Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7465

Search results for: social workers

7465 Correlation of Empathy with Job Satisfaction and Stress of Social Workers

Authors: Theodosios Paralikas, Evangelia Kotrotsiou, Mairy Gouva, Manolis Mentis, Stiliani Stavrotheodorou, Stiliani Kotrotsiou, Maria Malliarou

Abstract:

There is a big discussion in the international literature on empathy, job satisfaction and job occupational among various of disciplines, including social workers. Νevertheless these parameters have not been specifically studied in the Greek territory. This paper aims to study empathy of social workers, to produce results related to whether empathy is influenced by demographic factors such as gender, age, marital status, level of education and study their perceived stress levels and also the satisfaction they derive from their work. For the first time, an attempt is made to link the empathy of these professionals to their job satisfaction and their anxiety. The sample of this survey consists of 165 social workers working on providers of public and private social services. The results showed that social workers have high levels of empathy contrary to the perceived stress levels which were low to moderate. Regarding the field of the job satisfaction, the survey showed that social workers are very satisfied with their workpiece and workplace. The survey shows no significant relationship between empathy and demographic factors, but there is a significant relationship between empathy and the workpiece/job satisfaction and the feeling of success.

Keywords: empathy, stress, job satisfaction, social workers

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7464 Economic and Social Well-Being for Migrant Workers: Asian Experiences

Authors: Mohsin Reza, Thirunaukarasu Subramaniam, M. Rezaul Islam

Abstract:

In Asia, economic and social well-being issues are rarely addressed. The major characteristics of the migrant workers in Asian countries are seriously exploited, marginalized, and infrequently looked from human rights perspective. This paper explored the opportunities and shortages of economic and social well-being for the migrant workers in Asia. A Qualitative Interpretative Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was conducted to analyze the contextual socio-economic factors that characterized migrant workers’ economic and social well-being. It is perceived that in most of the recruiting countries, there are lacks of government commitments to the international protocols, conventions and laws that they ratified towards safeguarding migrant workers’ economic and social well-being. Results showed that the migrant workers had lack of job security, poor salary, long working hours, low access to the public services, poor health, poor living and working conditions, lack of legal rights, physical and mental threats. The finding would be important guideline to the governments, policy makers, legal rights practitioners, and human rights organizations.

Keywords: Asia, economic well-being, social well-being, migrant workers, human rights

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7463 Impact of Social Stress on Mental Health: A Study on Sanitation Workers of India and Social Work

Authors: Farhat Nigar

Abstract:

Social stress is stress which arises from one's relationships with others and from the social environment. When a person finds that they are not capable of coping with a situation, stress arises. Sanitation workers faces a lot of discrimination from the society which leads to stress and have severe impact on their mental health. Sanitation workers face lot of work pressure which sometimes leads to mental health problems, but there is lack of proper data of sanitation workers dealing with mental health problems which is a big obstacle before evolving policies for the welfare of sewage and septic tank workers which needs attention. The objective of the study is to find out the effect of social stress on the mental health of sanitation workers and to explore the scope of social work in coping with mental health problems of workers. This descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 100 sanitation workers of Aligarh city through convenience sampling. Data were collected from respondents by schedule and interview method. Most of the respondents said that they don’t enjoy equal status in society and at the workplace as well which leads to stress. Many of them said that social stress leads to poor performance in the workplace. Some of the workers feel depressed when their work is not appreciated and recognized in society. Majority of respondents has stress in financial and employment-related difficulties. Thus it can be said that social stress has several impacts on mental health which leads to poor performance, lack of confidence, and motivation which sometimes leads to depression. Social work can play a very important and challenging role in overcoming these difficulties by providing education, motivation and guiding them and by making them aware of their rights and duties.

Keywords: discrimination, health, stress, sanitation workers

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7462 Social Work Profession in a Mirror of the Russian Immigrant Media in Israel

Authors: Natalia Khvorostianov, Nelly Elias

Abstract:

The present study seeks to analyze representation of social work in immigrant media, focusing on the case of online newspapers established by immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel. This immigrant population is particularly interesting because social work did not exist as a profession practiced in the USSR and hence most FSU immigrants arrive in Israel without a basic knowledge of the essence of social work, the services it provides and the logic behind its treatment methods. The sample of 37 items was built through a Google search of the Russian online newspapers and portals originated in Israel by using keywords such as “social worker,” “social work services” and the like. All items were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. Principal analytical categories used for the analysis were: Assessment of social work services (negative, positive, neutral); social workers’ professionalism and effectiveness; goals and motives underlying their activity; cross-cultural contact with immigrants and methods used in working with immigrants. On this basis, four dominant images used to portray Israeli social work services and social workers were identified: Lack of professionalism, cultural gaps between FSU immigrants and Israeli social workers, repressive character of social work services and social workers’ involvement in corruption and crime.

