the improved finite element analysis can successfully simulate the stress redistribution when concrete is cracked, which is crucial for predicting crack width, crack spacing and crack number.

Keywords: crack queuing algorithm, crack width analysis, finite element analysis, shrinkage effect

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3134 Influence of Angular Position of Unbalanced Force on Crack Breathing Mechanism

Authors: Roselyn Zaman, Mobarak Hossain

Abstract:

A new mathematical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior considering effect of angular position of unbalanced force at different crack locations. Crack breathing behavior has been determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change of the crack area. Different crack breathing behavior of the unbalanced shaft has been observed for different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location except crack locations 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, where unbalanced shaft behave completely like the balanced shaft. Based on different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location, the stiffness of unbalanced shaft can be divided into three regions. An unbalanced shaft is overall stiffer than a balanced shaft when angular position of unbalance force is between 90° to 270° and crack located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, and it is overall flexible when the crack located in outside this crack region. On the other hand, it is overall flexible when angular position of unbalanced force is between 0° to 90° or 270° to 360° and crack located in middle region and it is overall stiffer for outside this crack region.

Keywords: cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force, and unbalanced force orientation

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3133 Airport Pavement Crack Measurement Systems and Crack Density for Pavement Evaluation

Authors: Ali Ashtiani, Hamid Shirazi

Abstract:

This paper reviews the status of existing practice and research related to measuring pavement cracking and using crack density as a pavement surface evaluation protocol. Crack density for pavement evaluation is currently not widely used within the airport community and its use by the highway community is limited. However, surface cracking is a distress that is closely monitored by airport staff and significantly influences the development of maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction plans for airport pavements. Therefore crack density has the potential to become an important indicator of pavement condition if the type, severity and extent of surface cracking can be accurately measured. A pavement distress survey is an essential component of any pavement assessment. Manual crack surveying has been widely used for decades to measure pavement performance. However, the accuracy and precision of manual surveys can vary depending upon the surveyor and performing surveys may disrupt normal operations. Given the variability of manual surveys, this method has shown inconsistencies in distress classification and measurement. This can potentially impact the planning for pavement maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction and the associated funding strategies. A substantial effort has been devoted for the past 20 years to reduce the human intervention and the error associated with it by moving toward automated distress collection methods. The automated methods refer to the systems that identify, classify and quantify pavement distresses through processes that require no or very minimal human intervention. This principally involves the use of a digital recognition software to analyze and characterize pavement distresses. The lack of established protocols for measurement and classification of pavement cracks captured using digital images is a challenge to developing a reliable automated system for distress assessment. Variations in types and severity of distresses, different pavement surface textures and colors and presence of pavement joints and edges all complicate automated image processing and crack measurement and classification. This paper summarizes the commercially available systems and technologies for automated pavement distress evaluation. A comprehensive automated pavement distress survey involves collection, interpretation, and processing of the surface images to identify the type, quantity and severity of the surface distresses. The outputs can be used to quantitatively calculate the crack density. The systems for automated distress survey using digital images reviewed in this paper can assist the airport industry in the development of a pavement evaluation protocol based on crack density. Analysis of automated distress survey data can lead to a crack density index. This index can be used as a means of assessing pavement condition and to predict pavement performance. This can be used by airport owners to determine the type of pavement maintenance and rehabilitation in a more consistent way.

Keywords: airport pavement management, crack density, pavement evaluation, pavement management

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3132 Extended Strain Energy Density Criterion for Fracture Investigation of Orthotropic Materials

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Hannaneh Manafi Farid

Abstract:

In order to predict the fracture behavior of cracked orthotropic materials under mixed-mode loading, well-known minimum strain energy density (SED) criterion is extended. The crack is subjected along the fibers at plane strain conditions. Despite the complicities to solve the nonlinear equations which are requirements of SED criterion, SED criterion for anisotropic materials is derived. In the present research, fracture limit curve of SED criterion is depicted by a numerical solution, hence the direction of crack growth is figured out by derived criterion, MSED. The validated MSED demonstrates the improvement in prediction of fracture behavior of the materials. Also, damaged factor that plays a crucial role in the fracture behavior of quasi-brittle materials is derived from this criterion and proved its dependency on mechanical properties and direction of crack growth.

