Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1616

Search results for: synthesis

1616 Characterization of Fe Doped ZnO Synthesised by Sol-Gel and Combustion Routes

Authors: M. Ravindiran, P. Shankar

Abstract:

This paper deals with the comparison of two synthesis methods, namely, sol-gel, and combustion to prepare Fe doped ZnO nano material. Characterization results for structural, optical and magnetic properties were analyzed for the sol gel and combustion synthesis derived materials. Magnetic studies of the prepared compounds reveal that the combustion synthesis derived material has good magnetization of 50 emu/gm with a better hysteresis loop curve.

Keywords: DMS, combustion, ferromagnetic, synthesis methods

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1615 High Temperature Volume Combustion Synthesis of Ti3Al with Low Porosities

Authors: Nese Ozturk Korpe, Muhammed H. Karas

Abstract:

Reaction synthesis, or combustion synthesis, is a processing technique in which the thermal activation energy of formation of a compound is sustained by its exothermic heat of reaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of high initial pressing pressures (420 MPa, 630 MPa, and 850 MPa) on porosity of Ti3Al which produced by volume combustion synthesis. Microstructure examinations were performed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Phase analyses were performed with X-ray diffraction device (XRD). A significant decrease in porosity was obtained due to an increase in the initial pressing pressure.

Keywords: Titanium Aluminide, Volume Combustion Synthesis, Intermetallic, Porosity

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1614 Zinc Borate Synthesis Using Hydrozincite and Boric Acid with Ultrasonic Method

Authors: D. S. Vardar, A. S. Kipcak, F. T. Senberber, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Zinc borate is an important inorganic hydrate borate material, which can be use as a flame retardant agent and corrosion resistance material. This compound can loss its structural water content at higher than 290°C. Due to thermal stability; Zinc Borate can be used as flame reterdant at high temperature process of plastic and gum. In this study, the ultrasonic reaction of zinc borates were studied using hydrozincite (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6) and boric acid (H3BO3) raw materials. Before the synthesis raw materials were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Ultrasonic method is a new application on the zinc borate synthesis. The synthesis parameters were set to 90°C reaction temperature and 55 minutes of reaction time, with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 molar ratio of starting materials (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6 : H3BO3). After the zinc borate synthesis, the products analyzed by XRD and FT-IR. As a result, optimum molar ratio of 1:5 (Zn5(CO3)2•(OH)6:H3BO3) is determined for the synthesis of zinc borates with ultrasonic method.

Keywords: borate, ultrasonic method, zinc borate, zinc borate synthesis

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1613 The Effect of Solution Density on the Synthesis of Magnesium Borate from Boron-Gypsum

Authors: N. Tugrul, E. Sariburun, F. T. Senberber, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Boron-gypsum is a waste which occurs in the boric acid production process. In this study, the boron content of this waste is evaluated for the use in synthesis of magnesium borates and such evaluation of this kind of waste is useful more than storage or disposal. Magnesium borates, which are a sub-class of boron minerals, are useful additive materials for the industries due to their remarkable thermal and mechanical properties. Magnesium borates were obtained hydrothermally at different temperatures. Novelty of this study is the search of the solution density effects to magnesium borate synthesis process for the increasing the possibility of boron-gypsum usage as a raw material. After the synthesis process, products are subjected to XRD and FT-IR to identify and characterize their crystal structure, respectively.

Keywords: boron-gypsum, hydrothermal synthesis, magnesium borate, solution density

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1612 Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Cu(II) Complex of a Pyridine-Naphthoimidazole-Based Ligand

Authors: Shuang Zhao, Shintaro Ito, Yoshihiro Ohba, Hiroshi Katagiri

Abstract:

We present the synthesis and single-crystal X-ray crystallography of a Cu(II) complex(bmn-bpy) of a pyridine-naphthoimidazole-based ligand containing two naphthoimidazoles as the chromophores and a vacant coordination site on Cu(II).

Keywords: synthesis, Cu(II) complex, single-crystal X-ray crystallography

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1611 Synthesis of the Robust Regulators on the Basis of the Criterion of the Maximum Stability Degree

Authors: S. A. Gayvoronsky, T. A. Ezangina

Abstract:

The robust control system objects with interval-undermined parameters is considers in this paper. Initial information about the system is its characteristic polynomial with interval coefficients. On the basis of coefficient estimations of quality indices and criterion of the maximum stability degree, the methods of synthesis of a robust regulator parametric is developed. The example of the robust stabilization system synthesis of the rope tension is given in this article.