Keywords: FSU immigrants, immigrant media, media images, social workers

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7461 Predictors of the Self-Reported Likelihood of Seeking Social Worker Help among People with Physical Disabilities

Authors: Maya Kagan, Michal Itzick, Patricia Tal-Katz

Abstract:

Social workers hold a variety of roles and practices, and one of these involves the care, treatment, and rehabilitation of disabled people. The current study assesses the association between demographic factors, attitudes towards social workers, the stigma attached to seeking social worker help, perceived social support, and psychological distress - and the self-reported likelihood of seeking social worker help, among people with physical disabilities (PWPD) in Israel. Data collection utilized structured questionnaires, administered to a sample of 435 PWPD. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS software. The findings suggest that women, older respondents, people with more positive attitudes towards social workers, with higher levels of psychological distress and of social support, and with a lower level of stigma, reported a greater likelihood of seeking social worker help. The study's conclusion is that there are certain avoidance factors among PWPD that might discourage them from seeking professional social worker help. Therefore, it is important that social workers identify these factors and develop interventions aimed at encouraging PWPD to seek professional social worker help in case of need, and also develop practices adjusted to PWPD's unique needs.

Keywords: attitudes towards social workers, people with physical disabilities, perceived social support, psychological distress, seeking help, stigma

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7460 Protective Custody in Child Protection: Reflection of Residential Care Workers in the Philippines

Authors: Hazel S. Cometa-Lamberte

Abstract:

This paper presents the residential care workers reflections in working with children who were under protective custody and placed in a residential care facility for children. Key informant interviews and focus group discussion were employed in this study to analyze the views of residential care workers on the programs and services and case management system in residential care for children. Results suggest that working in a residential care facility for children needs the interplay of both the worker’s personal and professional values, knowledge and skills in working with children. Analyzing the residential care workers experiences in handling children in residential care facilities is vital for the improvement of the policies, programs and services, the repertoire of techniques and facilitate the creation of a new social work practice framework/model in child protection specifically in residential care facilities.

Keywords: child protection, residential care, residential care workers, social workers

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7459 Muslim Social Workers and Imams’ Recommendations in Marital and Child Custody Cases of Persons with Intellectual or Mental Disability

Authors: Badran Leena, Rimmerman Arie

Abstract:

Arab society in Israel is undergoing modernization and secularization. However, its approach to disability and mental illness is still dominated by religious and traditional stereotypes, as well as folk remedies and community practices. The present study examines differences in Muslim social workers' and Imams' recommendations in marriage/divorce and child custody cases of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) or mental illness. The study has two goals: (1) To examine differences in recommendations between Imams and Muslim social workers; (2) To explore variables related to their differential recommendations as observed in their responses to vignettes—a quantitative study using vignettes resembling existing Muslim religious (Sharia) court cases. Muslim social workers (138) and Imams (48) completed a background questionnaire, a religiosity questionnaire, and a questionnaire that included 25 vignettes constructed by the researcher based on court rulings adapted for the study. Muslim social workers tended to consider the religious recommendation when the family of a person with ID or mental illness was portrayed in the vignette as religious. The same applied to Imams, albeit to a greater extent. The findings call for raising awareness among social workers and academics regarding the importance of religion and tradition in formulating professional recommendations.

Keywords: child custody, intellectual and developmental disability, marriage/divorce, mental illness, sharia court, social workers

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7458 Medical Social Work: Connotation, Prospects, and Challenges in Pakistan

Authors: Syeda Mahnaz Hassan

Abstract:

Social work as a specialized field, grounded in scientific knowledge and skills, is more inclined towards problem-solving process rather than charity focused approach. Medical social work, as a primary method, deals with the bio-psychosocial-spiritual elements of an individual with a problem and assesses the pliability and strength of the patients, social support systems, and their families, to assist the patients to resolve their problems independently. The medical social worker, also known as case-worker or care-worker, has to play a substantial role in the rehabilitation and retrieval of an affected person. This paper examines the roles played and responsibilities discharged by the Medical Social Workers internationally and specifically concerning Pakistan. The capacity constraints and challenges confronted by Medical Social Workers in hospitals have also been highlighted, and some policy implications have been suggested to enhance the capabilities of Medical Social Workers for serving the patients in a befitting manner.

Keywords: medical social work, Pakistan, patients, rehabilitation

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7457 Conceptualizing Notions of Poverty in Graduate Social Work Education: Contextualizing the Formation of the ‘Social Worker’ Subjectivity

Authors: Emily Carrothers

Abstract:

This research takes a critical look at the development of the social worker subjectivity, particularly in Canada. Through an interrogation of required graduate course texts, this paper explicates the discursive formation, orientation, and maintenance of the social worker subject and the conceptualizations of poverty in graduate social work education. This research aims to advance understandings of power and ideology in social work graduate texts and formations of particular dominant constructions of poverty and social worker subjectivity. Guiding questions for this inquiry include: What are social workers being oriented to? What are social workers being oriented away from? How is poverty theorized, discussed and/or attached to social location in social work education? And, how are social workers implicated in contesting or reinforcing poverty? Using critical discourse analysis, 6 texts were analyzed with a particular focus on ways in which notions of poverty are discursively represented and ways in which notions of the formation of the social worker were approached. This revealed that discursively underpinning social work in anti-oppressive practice (AOP) can work to reify hierarchal structures of power that orient social workers away from structural poverty reduction strategies and towards punitive interactions with those that experience poverty and multiple forms of marginalization. This highlights that the social worker subjectivity is formed in opposition to the client, with graduate texts constructing the social worker as an expert in client’s lives and experiences even more so than the client.