Keywords: mixed-mode fracture, minimum strain energy density criterion, orthotropic materials, fracture limit curve, mode II critical stress intensity factor

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3131 Effect the Use of Steel Fibers (Dramix) on Reinforced Concrete Slab

Authors: Faisal Ananda, Junaidi Al-Husein, Oni Febriani, Juli Ardita, N. Indra, Syaari Al-Husein, A. Bukri

Abstract:

Currently, concrete technology continues to grow and continue to innovate one of them using fibers. Fiber concrete has advantages over non-fiber concrete, among others, strong against the effect of shrinkage, ability to reduce crack, fire resistance, etc. In this study, concrete mix design using the procedures listed on SNI 03-2834-2000. The sample used is a cylinder with a height of 30 cm and a width of 15cm in diameter, which is used for compression and tensile testing, while the slab is 400cm x 100cm x 15cm. The fiber used is steel fiber (dramix), with the addition of 2/3 of the thickness of the slabs. The charging is done using a two-point loading. From the result of the research, it is found that the loading of non-fiber slab (0%) of the initial crack is the maximum crack that has passed the maximum crack allowed with a crack width of 1.3 mm with a loading of 1160 kg. The initial crack with the largest load is found on the 1% fiber mixed slab, with the initial crack also being a maximum crack of 0.5mm which also has exceeded the required maximum crack. In the 4% slab the initial crack of 0.1 mm is a minimal initial crack with a load greater than the load of a non-fiber (0%) slab by load1200 kg. While the maximum load on the maximum crack according to the applicable maximum crack conditions, on the 5% fiber mixed slab with a crack width of 0.32mm by loading 1250 kg.

Keywords: crack, dramix, fiber, load, slab

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3130 Influence of Maximum Fatigue Load on Probabilistic Aspect of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life at Specified Grown Crack in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

The principal purpose of this paper is to find the influence of maximum fatigue load on the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack in magnesium alloys. The experiments of fatigue crack propagation are carried out in laboratory air under different conditions of the maximum fatigue loads to obtain the fatigue crack propagation data for the statistical analysis. In order to analyze the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life, the goodness-of fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack is implemented through Anderson-Darling test. The good probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is also verified under the conditions of the maximum fatigue loads.

Keywords: fatigue crack propagation life, magnesium alloys, maximum fatigue load, probability

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3129 Study of the Toughening by Crack Bridging in Mullite Alumina Zirconia Ceramics

Authors: F. Gheldane, S. Bouras

Abstract:

Crack propagation behaviour of alumina mullite zirconia ceramic is investigated under monotonic and cyclic loading by means SENB bending method. This material show R-curve effects, i.e. an increase in crack growth resistance with increasing crack depth. The morphological study showed that the resistance of the crack propagation is mainly connected to the crack bridging. The value of bridging stress is in good agreement with the literature. Furthermore, cyclic-loading fatigue is caused by a decrease in the stress-shielding effect, due to degradation of bridging sites under cyclic loading.

Keywords: alumina mullite zirconia, R-curve, bridging, toughening, crack

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3128 Interaction between the Main Crack and Dislocation in the Glass Material

Authors: A. Mezzidi, H. Hamli Benzahar

Abstract:

The present study evaluates the stress and stress intensity factor during the propagation of a crack at presence of a dislocation near of crack tip. The problem is formulated using a glass material having an equivalent elasticity modulus and a Poisson ratio. In this research work, the proposed material is a plate form with a main crack in one of these ends and a dislocation near this crack, subjected to tensile stresses according to the mode 1 opening. For each distance between the two cracks, we can determine these stresses. This study is treated by finite elements method by using the software (ABAQUS) rate. It is shown here in that obtained results agreed with those determined by other researchers

Keywords: crack, dislocation, finite element, glass

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3127 Effect of Load Ratio on Probability Distribution of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

It is necessary to predict a fatigue crack propagation life for estimation of structural integrity. Because of an uncertainty and a randomness of a structural behavior, it is also required to analyze stochastic characteristics of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size. The essential purpose of this study is to present the good probability distribution fit for the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size in magnesium alloys under various fatigue load ratio conditions. To investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior, fatigue crack propagation experiments are performed in laboratory air under several conditions of fatigue load ratio using AZ31. By Anderson-Darling test, a goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is performed and the good probability distribution fit for the fatigue crack propagation life is presented. The effect of load ratio on variability of fatigue crack propagation life is also investigated.

