Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1456

Search results for: Sakthi Kumar Arul Prakash

1456 Design Manufacture and Testing of a Combined Alpha-Beta Double Piston Stirling Engine

Authors: A. Calvin Antony, Sakthi Kumar Arul Prakash, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper a unique alpha-beta double piston 'stirling engine' is designed, manufactured and conducted laboratory test to ameliorate the efficiency of the stirling engine. The paper focuses on alpha and beta type engines, capturing their benefits and eradicating their short comings; along with the output observed from the flywheel. In this model alpha engine is kinematically with a piston cylinder arrangement which works quite like a beta engine. The piston of the new cylinder is so designed that it replicates a glued displacer and power piston as similar to that of beta engine. The bigger part of the piston is the power piston, which has a gap around it, while the smaller part of the piston is tightly fit in the cylinder and acts like the displacer piston. We observed that the alpha-beta double piston stirling engine produces 25% increase in power compare to a conventional alpha stirling engine. This working model is a pointer towards for the design and development of an alpha-beta double piston Stirling engine for industrial applications for producing electricity from the heat producing exhaust gases.

Keywords: alpha-beta double piston stirling engine , alpha stirling engine , beta double piston stirling engine , electricity from stirling engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 419
1455 Recovery of Fried Soybean Oil Using Bentonite as an Adsorbent: Optimization, Isotherm and Kinetics Studies

Authors: Prakash Kumar Nayak, Avinash Kumar, Uma Dash, Kalpana Rayaguru

Abstract:

Soybean oil is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils, worldwide. Deep-fat frying of foods at higher temperatures adds unique flavour, golden brown colour and crispy texture to foods. But it brings in various changes like hydrolysis, oxidation, hydrogenation and thermal alteration to oil. The presence of Peroxide value (PV) is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of the deep-fat fried oil. Using bentonite as an adsorbent, the PV can be reduced, thereby improving the quality of the soybean oil. In this study, operating parameters like heating time of oil (10, 15, 20, 25 & 30 h), contact time ( 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 h) and concentration of adsorbent (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/ 100 ml of oil) have been optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) considering percentage reduction of PV as a response. Adsorption data were analysed by fitting with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The results show that the Langmuir model shows the best fit compared to the Freundlich model. The adsorption process was also found to follow a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

Keywords: bentonite, Langmuir isotherm, peroxide value, RSM, soybean oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
1454 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar

Abstract:

Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
1453 Grain and Grain Boundary Behavior of Sm Substituted Barium Titanate Based Ceramics

Authors: Parveen Kumar, J. K. Juneja, Chandra Prakash, K. K. Raina

Abstract:

A series of polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics with compositional formula Ba0.80-xSmxPb0.20Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 with x varying from 0 to 0.01 in the steps of 0.0025 has been prepared by solid state reaction method. The dielectric constant and tangent loss was measured as a function of frequency from 100Hz to 1MHz at different temperatures (200-500oC). The electrical behavior was then investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique. From the CIS study, it has been found that there is a contribution of both grain and grain boundary in the electrical behavior of such ceramics. Grain and grain boundary resistivity and capacitance were calculated at different temperature using CIS technique. The present paper is about the discussion of grain and grain boundary contribution towards the electrical properties of Sm modified BaTiO3 based ceramics at high temperature.

Keywords: grain, grain boundary, impedance, dielectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
1452 Effect of Cr and Fe Doping on the Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures

Authors: Prakash Chand, Anurag Gaur, Ashavani Kumar

Abstract:

In the present study, we have synthesized Cr and Fe doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-structures (Zn1-δCraFebO; where δ= a + b=20%, a = 5, 6, 8 & 10% and b=15, 14, 12 & 10%) via sol-gel method at different doping concentrations. The synthesized samples were characterized for structural properties by X-ray diffractometer and field emission scanning electron microscope and the optical properties were carried out through photoluminescence and UV-visible spectroscopy. The particle size calculated through field emission scanning electron microscope varies from 41 to 96 nm for the samples synthesized at different doping concentrations. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 3.27 to 3.02 eV as the doping concentration of Cr increases and Fe decreases.