Keywords: Canada, education, social work, subjectivity

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7456 Risks and Values in Adult Safeguarding: An Examination of How Social Workers Screen Safeguarding Referrals from Residential Homes

Authors: Jeremy Dixon

Abstract:

Safeguarding adults forms a core part of social work practice. The Government in England and Wales has made efforts to standardise practices through The Care Act 2014. The Act states that local authorities have duties to make inquiries in cases where an adult with care or support needs is experiencing or at risk of abuse and is unable to protect themselves from abuse or neglect. Despite the importance given to safeguarding adults within law there remains little research about how social workers conduct such decisions on the ground. This presentation reports on findings from a pilot research study conducted within two social work teams in a Local Authority in England. The objective of the project was to find out how social workers interpreted safeguarding duties as laid out by The Care Act 2014 with a particular focus on how workers assessed and managed risk. Ethnographic research methods were used throughout the project. This paper focusses specifically on decisions made by workers in the assessment team. The paper reports on qualitative observation and interviews with five workers within this team. Drawing on governmentality theory, this paper analyses the techniques used by workers to manage risk from a distance. A high proportion of safeguarding referrals came from care workers or managers in residential care homes. Social workers conducting safeguarding assessments were aware that they had a duty to work in partnership with these agencies. However, their duty to safeguard adults also meant that they needed to view them as potential abusers. In making judgments about when it was proportionate to refer for a safeguarding assessment workers drew on a number of common beliefs about residential care workers which were then tested in conversations with them. Social workers held the belief that residential homes acted defensively, leading them to report any accident or danger. Social workers therefore encouraged residential workers to consider whether statutory criteria had been met and to use their own procedures to manage risk. In addition social workers carried out an assessment of the workers’ motives; specifically whether they were using safeguarding procedures as a shortcut for avoiding other assessments or as a means of accessing extra resources. Where potential abuse was identified social workers encouraged residential homes to use disciplinary policies as a means of isolating and managing risk. The study has implications for understanding risk within social work practice. It shows that whilst social workers use law to govern individuals, these laws are interpreted against cultural values. Additionally they also draw on assumptions about the culture of others.

Keywords: adult safeguarding, governmentality, risk, risk assessment

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7455 The Effect of Stigma on Attitudes towards Seeking Help from Social Workers

Authors: Hend Al-Ma'seb, Anwar Alkhurinej

Abstract:

In the field of social work, social workers understand that it is very difficult for individuals to ask for help from therapists. Therefore, it is important to study the variables associated with seeking professional help. A total of 478 undergraduate students from Kuwait University participated voluntarily in the study. The findings for this study showed that the participants of the study have a slightly high degree of public stigma, low self–stigma, and positive attitude toward seeking professional help. In addition, the findings of the study reveal that there are significant relationships between gender, taking social work classes, thinking about receiving counseling and having social problems and participants' attitude towards seeking professional help. Furthermore, the findings of the study showed that there were significant relationships between gender, and thinking about receiving counseling, and self-stigma. The findings of the current study have implications for the field of social work in Kuwait that would help to improve the knowledge in this area.

Keywords: attitude towards help, social work, social workers, stigma

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7454 The Special Testimony as a Methodology for Social Workers to Ensure the Rights of Children and Adolescents Who Are Victims of Sexual Violence

Authors: Natany Rodrigues De Carvalho, Denise Bomtempo Birche De Carvalho

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze the Special Testimony as a methodology for social workers to ensure the rights of children and adolescents who are victims of sexual violence. The specific objectives are: a) to contextualize, through the specialized literature, the social history of childhood and adolescence; b) to investigate, in the scientific literature, the sexual violence against children and adolescents as an analytical category; c) identify, with the social workers, if there is any defense of children and adolescents in the special testimony. To answer the research objectives we use qualitative research, in three axes that complement each other: a) participant observation through the insertion in the research field (supervised internship I and II); b) survey of literature on the subject; c) semi-structured interviews with social workers of the TJDFT. We used content analysis to systematize and interpret the collected data. The results of the research were organized into three chapters with the following contents: a) literature review, contextualizing the social history of childhood and adolescence to the present; b) sexual violence against children and adolescents and their categories of analysis; c) understanding of the special testimony in the Federal District and Territories in guaranteeing the rights of children and adolescents, identifying their main points from the perspective of social workers. The results showed how the lack of interdisciplinarity in the Special Testimony can lead to the non-integral protection of children and adolescents victims of sexual violence.