Keywords: fatigue crack propagation life, load ratio, magnesium alloys, probability distribution

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3126 Effect of Specimen Thickness on Probability Distribution of Grown Crack Size in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

The fatigue crack growth is stochastic because of the fatigue behavior having an uncertainty and a randomness. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the probability distribution of a grown crack size at a specific fatigue crack propagation life for maintenance of structure as well as reliability estimation. The essential purpose of this study is to present the good probability distribution fit for the grown crack size at a specified fatigue life in a rolled magnesium alloy under different specimen thickness conditions. Fatigue crack propagation experiments are carried out in laboratory air under three conditions of specimen thickness using AZ31 to investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior. The goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of a grown crack size under different specimen thickness conditions is performed by Anderson-Darling test. The effect of a specimen thickness on variability of a grown crack size is also investigated.

Keywords: crack size, fatigue crack propagation, magnesium alloys, probability distribution, specimen thickness

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3125 Methodologies for Crack Initiation in Welded Joints Applied to Inspection Planning

Authors: Guang Zou, Kian Banisoleiman, Arturo González

Abstract:

Crack initiation and propagation threatens structural integrity of welded joints and normally inspections are assigned based on crack propagation models. However, the approach based on crack propagation models may not be applicable for some high-quality welded joints, because the initial flaws in them may be so small that it may take long time for the flaws to develop into a detectable size. This raises a concern regarding the inspection planning of high-quality welded joins, as there is no generally acceptable approach for modeling the whole fatigue process that includes the crack initiation period. In order to address the issue, this paper reviews treatment methods for crack initiation period and initial crack size in crack propagation models applied to inspection planning. Generally, there are four approaches, by: 1) Neglecting the crack initiation period and fitting a probabilistic distribution for initial crack size based on statistical data; 2) Extrapolating the crack propagation stage to a very small fictitious initial crack size, so that the whole fatigue process can be modeled by crack propagation models; 3) Assuming a fixed detectable initial crack size and fitting a probabilistic distribution for crack initiation time based on specimen tests; and, 4) Modeling the crack initiation and propagation stage separately using small crack growth theories and Paris law or similar models. The conclusion is that in view of trade-off between accuracy and computation efforts, calibration of a small fictitious initial crack size to S-N curves is the most efficient approach.

Keywords: crack initiation, fatigue reliability, inspection planning, welded joints

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3124 Characteristics of Cumulative Distribution Function of Grown Crack Size at Specified Fatigue Crack Propagation Life under Different Maximum Fatigue Loads in AZ31

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

Magnesium alloy has been widely used in structure such as an automobile. It is necessary to consider probabilistic characteristics of a structural material because a fatigue behavior of a structure has a randomness and uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to find the characteristics of the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the grown crack size at a specified fatigue crack propagation life and to investigate a statistical crack propagation in magnesium alloys. The statistical fatigue data of the grown crack size are obtained through the fatigue crack propagation (FCP) tests under different maximum fatigue load conditions conducted on the replicated specimens of magnesium alloys. The 3-parameter Weibull distribution is used to find the CDF of grown crack size. The CDF of grown crack size in case of larger maximum fatigue load has longer tail in below 10 percent and above 90 percent. The fatigue failure occurs easily as the tail of CDF of grown crack size becomes long. The fatigue behavior under the larger maximum fatigue load condition shows more rapid propagation and failure mode.

Keywords: cumulative distribution function, fatigue crack propagation, grown crack size, magnesium alloys, maximum fatigue load

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3123 The Cracks Propagation Monitoring of a Cantilever Beam Using Modal Analysis

Authors: Morteza Raki, Abolghasem Zabihollah, Omid Askari

Abstract:

Cantilever beam is a simplified sample of a lot of mechanical components used in a wide range of applications, including many industries such as gas turbine blade. Due to the nature of the operating conditions, beams are subject to variety of damages especially crack propagates. Crack propagation may lead to catastrophic failure during operation. Therefore, online detection of crack presence and its propagation is very important and may reduce possible significant cost of the whole system failure. This paper aims to investigate the effect of cracks presence and crack propagation on one end fixed beam`s vibration. A finite element model will be developed for the blade in which the modal response of the structure with and without crack will be studied. 

Keywords: blade, crack propagation, health monitoring, modal analysis

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3122 Compressive Stresses near Crack Tip Induced by Thermo-Electric Field

Authors: Thomas Jin-Chee Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, the thermo-electro-structural coupled-field in a cracked metal plate is studied using the finite element analysis. From the computational results, the compressive stresses reveal near the crack tip. This conclusion agrees with the past reference. Furthermore, the compressive condition can retard and stop the crack growth during the Joule heating process.