Keywords: nano-structures, optical properties, sol-gel method, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
1451 Effects of Different Load on Physiological, Hematological, Biochemical, Cytokines Indices of Zanskar Ponies at High Altitude

Authors: Prince Vivek, Vijay Kumar Bharti, Deepak Kumar, Rohit Kumar, Kapil Nehra, Dhananjay Singh, Om Prakash Chaurasia, Bhuvnesh Kumar

Abstract:

High altitude native people still rely heavily on animal transport for logistic support at eastern and northern Himalayas regions. The prevalent mountainous terrains and rugged region are not suitable for the motorized vehicle to use in logistic transport. Therefore, people required high endurance pack animals for load carrying and riding. So far to the best of our knowledge, no studies have been taken to evaluate the effect of loads on the physiology of ponies in high altitude region. So, in this view, we evaluated variation in physiological, hematological, biochemical, and cytokines indices of Zanskar ponies during load carrying at high altitude. Total twelve (12) of Zanskar ponies, mare, age 4-6 years selected for this study, Feed was offered at 2% of body weight, and water ad libitum. Ponies were divided into three groups; group-A (without load), group-B (60 kg), and group-C (80 kg) of backpack loads. The track was very narrow and slippery with gravel, uneven with a rocky surface and has a steep gradient of 4 km uphill at altitude 3291 to 3500m. When we evaluate these parameters, it is understood that the heart rate, pulse rate, and respiration rate was significantly increased in 80 kg group among the three groups. The hematology parameters viz. hemoglobin significantly increased in 80 kg group on 1st day after load carrying among the three groups which was followed by control and 60 kg whereas, PCV, lymphocytes, monocytes percentage significantly increased however, ESR and eosinophil % significantly decreased in 80 kg group after load carrying on 7th day after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. In biochemical parameters viz. LA, LDH, TP, hexokinase (HK), cortisol (CORT), T3, GPx, FRAP and IL-6 significantly increased in 80 kg group on the 7th day after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. The ALT, ALB, GLB, UR, and UA significantly increased in 80 kg group on the 7th day before and after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. The CRT, AST, and CK-MB were significantly increased in 80 kg group on the 1st and 7th day after load carrying among the three groups which were followed by control and 60 kg group. It has been concluded that, heart rate, respiration rate, hematological indices like PCV, lymphocytes, monocytes, Hb and ESR, biochemical indices like lactic acid, LDH, TP, HK, CORT, T3, ALT, AST and CRT, ALB, GLB, UR, UA, GPx, FRAP and IL-6 are important biomarkers to assess effect of load on animal physiology and endurance. Further, this result has revealed the strong correlation of change in biomarkers level with performance in ponies during load carry. Hence, these parameters might be used for the performance of endurance of Zanskar ponies in the high mountain region.

Keywords: biochemical, endurance, high altitude, load, ponies

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
1450 Magneto-Solutal Convection in Newtonian Fluid Layer with Modulated Gravity

Authors: Om Prakash Keshri, Anand Kumar, Vinod K. Gupta

Abstract:

In the present study, the effect of gravity modulation on the onset of convection in viscous fluid layer under the influence of induced magnetic field, salted from above on the boundaries, has been investigated. Linear and nonlinear stability analysis has been performed. A linear stability analysis is performed to show that the gravity modulation can significantly affect the stability limits of the system. A method based on small amplitude of the modulation is used to compute the critical value of Rayleigh number and wave number. The effect of Smith number, salute Rayleigh number and magnetic Prandtl number on the stability of the system is investigated.

Keywords: viscous fluid, induced magnetic field, gravity modulation, salute convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
1449 Numerical Studies on Bypass Thrust Augmentation Using Convective Heat Transfer in Turbofan Engine

Authors: R. Adwaith, J. Gopinath, Vasantha Kohila B., R. Chandru, Arul Prakash R.