Keywords: childhood and adolescence, sexual violence, special testimony, social work

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7453 A Study on Occupational Injuries among Building Construction Workers in Bhubaneswar City Odisha

Authors: Rahul Pal

Abstract:

In India, construction industry plays a vital role in the development of infrastructures. It is one of the most hazardous industries. Construction workers are a group that is particularly vulnerable to health risks because they have few legal protection. India has the world’s highest accident rate among construction workers. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of occupation injury among construction workers and to find out the factors responsible for such injuries. Methodology: A cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire among 305 construction workers in Bhubaneswar city. In this study, it was found that the overall prevalence of injury was 43.28% in the previous one year period. Majority of the construction workers were less experience in the construction work. Factors responsible for injuries are fall of the object followed by striking, and majority of the workers reported their injuries to have occurred in the summer season. And most of the construction workers are not using personal protective equipment (PPE). Conclusion: Given the occupational injuries, the majority of the construction workers are injured in this study; there is a need to address this issue to ensure necessary step for the safety and well-being of construction workers.

Keywords: construction, construction workers, occupational injuries, personal protective equipment

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7452 Role of Social Workers in Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change in Makonde Communal Lands, Zimbabwe

Authors: Louis Nyahunda, Frans Koketso Matlakala, Jabulani Calvin Makhubele

Abstract:

Climate change is among the most vital environmental aspects that the human community is endowed with. Climate as a factor of life is particularly strong to low income rural communities whose livelihoods heavily depend on rain-fed subsistence agriculture like Makonde communal lands. The purpose of social work within the context of climate change is to enhance community expertise and empower members for participation in the decision-making process through all stages of risk assessment, rescue, planning and intervention for recovery and preparedness. This paper sought to explore the role of social workers in mitigating the effects of climate change in Makonde communal lands of Zimbabwe. The objectives of the study were to identify what roles if any are social workers playing in mitigating the effects of climate change and if not, what are the impediments in that sphere. A qualitative research approach was followed within the traditional framework of descriptive and exploratory designs. Simple random, purposive and snowballing sampling techniques were used to gather twenty-five participants in the study. The Thematic Content Analysis was followed to analyse data inductively. The study found that Social Workers are not directly involved in climate change interventions in the Makonde area owing it to lack of training on climate change issues. The study recommends that climate change falls within the purview of the social work practice therefore social workers must take the lead in supporting families and communities affected by climate change following the values, knowledge base, skills and principles of the profession.

Keywords: role, social workers, mitigation, climate change, Makonde communal lands

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7451 The Role and Challenges of Social Workers in Child Protection: The Case of Indonesia

Authors: B. Rusyidi

Abstract:

Since 2009, the Indonesian Ministry of Social Affairs has been implementing Program Kesejahteraan Sosial Anak (PKSA) (Child Welfare Program) a conditional cash transfer program that targets neglected children, children with disabilities, street children, children in conflict with the law, and children in need of special protection, all from poor households. PKSA integrates three elements: Transfer of cash, care and social services through social workers, and institutional childcare assistance. This qualitative study analyzed the roles and the challenges of social workers in implementing PKSA and lays out recommendations to inform policy changes. Data were collected in late 2014 from national and local government and non-government child welfare agencies, social workers, and childcare institution representatives through interviews and Focused Group Discussions (FGDs). Field work took place in six districts in the provinces of Jakarta, Central Java and South Sulawesi. The study found that the social workers’ role was significant in facilitating cash transfer, providing education and guidance, and linking children and families to basic social services. This improved utilization of basic social services enhanced children and families’ behaviors and contributed to the well being of the children. However, only a small number of childcare institutions have social workers, leaving many children and families without care and social service linkages, depriving them of rehabilitative components to help them regain their social functions. Some social workers reported their struggles with heavy workloads, lack of professional competencies and training, limited job security, and inadequate professional acknowledgment from other professions. Parts of those challenges were due to the centralized nature of the program and the lack of shared vision and commitment about the child protection system among related government agencies both at the national and local levels. The study highlights the necessity to implement an integrated child protection system, decentralize the PKSA program, and increase the number, competence, case management, and management and monitoring of social workers. The most recent progress of the program and its impacts on social workers are also discussed.

Keywords: child protection, conditional cash transfer, program decentralization, social worker, working conditions

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7450 Self-Efficacy, Self-Knowledge, Empathy and Psychological Well-Being as Predictors of Workers’ Job Performance in Food and Beverage Industries in the South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Michael Ayodeji Boyede

Abstract:

Studies have shown that workers’ job performance is very low in Nigeria, especially in the food and beverage industry. This trend had been partially attributed to low workers’ self-efficacy, poor self-knowledge, lack of empathy and poor psychological well-being. The descriptive survey design was adopted. Four factories were purposively selected from three states in Southwestern, Nigeria (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States). Proportionate random sampling techniques were used in selecting 1,820 junior and supervisory cadre workers in Nestle Plc (369), Coca-Cola Plc (392), Cadbury Plc (443) and Nigeria Breweries (616). The five research instruments used were: Workers’ self-efficacy (r=0.81), Workers’ self-knowledge (r=0.78), Workers’ empathy (r=0.74), Workers’ psychological well-being (r=0.70) and Workers’ performance rating (r=0.72) scales. Quantitative data were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation, Multiple regression at 0.05 level of significance. Findings show that there were significant relationships between Workers’ job performance and self-efficacy (r=.56), self-knowledge (r=.54), Empathy (r=.55) and Psychological Well-being (r=.69) respectively. Self-efficacy, self-knowledge, empathy and psychological well-being jointly predict workers’ job performance (F (4,1815) = 491.05) accounting for 52.0% of its variance. Psychological well-being (B=.52). Self-efficacy (B=.10), self-knowledge (B=.11), empathy (B=. 09) had predictive relative weights on workers’ job performance. Inadequate knowledge and training of the supervisors led to a mismatch of workers thereby reducing workers’ job performance. High self-efficacy, empathy, psychological well-being and good self-knowledge influence workers job performance in the food and beverage industry. Based on the finding employers of labour should provide work environment that would enhance and promote the development of these factors among the workers.