Keywords: compressive stress, crack tip, Joule heating, finite element

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3121 Modeling of Crack Propagation Path in Concrete with Coarse Trapezoidal Aggregates by Boundary Element Method

Authors: Chong Wang, Alexandre Urbano Hoffmann

Abstract:

Interaction between a crack and a trapezoidal aggregate in a single edge notched concrete beam is simulated using boundary element method with an automatic crack extension program. The stress intensity factors of the growing crack are obtained from the J-integral. Three crack extension paths: deflecting around the particulate, growing along the interface and penetrating into the particulate are achieved in terms of the mismatch state of mechanical characteristics of matrix and the particulate. The toughening is also given by the ratio of stress intensity factors. The results reveal that as stress shielding occurs, toughening is obtained when the crack is approaching to a stiff and strong aggregate weakly bonded to a relatively soft matrix. The present work intends to help for the design of aggregate reinforced concretes.

Keywords: aggregate concrete, boundary element method, two-phase composite, crack extension path, crack/particulate interaction

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3120 Numerical Study of Fatigue Crack Growth at a Web Stiffener of Ship Structural Details

Authors: Wentao He, Jingxi Liu, De Xie

Abstract:

It is necessary to manage the fatigue crack growth (FCG) once those cracks are detected during in-service inspections. In this paper, a simulation program (FCG-System) is developed utilizing the commercial software ABAQUS with its object-oriented programming interface to simulate the fatigue crack path and to compute the corresponding fatigue life. In order to apply FCG-System in large-scale marine structures, the substructure modeling technique is integrated in the system under the consideration of structural details and load shedding during crack growth. Based on the nodal forces and nodal displacements obtained from finite element analysis, a formula for shell elements to compute stress intensity factors is proposed in the view of virtual crack closure technique. The cracks initiating from the intersection of flange and the end of the web-stiffener are investigated for fatigue crack paths and growth lives under water pressure loading and axial force loading, separately. It is found that the FCG-System developed by authors could be an efficient tool to perform fatigue crack growth analysis on marine structures.

Keywords: crack path, fatigue crack, fatigue live, FCG-system, virtual crack closure technique

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3119 Diagonal Crack Width of RC Members with High Strength Materials

Authors: J. Y. Lee, H. S. Lim, S. H. Yoon

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis of the diagonal crack widths of RC members with various types of materials by simulating a compatibility-aided truss model. The analytical results indicated that the diagonal crack width was influenced by not only the shear reinforcement ratio but also the yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete. The yield strength of shear reinforcement and the compressive strength of concrete decreased the diagonal shear crack width of RC members for the same shear force because of the change of shear failure modes. However, regarding the maximum shear crack width at shear failure, the shear crack width of the beam with high strength materials was greater than that of the beam with normal strength materials.

Keywords: diagonal crack width, high strength stirrups, high strength concrete, RC members, shear behavior

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3118 The Relationship between Fatigue Crack Growth and Residual Stress in Rails

Authors: F. Husem, M. E. Turan, Y. Sun, H. Ahlatci, I. Tozlu

Abstract:

Residual stress and fatigue crack growth rates are important to determine mechanical behavior of rails. This study aims to make relationship between residual stress and fatigue crack growth values in rails. For this purpose, three R260 quality rails (0.6-0.8% C, 0.6-1.25 Mn) were chosen. Residual stress of samples was measured by cutting method that is related in railway standard. Then samples were machined for fatigue crack growth test and analyze was completed according to the ASTM E647 standard which gives information about parameters of rails for this test. Microstructure characterizations were examined by Light Optic Microscope (LOM). The results showed that residual stress change with fatigue crack growth rate. The sample has highest residual stress exhibits highest crack growth rate and pearlitic structure can be seen clearly for all samples by microstructure analyze.

Keywords: residual stress, fatigue crack growth, R260, SEM, ASTM E647

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3117 Combined Effect of High Curing Temperature and Crack Width on Chloride Migration in Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Elkedrouci Lotfi, Diao Bo, Pang Sen, Li Yi

Abstract:

Deterioration of reinforced concrete structures is a serious concern in the construction engineering, largely due to chloride induced corrosion of reinforcement. Chloride penetration is markedly influenced by one or several major factors at the same time such as cuing in combination with different crack widths which have spectacular effect on reinforced concrete structures. This research presents the results of an experimental investigation involving reinforced concrete beams with three different crack widths ranging from 0 to 0.2mm, curing temperatures of 20°C or 40°C and water-to-cement of 0.5. Chloride content profiles were determined under non-steady state diffusion at 20°C. Based on the obtained results, higher chloride content was obtained under condition of high curing temperature in combination with large crack more than 0.1mm and there are no significant differences between narrow crack width (less than 0.1 mm) and beams without crack (0mm).