Abstract:

The turbofan engine is a type of air breathing engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion produces thrust mainly from the mass-flow of air bypassing the engine core. The present research has developed an effective method numerically by increasing the thrust generated from the bypass air. This thrust increase is brought about by heating the walls of the bypass valve from the combustion chamber using convective heat transfer method. It is achieved computationally by the use external heat to enhance the velocity of bypass air of turbofan engines. The bypass valves are either heated externally using multicell tube resistor which convert electricity generated by dynamos into heat or heat is transferred from the combustion chamber. This increases the temperature of the flow in the valves and thereby increase the velocity of the flow that enters the nozzle of the engine. As a result, mass-flow of air passing the core engine for producing more thrust can be significantly reduced thereby saving considerable amount of Jet fuel. Numerical analysis has been carried out on a scaled down version of a typical turbofan bypass valve, where the valve wall temperature has been increased to 700 Kelvin. It is observed from the analysis that, the exit velocity contributing to thrust has significantly increased by 10 % due to the heating of by-pass valve. The degree of optimum increase in the temperature, and the corresponding effect in the increase of jet velocity is calculated to determine the operating temperature range for efficient increase in velocity. The technique used in the research increases the thrust by using heated by-pass air without extracting much work from the fuel and thus improve the efficiency of existing turbofan engines. Dimensional analysis has been carried to prove the accuracy of the results obtained numerically.

Keywords: turbofan engine, bypass valve, multi-cell tube, convective heat transfer, thrust

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
1448 Study of Education Learning Techniques and Game Genres

Authors: Khadija Al Farei, Prakash Kumar, Vikas Rao Naidu

Abstract:

Games are being developed with different genres for different age groups, for many decades. In many places, educational games are playing a vital role for active classroom environment and better learning among students. Currently, the educational games have assumed an important place in children and teenagers lives. The role of educational games is important for improving the learning capability among the students especially of this generation, who really live among electronic gadgets. Hence, it is now important to make sure that in our educational system, we are updated with all such advancement in technologies. Already much research is going on in this area of edutainment. This research paper will review around ten different research papers to find the relation between the education learning techniques and games. The result of this review provides guidelines for enhanced teaching and learning solutions in education. In-house developed educational games proved to be more effective, compared to the one which is readily available in the market.

Keywords: education, education game, educational technology, edutainment, game genres, gaming in education

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
1447 Serum Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor is a Potent Stimulator of Hematopoeitic Progenitor Cells Mobilization in Trauma Hemorrhagic Shock

Authors: Manoj Kumar, Sujata Mohanty, D. N. Rao, Arul Selvi, Sanjeev K. Bhoi

Abstract:

Background: Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) mobilized from bone marrow to peripheral blood has been observed in severe trauma and hemorrhagic shock patients. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a potent stimulator that mobilized HPC from bone marrow to peripheral blood. Objective: Our aim of the study was to investigate the serum G-CSF levels and correlate with HPC and outcome. Methods: Peripheral blood sample from 50 hemorrhagic shock patients was collected on arrival for determination of G-CSF and peripheral blood HPC (PBHPC) and compared with healthy control (n=15). Determination of serum levels of G-CSF by sandwich ELISA and PBHPC by Sysmex XE-2100. Data were categorized by age, sex, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and laboratory data was prospectively collected. Data are expressed as mean±SD and median (min, max). Results: Significantly increased the serum level of G-CSF (264.8 vs. 79.1 pg/ml) and peripheral blood HPC (0.1 vs. 0.01 %) in the T/HS patients when compared with control group. Conclusions: Our studies suggest serum G-CSF elevated in T/HS patients. The elevated in G-CSF was also associated with mobilization of HPC from BM to peripheral blood HPC. Increased the levels of G-CSF in T/HS may play a significant role in the alteration of the hematopoietic compartment.

Keywords: granulocyte colony stimulating factor, G-CSF, hematopoietic progenitor cells, HPC, trauma hemorrhagic shock, T/HS, outcome

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
1446 Development of Monoclonal Antibodies against the Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease Toxins

Authors: Naveen Kumar B. T., Anuj Tyagi, Niraj Kumar Singh, Visanu Boonyawiwat, Shanthanagouda A. H., Orawan Boodde, Shankar K. M., Prakash Patil, Shubhkaramjeet Kaur

Abstract:

Since 2009, Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) outbreaks have increased rapidly, and these have led to the major economic losses to the global shrimp industry. In comparison to other treatments, passive immunity and monoclonal antibody (MAb) based farmer level kit have proved their importance in controlling and treating the diseases in the shrimp industry. In the present study, MAbs were produced against the recombinant PirB protein Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain causing AHPND. Briefly, Balb/C mice were immunized with rPirB at 15 days interval, and antibody titer was determined by ELISA. Spleen cells from mice showing high antibody titer were fused with SP2O myeloma cells for hybridoma production. Among 130 hybridomas, four showed high antibody titer and positive reactivity in an immunoblot assay. In Western blot assay, three out of four MAbs (4C4, 2C2 and 4G3) showed reactivity to rPirB protein. However, in the natural host, only Mab clone 4G3 show strong reactivity (with a strain of V. parahemolyticus causing EMS/AHPND). These clones also showed reactivity with less than 20 kDa proteins in AHPND free V. parahaemolyticus (Thailand stain). Further, on from MAb 4G3 clone, four panels of single cell MAbs clones (G3F5, G3B8, G3H2, and G3D6) were produced of which three showed strong positive reactivity to rPirB protein in the Western blot. These MAbs have potential for controlling and prevention of the AHPND through passive immunity and development of filed level rapid diagnostic kits.

Keywords: shrimp, economic loss, AHPND, MAb

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
1445 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, signals, S-G differentiator

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
1444 Numerical Study of Base Drag Reduction Using Locked Vortex Flow Management Technique for Lower Subsonic Regime

Authors: Kailas S. Jagtap, Karthik Sundarraj, Nirmal Kumar, S. Rajnarasimha, Prakash S. Kulkarni

Abstract:

The issue of turbulence base streams and the drag related to it have been of important attention for rockets, missiles, and aircraft. Different techniques are used for base drag reduction. This paper presents the numerical study of numerous drag reduction technique. The base drag or afterbody drag of bluff bodies can be reduced easily using locked vortex drag reduction technique. For bluff bodies having a cylindrical shape, the base drag is much larger compared to streamlined bodies. For such bodies using splitter plates, the vortex can be trapped between the base and the plate, which results in smooth flow. Splitter plate with round and curved corner shapes has influence in drag reduction. In this paper, the comparison is done between single splitter plate as different positions and with the bluff body. Base drag for the speed of 30m/s can be reduced about 20% to 30% by using single splitter plate as compared to the bluff body.

Keywords: base drag, bluff body, splitter plate, vortex flow, ANSYS, fluent

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
1443 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant

Abstract:

Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.

Keywords: MANET, AODV, DSDV, DSR, ZRP

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
1442 Allura Red, Sunset Yellow and Amaranth Azo Dyes for Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 0.5 H₂SO₄ Solutions

Authors: Ashish Kumar Singh, Preeti Tiwari, Shubham Srivastava, Rajiv Prakash, Herman Terryn, Gopal Ji

Abstract:

Corrosion inhibition potential of azo dyes namely Allura red (AR), Sunset Yellow (SY) and Amaranth (AN) have been investigated in 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Tafel polarization curves, linear polarization curves, open circuit potential (ocp) curves, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Amaranth dye is found to provide highest corrosion inhibition (90 %) against mild steel corrosion in sulfuric acid solutions among all the tested dyes; while SY and AR dye shows 80% and 78% corrosion inhibition efficiency respectively. The electrochemical measurements and surface morphology analysis reveal that molecular adsorption of dyes at metal acid interface is accountable for inhibition of mild steel corrosion in H2SO4 solutions. The adsorption behavior of dyes has been investigated by various isotherms models, which verifies that it is in accordance with Langmuir isotherm.

Keywords: mild steel, Azo dye, EIS, Langmuir isotherm

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
1441 Investigation of Biocorrosion in Brass by Arthrobacter sulfureus in Neutral Medium

Authors: Ramachandran Manivannan, B. Sakthi Swaroop, Selvam Noyel Victoria

Abstract:

Microbial corrosion of brass gauze by the aerobic film forming bacteria Arthrobacter sulfurous in neutral media was investigated using gravimetric studies. Maximum weight loss of 166.98 mg was observed for a period of 28 days of exposure to the bacterial medium as against the weight loss of 13.69 mg for control. The optical density studies for the bacterial culture was found to show attainment of stationary phase in 48 h. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the samples shows the presence of pitting corrosion. The energy dispersive X-ray analysis of the samples showed increased oxygen and phosphorus content in the sample due to bacterial activity.