Keywords: self-efficacy, self-knowledge, empathy, psychological well-being, job performance

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7449 The Political Biographies of Social Workers: A Qualitative Study of the Political Lives of Social Workers

Authors: Hefin Gwilym

Abstract:

This paper will explore the political biographies of social workers in a neoliberal era. The findings are based on a research project for a successfully completed professional doctorate in social work. The methodology deployed for the research is a combination of constructivist grounded theory and biographical inquiry. The paper will present findings from 14 biographical interviews and will focus on one case study of a participant whose life story is richly informed by political social work. The 14 participants reflect different genders, ethnic identities, cultural and linguistic identities, age and length of social work careers. The participants also reflect different forms of political engagement, such as, as political activists and members of political parties, including parliamentarians. The findings demonstrate how deeply ingrained the social work identity is amongst the participants and how their political identity has remained strongly social democratic in nature despite the many changes in the social work profession since the rise of neoliberalism as a thought collective and policy package. The individual case study will explore the early roots of political identity in the childhood and nurturing years and the interface with subsequent social work and political careers. It will also explore the evolution of the participant’s political identity in the social work career. The case study will also present findings on how the participant has contributed to the political field with policy involvement and initiatives. The presentation will conclude with a discussion on how this particular group of social workers can best contribute to the future direction of the social work profession.

Keywords: political social work, political biographies, neoliberal, grounded theory

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7448 Quality of Work Life of Alien Workers in Thailand

Authors: Chetsada Noknoi

Abstract:

This research aims to study the quality of life of alien workers in Thailand and to compare the quality of work life of alien workers based on personal factors and work factors. Data analysis is performed using frequencies, percentage, mean standard deviation, t-test and ANOVA. Findings will benefit to the relevant authorities to be aware of the quality of life of alien workers in Thailand. This will help to find ways to enhance the quality of life of alien workers. It also brings awareness to the problems and obstacles that alien workers face in their work and life. It is a strategic approach to improve the management of the country's alien workers to be more efficient and effective. Moreover, the knowledge can be the basis of service to the society in different ways.

Keywords: quality of work life, alien worker, contemporary marketing, management

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7447 Optimisation Model for Maximising Social Sustainability in Construction Scheduling

Authors: Laura Florez

Abstract:

The construction industry is labour intensive, and the behaviour and management of workers have a direct impact on the performance of construction projects. One of the issues it currently faces is how to recruit and maintain its workers. Construction is known as an industry where workers face the problem of short employment durations, frequent layoffs, and periods of unemployment between jobs. These challenges not only creates pressures on the workers but also project managers have to constantly train new workers, face skills shortage, and uncertainty on the quality of the workers it will attract. To consider worker’s needs and project managers expectations, one practice that can be implemented is to schedule construction projects to maintain a stable workforce. This paper proposes a mixed integer programming (MIP) model to schedule projects with the objective of maximising social sustainability of construction projects, that is, maximise labour stability. Aside from the social objective, the model accounts for equipment and financial resources required by the projects during the construction phase. To illustrate how the solution strategy works, a construction programme comprised of ten projects is considered. The projects are scheduled to maximise labour stability while simultaneously minimising time and minimising cost. The tradeoff between the values in terms of time, cost, and labour stability allows project managers to consider their preferences and identify which solution best suits their needs. Additionally, the model determines the optimal starting times for each of the projects, working patterns for the workers, and labour costs. This model shows that construction projects can be scheduled to not only benefit the project manager, but also benefit current workers and help attract new workers to the industry. Due to its practicality, it can be a valuable tool to support decision making and assist construction stakeholders when developing schedules that include social sustainability factors.