Keywords: crack width, high curing temperature, rapid chloride migration, reinforced concrete beam

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3116 Reliability Analysis for Cyclic Fatigue Life Prediction in Railroad Bolt Hole

Authors: Hasan Keshavarzian, Tayebeh Nesari

Abstract:

Bolted rail joint is one of the most vulnerable areas in railway track. A comprehensive approach was developed for studying the reliability of fatigue crack initiation of railroad bolt hole under random axle loads and random material properties. The operation condition was also considered as stochastic variables. In order to obtain the comprehensive probability model of fatigue crack initiation life prediction in railroad bolt hole, we used FEM, response surface method (RSM), and reliability analysis. Combined energy-density based and critical plane based fatigue concept is used for the fatigue crack prediction. The dynamic loads were calculated according to the axle load, speed, and track properties. The results show that axle load is most sensitive parameter compared to Poisson’s ratio in fatigue crack initiation life. Also, the reliability index decreases slowly due to high cycle fatigue regime in this area.

Keywords: rail-wheel tribology, rolling contact mechanic, finite element modeling, reliability analysis

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3115 Crack Width Evaluation for Flexural RC Members with Axial Tension

Authors: Sukrit Ghorai

Abstract:

Proof of controlling crack width is a basic condition for securing suitable performance in serviceability limit state. The cracking in concrete can occur at any time from the casting of time to the years after the concrete has been set in place. Most codes struggle with offering procedure for crack width calculation. There is lack in availability of design charts for designers to compute crack width with ease. The focus of the study is to utilize design charts and parametric equations in calculating crack width with minimum error. The paper contains a simplified procedure to calculate crack width for reinforced concrete (RC) sections subjected to bending with axial tensile force following the guidelines of Euro code [DS EN-1992-1-1 & DS EN-1992-1-2]. Numerical examples demonstrate the application of the suggested procedure. Comparison with parallel analytical tools support the validity of result and show the percentage deviation of crack width in both the procedures. The technique is simple, user-friendly and ready to evolve for a greater spectrum of section sizes and materials.

Keywords: concrete structures, crack width calculation, serviceability limit state, structural design, bridge engineering

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3114 Estimation of Probabilistic Fatigue Crack Propagation Models of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys under Various Load Ratio Conditions by Using the Interpolation of a Random Variable

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

The essential purpose is to present the good fatigue crack propagation model describing a stochastic fatigue crack growth behavior in a rolled magnesium alloy, AZ31, under various load ratio conditions. Fatigue crack propagation experiments were carried out in laboratory air under four conditions of load ratio, R, using AZ31 to investigate the crack growth behavior. The stochastic fatigue crack growth behavior was analyzed using an interpolation of random variable, Z, introduced to an empirical fatigue crack propagation model. The empirical fatigue models used in this study are Paris-Erdogan model, Walker model, Forman model, and modified Forman model. It was found that the random variable is useful in describing the stochastic fatigue crack growth behaviors under various load ratio conditions. The good probabilistic model describing a stochastic fatigue crack growth behavior under various load ratio conditions was also proposed.

Keywords: magnesium alloys, fatigue crack propagation model, load ratio, interpolation of random variable

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3113 Numerical Analysis of Shear Crack Propagation in a Concrete Beam without Transverse Reinforcement

Authors: G. A. Rombach, A. Faron

Abstract:

Crack formation and growth in reinforced concrete members are, in many cases, the cause of the collapse of technical structures. Such serious failures impair structural behavior and can also damage property and persons. An intensive investigation of the crack propagation is indispensable. Numerical methods are being developed to analyze crack growth in an element and to detect fracture failure at an early stage. For reinforced concrete components, however, further research and action are required in the analysis of shear cracks. This paper presents numerical simulations and continuum mechanical modeling of bending shear crack propagation in a three-dimensional reinforced concrete beam without transverse reinforcement. The analysis will provide a further understanding of crack growth and redistribution of inner forces in concrete members. As a numerical method to map discrete cracks, the extended finite element method (XFEM) is applied. The crack propagation is compared with the smeared crack approach using concrete damage plasticity. For validation, the crack patterns of real experiments are compared with the results of the different finite element models. The evaluation is based on single span beams under bending. With the analysis, it is possible to predict the fracture behavior of concrete members.

Keywords: concrete damage plasticity, crack propagation, extended finite element method, fracture mechanics

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