Keywords: Arthrobacter sulfureus, biocorrosion, brass, neutral medium

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
1440 Performance Optimization of Low-Cost Solar Dryer Using Modified PI Controller

Authors: Rajesh Kondareddy, Prakash Kumar Nayak, Maunash Das, Vrinatri Velentina Boro

Abstract:

Today, there is a huge global concern for sustainable development which would include minimizing the consumption of non-renewable energies without affecting the basic global economy. Solar drying is one of the important processes used for extending the shelf life of agricultural products. The performance of a low cost automated solar dryer fitted with cascade control scheme and modified PI controller for drying chilli was investigated. The dryer was composed of designed solar collector (air heater) fitted with cylindrical pipes to improve the air velocity and a solar drying chamber containing rack of two cheese cloth (net) trays both being integrated together. The air allowed in through air inlet is heated up in the solar collector and channelled through the drying chamber where it is utilized in drying (removing the moisture content from the food substance or agricultural produce loaded). Here, to maintain the temperature in the heating chambers and to improve performance, a modified PI (Proportional–Integral) controller was used due its simplicity and robustness. Drying time for drying chilli from the initial moisture content of 88.5% (wb) to 7.3% (wb) was estimated to be 14 hours in solar dryer whereas 32 h was observed in the open sun drying.

Keywords: cascade control, chilli, PI controller, solar dryer

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
1439 System of Quality Automation for Documents (SQAD)

Authors: R. Babi Saraswathi, K. Divya, A. Habeebur Rahman, D. B. Hari Prakash, S. Jayanth, T. Kumar, N. Vijayarangan

Abstract:

Document automation is the design of systems and workflows, assembling repetitive documents to meet the specific business needs. In any organization or institution, documenting employee’s information is very important for both employees as well as management. It shows an individual’s progress to the management. Many documents of the employee are in the form of papers, so it is very difficult to arrange and for future reference we need to spend more time in getting the exact document. Also, it is very tedious to generate reports according to our needs. The process gets even more difficult on getting approvals and hence lacks its security aspects. This project overcomes the above-stated issues. By storing the details in the database and maintaining the e-documents, the automation system reduces the manual work to a large extent. Then the approval process of some important documents can be done in a much-secured manner by using Digital Signature and encryption techniques. Details are maintained in the database and e-documents are stored in specific folders and generation of various kinds of reports is possible. Moreover, an efficient search method is implemented is used in the database. Automation supporting document maintenance in many aspects is useful for minimize data entry, reduce the time spent on proof-reading, avoids duplication, and reduce the risks associated with the manual error, etc.

Keywords: e-documents, automation, digital signature, encryption

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
1438 Comparative Assessment of MRR, TWR, and Surface Integrity in Rotary and Stationary Tool EDM for Machining AISI D3 Tool Steel

Authors: Anand Prakash Dwivedi, Sounak Kumar Choudhury

Abstract:

Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) is a well-established and one of the most primitive unconventional manufacturing processes, that is used world-wide for the machining of geometrically complex or hard and electrically conductive materials which are extremely difficult to cut by any other conventional machining process. One of the major flaws, over all its advantages, is its very slow Material Removal Rate (MRR). In order to eradicate this slow machining rate, various researchers have proposed various methods like; providing rotational motion to the tool or work-piece or to both, mixing of conducting additives (such as SiC, Cr, Al, graphite etc) powders in the dielectric, providing vibrations to the tool or work-piece or to both etc. Present work is a comparative study of Rotational and Stationary Tool EDM, which deals with providing rotational motion to the copper tool for the machining of AISI D3 Tool Steel and the results have been compared with stationary tool EDM. It has been found that the tool rotation substantially increases the MRR up to 28%. The average surface finish increases around 9-10% by using the rotational tool EDM. The average tool wear increment is observed to be around 19% due to the tool rotation. Apart from this, the present work also focusses on the recast layer analysis, which are being re-deposited on the work-piece surface during the operation. The recast layer thickness is less in case of Rotational EDM and more for Stationary Tool EDM. Moreover, the cracking on the re-casted surface is also more for stationary tool EDM as compared with the rotational EDM.