Keywords: labour stability, mixed-integer programming (MIP), scheduling, workforce management

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7446 Moving beyond the Social Model of Disability by Engaging in Anti-Oppressive Social Work Practice

Authors: Irene Carter, Roy Hanes, Judy MacDonald

Abstract:

Considering that disability is universal and people with disabilities are part of all societies; that there is a connection between the disabled individual and the societal; and that it is society and social arrangements that disable people with impairments, contemporary disability discourse emphasizes the social model of disability to counter medical and rehabilitative models of disability. However, the social model does not go far enough in addressing the issues of oppression and inclusion. The authors indicate that the social model does not specifically or adequately denote the oppression of persons with disabilities, which is a central component of progressive social work practice with people with disabilities. The social model of disability does not go far enough in deconstructing disability and offering social workers, as well as people with disabilities a way of moving forward in terms of practice anchored in individual, familial and societal change. The social model of disability is expanded by incorporating principles of anti-oppression social work practice. Although the contextual analysis of the social model of disability is an important component there remains a need for social workers to provide service to individuals and their families, which will be illustrated through anti-oppressive practice (AOP). By applying an anti-oppressive model of practice to the above definitions, the authors not only deconstruct disability paradigms but illustrate how AOP offers a framework for social workers to engage with people with disabilities at the individual, familial and community levels of practice, promoting an emancipatory focus in working with people with disabilities. An anti- social- oppression social work model of disability connects the day-to-day hardships of people with disabilities to the direct consequence of oppression in the form of ableism. AOP theory finds many of its basic concepts within social-oppression theory and the social model of disability. It is often the case that practitioners, including social workers and psychologists, define people with disabilities’ as having or being a problem with the focus placed upon adjustment and coping. A case example will be used to illustrate how an AOP paradigm offers social work a more comprehensive and critical analysis and practice model for social work practice with and for people with disabilities than the traditional medical model, rehabilitative and social model approaches.

Keywords: anti-oppressive practice, disability, people with disabilities, social model of disability

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7445 The Influence of Construction Workers Wages and Working Conditions on Productivity in Ghana

Authors: Emmanuel Donkor

Abstract:

Aim/Purpose – This paper examines the influence of construction workers wages and working conditions on productivity in Ghana. Design/methodology/Approach - The study adopted a quantitative research approach with purposive sampling techniques where data was collected using surveys. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0, which enables the findings of the study to be examined under thematic areas.Findings: - The study revealed that good wages and working condition of workers have a positive correlation on productivity in the construction industry. Increase and improved wages and working conditions can results in higher productivity in the construction industry.Originality/value - This paper is exceptional in the sense that, it does examine the influence of construction workers wages and working conditions on productivity in Ghana. Social value/implications - The paper concludes that workers’ wages and their conditions have a high influence on productivity. It is then recommended that government should train, educate, give good wages to workers and improve on their working condition, give incentives and reduce tax importation on building or construction materials to aid in good productivity of construction firms.

Keywords: construction firms, construction industry, productivity, workers’ wages, working conditions

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7444 Responding to the Mental Health Service Needs of Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers in China: Current Situation and Future Directions

Authors: Yujun Liu, Maosheng Ran

Abstract:

Background: Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers’ mental health problems raise attentions from different social sectors. However, situation of present mental health services provided to this population has not been discovered. This study attempts to describe the current mental health service situation, identify the gaps and give the future directions based on the quantitative data. Methods: Questionnaire surveys were conducted among 2017 rural-to-urban migrant workers in 13 cities and 100 social work service organizations in 5 cities in 2014. Data was collected by face-to-face structured interview by trained interviewers. Findings: Migrant workers’ mental health status was not good. Compared to the severity of mental distress, mental health service for this population was lacking and insufficient, which accounted for only 14.4% of all services in our sample. And the group work and case work were the most frequently-used methods. By estimating a series of regression models, we revealed that life experiences and working conditions were significantly associated with migrant workers’ mental health status. Therefore, the macro social work practices aimed at this whole group were advocated to promote their mental wellbeing. That is, practitioners should not only focus on the improvement of migrant workers’ emotion management capacity, but also pay attention to raise awareness and improve their living and working condition; not only concentrate on the solving of individuals’ dilemma, but also promote gradual reformation of present labor regime and hukou system in China.

Keywords: Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers, macro social work practice, mental health service needs, mental health status

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7443 The Link between Migration Status and Occupational Health and Safety of Filipino Migrant Workers in South Korea

Authors: Lito M. Amit, Venecio U. Ultra, Young Woong Song

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence and types of work-related health and safety problems among Filipino migrant workers and the link between their migration status and occupational health and safety (OHS) problems. We conducted a survey among 116 Filipino migrant workers who were both legal and undocumented. To assess the various forms of occupational health problems, we utilized the Korean occupational stress scale (KOSS), Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ) and a validated health and safety questionnaire. A focus group discussion (FGD) was also conducted to record relevant information that was limited by the questionnaires. Descriptive data were presented in frequency with percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the degree of association between variables (p < 0.05). Among the eight subscales of KOSS, inadequate social support (2.48), organizational injustice (2.57), and lack of reward (2.52) were experienced by workers. There was a 44.83% prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders with arm/elbow having the highest rate, followed by shoulder and low back regions. Inadequate social support and discomfort in organizational climate and overall MSDs prevalence showed significant relationships with migration status (p < 0.05). There was a positive association between migration status and seven items under language and communication. A positive association was seen between migration status and some of the OHS problems of Filipino migrant workers in Korea. Undocumented workers in this study were seen to be more vulnerable to those stressors compared to those employed legally.