Keywords: EDM, MRR, Ra, TWR

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
1437 A.T.O.M.- Artificial Intelligent Omnipresent Machine

Authors: R. Kanthavel, R. Yogesh Kumar, T. Narendrakumar, B. Santhosh, S. Surya Prakash

Abstract:

This paper primarily focuses on developing an affordable personal assistant and the implementation of it in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to create a virtual assistant/friend. The problem in existing home automation techniques is that it requires the usage of exact command words present in the database to execute the corresponding task. Our proposed work is ATOM a.k.a ‘Artificial intelligence Talking Omnipresent Machine’. Our inspiration came from an unlikely source- the movie ‘Iron Man’ in which a character called J.A.R.V.I.S has omnipresence, and device controlling capability. This device can control household devices in real time and send the live information to the user. This device does not require the user to utter the exact commands specified in the database as it can capture the keywords from the uttered commands, correlates the obtained keywords and perform the specified task. This ability to compare and correlate the keywords gives the user the liberty to give commands which are not necessarily the exact words provided in the database. The proposed work has a higher flexibility (due to its keyword extracting ability from the user input) comparing to the existing work Intelligent Home automation System (IHAS), is more accurate, and is much more affordable as it makes use of WI-FI module and raspberry pi 2 instead of ZigBee and a computer respectively.

Keywords: home automation, speech recognition, voice control, personal assistant, artificial intelligence

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1436 Modulated Bioavailability of an Anti HIV Drug through a Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System

Authors: Sunit Kumar Sahoo, Prakash Chandra Senapati

Abstract:

The main drawback to design drug delivery systems with BCS class II drugs is their low bioavailabilty due to their inherent low permeability characteristics. So the present investigation aspire to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of BCS class II anti HIV drug efavirenz (EFZ) using mixtures of non-ionic surfactant mixtures with the main objective to improve the oral bioavailability of said drug. Results obtained from solubility studies of EFZ in various expients utilized for construction of the pseudo ternary phase diagram containing surfactant mixtures. Surfactants in 1:1 combination are used with different co-surfactants in different ratio to delineate the area of monophasic region of the pseudo ternary phase diagram. The formulations which offered positive results in different thermodynamic stability studies were considered for percentage transmittance and turbidity analysis. The various characterization studies like the TEM analysis of post diluted SNEDDS formulations r confirmed the size in nanometric range (below 50 nm) and FT-IR studies confirmed the intactness of the drug the in the preconcentrate. The in vitro dissolution profile of SNEDDS showed that 80% drug was released within 30 min in case of optimized SNEDDS while it was approximately 18.3 % in the case of plain drug powder.. The Pharmacokinetic study using rat model revealed a 2.63 fold increase in AUC (0-∞) in comparison to plain EFZ suspension. The designed delivery system illustrated the confidence in creating a formulation of EFZ with enhanced bioavailability for better HIV treatment.

Keywords: efavirenz, self-nanoemulsifying, surfactant mixture, bioavailability

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1435 Chemistry and Sources of Solid Biofuel Derived Ambient Aerosols during Cooking and Non-Cooking Hours in Rural Area of Khairatpur, North-Central India

Authors: Sudha Shukla, Bablu Kumar, Gyan Prakash Gupta, U. C. Kulshrestha

Abstract:

Air pollutants emitted from solid biofuels during cooking are the major contributors to poor air quality, respiratory problems, and radiative forcing, etc. in rural areas of most of developing countries. The present study reports the chemical characteristics and sources of ambient aerosols and traces gases during cooking and non-cooking hours emitted during biofuel combustion in a village in North-Central India. Fine aerosol samples along with gaseous species (Sox, NOx, and NH₃) were collected during September 2010-March 2011 at Khairatpur village (KPV) which is located in the Uttar Pradesh state in North-Central India. Results indicated that most of the major ions in aerosols and Sox, NOx, and NH₃ gases were found to be higher during cooking hours as compared to non-cooking hours suggesting that solid biofuel combustion is an important source of air pollution. Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that combustion of solid biofuel, vehicular emissions, and brick kilns were the major sources of fine aerosols and trace gases in the village. A health survey was conducted to find out the relation between users of biofuels and their health effects and the results revealed that most of the women in the village were suffering from diseases associated with biofuel combustion during cooking.

Keywords: ambient aerosols, biofuel combustion, cooking, health survey, rural area

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
1434 Binding Studies and Structure Determination of the Recombinantly Produced Type-II 3-Dehydroquinate Dehydratase from Acinetobacter Baumannii

Authors: Naseer Iqbal, Mukesh Kumar, Pradeep Sharma, Satya Prakash Yadav, Punit Kaur, Sujata Sharma, T. P. Singh

Abstract:

Dehydroquinase (3-dehydroquinate dehydratase, DHQD, EC 4.2.1.10) is involved in shikimate pathway and catalyzes the conversion of dehydroquinate to dehydroshikimate. Shikimate pathway is important drug target as this pathway is absent in mammals. DHQD from Acinetobacter baumannii (AbDHQD) was cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The binding studies showed that compounds quinic acid and citrazinic acid bound to AbDHQD at micromolar concentrations. AbDHQD was crystallized using 30% PEG-3350, 50mM tris-HCl, and 1.0M MgSO4 at PH 8.0. Crystals of AbDHQD were stabilized by transferring them into reservoir solution to which 25% glycerol was added for data collection at 100K. The X-ray intensity data were collected to 2.0Å resolution. The crystals belong to monoclinic space group P21 with cell dimensions, a = 82.3, b = 95.3, c = 132.3Å and β = 95.7°. The structure was solved with molecular replacement method and refined to Rcryst/Rfree factors of 0.200/0.232. The structures of 12 crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetry unit were identical with r.m.s shifts for the C atoms ranging from 0.3 Å to 0.8 Å. They formed a dodecamer with four trimers arranged in a tetrahedral manner. The classical lid adopted an open conformation although a sulfate ion was observed in the substrate binding site. As a result of which, the compounds quinic acid and citrazinic acid did not bind to AbDHQD.

Keywords: acinetobacter Bauman Nii, dehydroquinate dehydratase, dodecamer, open conformation

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1433 Fast Authentication Using User Path Prediction in Wireless Broadband Networks

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Sathya Pavithra, Swaminathan Venkatraman

Abstract:

Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) utilizes the IEEE 802.1X mechanism for authentication. However, this mechanism incurs considerable delay during handoffs. This delay during handoffs results in service disruption which becomes a severe bottleneck. To overcome this delay, our article proposes a key caching mechanism based on user path prediction. If the user mobility follows that path, the user bypasses the normal IEEE 802.1X mechanism and establishes the necessary authentication keys directly. Through analytical and simulation modeling, we have proved that our mechanism effectively decreases the handoff delay thereby achieving fast authentication.

Keywords: authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA), handoff, mobile, user path prediction (UPP) and user pattern

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1432 Investigation of Delivery of Triple Play Service in GE-PON Fiber to the Home Network

Authors: Anurag Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, Rahul Malhotra, Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

Fiber based access networks can deliver performance that can support the increasing demands for high speed connections. One of the new technologies that have emerged in recent years is Passive Optical Networks. This paper is targeted to show the simultaneous delivery of triple play service (data, voice and video). The comparative investigation and suitability of various data rates is presented. It is demonstrated that as we increase the data rate, number of users to be accommodated decreases due to increase in bit error rate.

Keywords: BER, PON, TDMPON, GPON, CWDM, OLT, ONT

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
1431 A Problem in Microstretch Thermoelastic Diffusive Medium

Authors: Devinder Singh, Arvind Kumar, Rajneesh Kumar

Abstract:

The general solution of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermo elastic medium with mass diffusion for two dimensional problems is obtained due to normal and tangential forces. The integral transform technique is used to obtain the components of displacements, microrotation, stress and mass concentration, temperature change and mass concentration. A particular case of interest is deduced from the present investigation.