Keywords: Filipino workers, migration status, occupational health and safety, undocumented workers

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7442 Secondary Traumatic Stress and Related Factors in Australian Social Workers and Psychologists

Authors: Cindy Davis, Samantha Rayner

Abstract:

Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is an indirect form of trauma affecting the psychological well-being of mental health workers; STS is found to be a prevalent risk in mental health occupations. Various factors impact the development of STS within the literature; including the level of trauma individuals are exposed to and their level of empathy. Research is limited on STS in mental health workers in Australia; therefore, this study examined STS and related factors of empathetic behavior and trauma caseload among mental health workers. The research utilized an online survey quantitative research design with a purposive sample of 190 mental health workers (176 females) recruited via professional websites and unofficial social media groups. Participants completed an online questionnaire comprising of demographics, the secondary traumatic stress scale and the empathy scale for social workers. A standard hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the significance of covariates, traumatized clients, traumatic stress within workload and empathy in predicting STS. The current research found 29.5% of participants to meet the criteria for a diagnosis of STS. Age and past trauma within the covariates were significantly associated with STS. Amount of traumatized clients significantly predicted 4.7% of the variance in STS, traumatic stress within workload significantly predicted 4.8% of the variance in STS and empathy significantly predicted 4.9% of the variance in STS. These three independent variables and the covariates accounted for 18.5% of the variance in STS. Practical implications include a focus on developing risk strategies and treatment methods that can diminish the impact of STS.

Keywords: mental health, PTSD, social work, trauma

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7441 An Investigation into the Role of School Social Workers and Psychologists with Children Experiencing Special Educational Needs in Libya

Authors: Abdelbasit Gadour

Abstract:

This study explores the function of schools’ psychosocial services within Libyan mainstream schools in relation to children’s special educational needs (SEN). This is with the aim to examine the role of school social workers and psychologists in the assessment procedure of children with special educational needs. A semi-structured interview was used in this study, with 21 professionals working in the schools’ psychosocial services, of whom thirteen were school social workers (SSWs) and eight were school psychologists (SPs). The results of the interviews with SSWs and SPs provided insights into how SEN children are identified, assessed, and dealt with by school professionals. It appears from the results that what constitutes a problem has not changed significantly, and the link between learning difficulties and behavioral difficulties is also evident from this study. Children with behavior difficulties are more likely to be referred to school psychosocial services than children with learning difficulties. Yet, it is not clear from the interviews with SSWs and SPs whether children are excluded merely because of their behavior problems. Instead, they would surely be expelled from the school if they failed academically. Furthermore, the interviews with SSWs and SPs yield a rather unusual source accountable for children’s SEN; school-related difficulties were a major factor in which almost all participants attributed children’s learning and behavior problems to teachers’ deficiencies, followed by school lack of resources.

Keywords: psychologist, school, social workers, special education

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7440 Factors Affecting the Wages of Native Workers in Thailand's Construction Industry

Authors: C. Noknoi, W. Boripunt, K. Boomid, S. Suwitphanwong

Abstract:

This research studies the factors influencing the wages of native workers in Thailand's construction industry. The sample used comprised some 156 native construction workers from Songkhla Province, Thailand. The utilized research instrument was a questionnaire, with the data being analyzed according to frequency, percentage, and regression analysis. The results revealed that in general, native Thai construction workers are generally married males aged between 26 and 37 years old. They typically have four to six years of education, are employed as laborers with an average salary of 4,000–9,200 baht per month, and have fewer than five years of work experience. Most Thai workers work five days a week. Each establishment typically has 10–30 employees, with fewer than 10 of these being migrant workers in general. Most Thai workers are at a 20% to 40% risk from work, and they have never changed employer. The average wage of Thai workers was found to be 10,843.03 baht per month with a standard deviation of 4,898.31 baht per month. Hypothesis testing revealed that position, work experience, and the number of times they had switched employer were the factors most affecting the wages of native Thai construction workers. These three factors alone explain the salaries of Thai construction workers at 51.9%.  

Keywords: construction industry, native workers, Thailand, wages

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
7439 Assessing the Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Waste Management Workers in Ghana

Authors: Mensah-Akoto Julius, Kenichi Matsui

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on waste management workers in Ghana. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 60 waste management workers in Accra metropolis, the capital region of Ghana, to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on waste generation, workers’ safety in collecting solid waste, and service delivery. To find out correlations between the pandemic and safety of waste management workers, a regression analysis was used. Regarding waste generation, the results show the pandemic led to the highest annual per capita solid waste generation, or 3,390 tons, in 2020. Regarding the safety of workers, the regression analysis shows a significant and inverse association between COVID-19 and waste management services. This means that contaminated wastes may infect field workers with COVID-19 due to their direct exposure. A rise in new infection cases would have a negative impact on the safety and service delivery of the workers. The result also shows that an increase in economic activities negatively impacts waste management workers. The analysis, however, finds no statistical relationship between workers’ service deliveries and employees’ salaries. The study then discusses how municipal waste management authorities can ensure safe and effective waste collection during the pandemic.