Keywords: normal force, tangential force, microstretch, thermoelastic, the integral transform technique, deforming force, microstress force, boundary value problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
1430 Pond Site Diagnosis: Monoclonal Antibody-Based Farmer Level Tests to Detect the Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease in Shrimp

Authors: B. T. Naveen Kumar, Anuj Tyagi, Niraj Kumar Singh, Visanu Boonyawiwat, A. H. Shanthanagouda, Orawan Boodde, K. M. Shankar, Prakash Patil, Shubhkaramjeet Kaur

Abstract:

Early mortality syndrome (EMS)/Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) has emerged as a major obstacle for the shrimp farming around the world. It is caused by a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The possible preventive and control measure is, early and rapid detection of the pathogen in the broodstock, post-larvae and monitoring the shrimp during the culture period. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based early detection methods are good, but they are costly, time taking and requires a sophisticated laboratory. The present study was conducted to develop a simple, sensitive and rapid diagnostic farmer level kit for the reliable detection of AHPND in shrimp. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against the recombinant Pir B protein (rPirB). First, an immunodot was developed by using MAbs G3B8 and Mab G3H2 which showed specific reactivity to purified r-PirB protein with no cross-reactivity to other shrimp bacterial pathogens (AHPND free Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Indian strains), V. anguillarum, WSSV, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Aphanomyces invadans). Immunodot developed using Mab G3B8 is more sensitive than that with the Mab G3H2. However, immunodot takes almost 2.5 hours to complete with several hands-on steps. Therefore, the flow-through assay (FTA) was developed by using a plastic cassette containing the nitrocellulose membrane with absorbing pads below. The sample was dotted in the test zone on the nitrocellulose membrane followed by continuos addition of five solutions in the order of i) blocking buffer (BSA) ii) primary antibody (MAb) iii) washing Solution iv) secondary antibody and v) chromogen substrate (TMB) clear purple dots against a white background were considered as positive reactions. The FTA developed using MAbG3B8 is more sensitive than that with MAb G3H2. In FTA the two MAbs showed specific reactivity to purified r-PirB protein and not to other shrimp bacterial pathogens. The FTA is simple to farmer/field level, sensitive and rapid requiring only 8-10 min for completion. Tests can be developed to kits, which will be ideal for use in biosecurity, for the first line of screening (at the port or pond site) and during monitoring and surveillance programmes overall for the good management practices to reduce the risk of the disease.

Keywords: acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease, AHPND, flow-through assay, FTA, farmer level, immunodot, pond site, shrimp

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
1429 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Tolyloxy Derived Oxadiazoles

Authors: Shivkanya Fuloria, Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Sokinder Kumar

Abstract:

m-Cresol and oxadiazoles are the potent antimicrobial moieties. 2-(m-Tolyloxy)acetohydrazide (1) on cyclization with aromatic acids yielded 2-(aryl)-5-(m-tolyloxymethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (1A-E). The structures of newer oxadiazoles were confirmed by elemental and spectral analysis. The newer compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. The compound 1E containing strong electron withdrawing group showed maximum antimicrobial potential. Other compounds also displayed antimicrobial potential to certain extent. The SAR of newer oxadiazoles indicated that substitution of strong electronegative group in the tolyloxy derived oxadiazoles enhanced their antimicrobial potential.

Keywords: antibacterial, cresol, hydrazide, oxadiazoles

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
1428 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey

Abstract:

The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to the human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: low contrast image, fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, chebyshev polynomial

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
1427 Experimental Study on Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation of Industrial By-Products

Authors: Mohammadjavad Yaghoubi, Arul Arulrajah, Mahdi M. Disfani, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Myint W. Bo, Stephen P. Darmawan

Abstract:

Utilising waste materials, such as fly ash (FA) and slag (S) stockpiled in landfills, has drawn the attention of researchers and engineers in the recent years. There is a great potential for usage of these wastes in ground improvement projects, especially where deep deposits of soft compressible soils exist. This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activated FA and S, termed as geopolymer binder, to use in deep soil mixing technology. The strength improvement and the changes in the microstructure of the mixtures have been studied. The results show that using FA and S-based geopolymers can increases the strength significantly. Furthermore, utilising FA and S in ground improvement projects, where large amounts of binders are required, can be a solution to the disposal of these wastes.

Keywords: alkaline activation, fly ash, geopolymer, slag, strength development

Procedia PDF Downloads 128