Keywords: Covid-19, waste management worker, waste collection, Ghana

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7438 Paying Less and Getting More: Evidence on the Effect of Corporate Purpose from Two Natural Field Experiments

Authors: Nikolai Brosch, Alwine Mohnen

Abstract:

Academics and business leaders increasingly call for a (re)definition of a corporate purpose beyond profit-maximization to contribute to the welfare of society. This study investigates the effect of communicating such a pro-social corporate purpose on three employee-level outcomes that constitute major cost components for most organizations: workers reservation wage, work quality, and work misbehavior. To provide causal evidence, two natural field experiments were conducted with almost 2,000 workers recruited from different online labor marketplaces. Workers were randomly assigned to treatments manipulating whether or not they received information about the employer’s corporate purpose and subsequently performed a short, real-effort task for payment. The main findings in both experiments show that receiving information about an employer’s pro-social corporate purpose causes workers to accept lower wages (9% lower in the first experiment and 28% lower in the second experiment) for the same job. Workers that personally assess high importance to organizations having a pro-social purpose are most responsive. At the same time, sacrificing wage for a corporate purpose comes at no cost of quality and even decreases the likelihood of engaging in work misbehavior. In a broader context, the results provide some evidence that the (re)definition of corporate purpose in commercial organizations is not ultimately at odds with creating profits.

Keywords: corporate purpose, natural field experiment, reservation wage, work misbehavior, work quality

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7437 Effects of Work Stress and Chinese Indigenous Ren-Qing Shi-Ku Social Wisdom on Emotional Exhaustion, Work Satisfaction and Well-Being of Insurance Workers

Authors: Wang Chung-Kwei, Lo Kuo Ying

Abstract:

This study is aimed to examine main and moderation effect of Chinese traditional social wisdom ‘Ren-qing Shi-kuo’ on the adjustment of insurance workers. Rationale: Ren-qing Shi-ku as a social wisdom has been emphasized and practiced by collective-oriented Chinese for thousand years. The concept of‘Ren-qing Shi-ku’includes values, beliefs and behavior rituals, which helps Chinese to cope with interpersonal conflicts in a sophisticated and closely tied collective society. Based on interview and literature review, we found out Chinese still emphasized the importance of ‘Ren-qing Shi-ku’. The concepts contains five factors, including ‘proper emotion display’, ‘social ritual abiding’, ‘ make empathetic concession’, ‘harmonious and proper behavior’ and ‘tolerance for the interest of the whole’. We developed an indigenous ‘Ren-qing Shi-ku’scale based on interview data and a survey on social worker students. Research methods: We conduct a dyad survey between 294 insurance worker and their supervisors. Insurance workers’ response on ‘Ren-qing Shi-ku,emotion labor, emotional exhaustion, work stress and load, work satisfaction and well-being were collected. We also ask their supervisors to rate these workers ‘empathy, social rule abiding, work performance, and Ren-qing Shi-ku performance. Results: Students’self-ratings on Ren-qing Shi-ku scale are positively correlated with rating from their supervisors on all above indexes. Workers who have higher Ren-qing Shi-ku score also have lower work stress and emotion exhaustion, higher work satisfaction and well-being, more emotion deep acting. They also have higher work performance, social rule abiding, and Ren-qing Shi-ku performance rating from their supervisor. The finding of this study suggested Ren-qing Shi-ku is an effective indicator on insurance workers ‘adjustment. Since Ren-qing Shi-ku is trainable, we suggested that Ren-qing Shi-ku training might be beneficial to service industry in a collective-oriented culture.

Keywords: work stress, Ren-qing Shi-ku, emotional exhaustion, work satisfaction, well-being

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
7436 Male Sex Workers’ Constructions of Selling Sex in South Africa

Authors: Tara Panday, Despina Learmonth

Abstract:

Sex work is often constructed as being an interaction between male clients and female sex workers. As a result, street-based male sex workers are continuously overlooked in the South African literature. This qualitative study explored male sex workers’ subjective experiences and constructions of their male clients’ identities and the client-sex worker relationship. This research was conducted from a social-constructionist perspective, which allowed for a deeper understanding of the reasons and context driving the choices and actions of male sex workers. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 10 South African men working as sex workers in Cape Town. Data was analysed through thematic analysis. The findings of the study construct the client-sex worker relationship in terms of a professional relationship, constrained choice, sexual identity and need, as well as companionship for pay, potentially highlighting underlying reasons for supply and demand. The data which emerged around the client-sex worker relationship and the clients’ identities also served to illuminate the power-dynamics in the client-sex worker relationship. This data increases insight into the exploitation and disempowerment experienced by male sex workers through verbal abuse, physical and sexual violence, and unfairly enforced laws and regulations. The findings of this study suggest that, in the context of South Africa, male sex workers' experiences of the client-sex worker relationship cannot be completely understood without considering the intersectionality of the triple stigmatisation of: the criminality of sex work, race, and the lack of economic power, which systematically maintains marginalization. Motivating for the Law Reform Commission to continue to review all emerging research may assist with guiding related policy and thereby, the provision of equal human rights and adequate health and social interventions for all sex workers in South Africa.

Keywords: human rights, prostitution, power relations, sex work

Procedia PDF Downloads 375