Keywords: interval polynomial, controller synthesis, analysis of quality factors, maximum degree of stability, robust degree of stability, robust oscillation, system accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
1610 Brazilian Sign Language: A Synthesis of the Research in the Period from 2000 to 2017

Authors: Maria da Gloria Guara-Tavares

Abstract:

This article reports a synthesis of the research in Brazilian Sign Language conducted from 2000 to 2017. The objective of the synthesis was to identify the most researched areas and the most used methodologies. Articles published in three Brazilian journals of Translation Studies, unpublished dissertations and theses were included in the analysis. Abstracts and the method sections of the papers were scrutinized. Sixty studies were analyzed, and overall results indicate that the research in Brazilian Sign Language has been fragmented in several areas such as linguistic aspects, facial expressions, subtitling, identity issues, bilingualism, and interpretation strategies. Concerning research methods, the synthesis reveals that most research is qualitative in nature. Moreover, results show that the cognitive aspects of Brazilian Sign Language seem to be poorly explored. Implications for a future research agenda are also discussed.

Keywords: Brazilian sign language, qualitative methods, research agenda, synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
1609 Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles as an Efficient Catalyst for Three-Component Synthesis of Benzylamino Coumarin Derivatives

Authors: Hossein Anaraki-Ardakani

Abstract:

A green and efficient one-pot synthesis of benzylamino coumarin derivatives by a three-component condensation of 4-hydroxycoumarin, cyclic secondary amine, and aromatic aldehyde in the presence of ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as a heterogeneous catalyst in water at room temperature has been reported.

Keywords: 3-benzyl substituted coumarin derivative, ZrO2 nanoparticles (NPs), green synthesis, multicomponent reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
1608 Versatile Variation of Fischer Indolization in Green Synthesis of Nitro Substituted Tetrahydrocarbazole

Authors: Zubi Sadiq, Ghazala Yaqub, Almas Hamid

Abstract:

We wish to report herein a very stimulating variation in Fischer indole reaction by adopting solvent and catalyst free conditions. A concise synthesis of dinitro tetrahydrocarbazole derivative 3 was introduced without the use of any accelerating agent at ambient temperature with fairly good yield. Product was fully corroborated by UV, FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, and CHN analysis.

Keywords: fischer indole reaction, neutral medium, solvent free synthesis, tetrahydrocarbazole

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1607 The Optimum Operating Conditions for the Synthesis of Zeolite from Waste Incineration Fly Ash by Alkali Fusion and Hydrothermal Methods

Authors: Yi-Jie Lin, Jyh-Cherng Chen

Abstract:

The fly ash of waste incineration processes is usually hazardous and the disposal or reuse of waste incineration fly ash is difficult. In this study, the waste incineration fly ash was converted to useful zeolites by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal synthesis method. The influence of different operating conditions (the ratio of Si/Al, the ratio of hydrolysis liquid to solid, and hydrothermal time) was investigated to seek the optimum operating conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash. The results showed that concentrations of heavy metals in the leachate of Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) were all lower than the regulatory limits except lead. The optimum operating conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal synthesis method were Si/Al=40, NaOH/ash=1.5, alkali fusion at 400 oC for 40 min, hydrolysis with Liquid to Solid ratio (L/S)= 200 at 105 oC for 24 h, and hydrothermal synthesis at 105 oC for 24 h. The specific surface area of fly ash could be significantly increased from 8.59 m2/g to 651.51 m2/g (synthesized zeolite). The influence of different operating conditions on the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash followed the sequence of Si/Al ratio > hydrothermal time > hydrolysis L/S ratio. The synthesized zeolites can be reused as good adsorbents to control the air or wastewater pollutants. The purpose of fly ash detoxification, reduction and waste recycling/reuse is achieved successfully.

Keywords: alkali fusion, hydrothermal, fly ash, zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
1606 Synthesis of Na-LSX Zeolite and Hydrosodalite from Polish Fly Ashes

Authors: Barbara Bialecka, Zdzislaw Adamczyk, Magdalena Cempa

Abstract:

In the work, the results of investigations into the hydrothermal zeolitization of fly ash from hard coal combustion in one of Polish Power Station have been presented. The chemical composition of the ash was determined by the method of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), whereas the phases of both fly ash and the products after synthesis were identified using microscopic observations, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) as well as electron scanning microscopy with measurements of the chemical compositions in micro areas (SEM/EDS). The synthesis was carried out with various concentrations of NaOH solution (3M, 4M and 6M) in the following conditions: synthesis temperature – 80ᵒC, synthesis time – 16 hours, volume of NaOH solution – 350ml, fly ash mass – 14g. The main chemical components of fly ash were SiO₂ and Al₂O₃, the contents of which reached 51.62 and 28.14%mas., respectively. The input ash contained mainly such phases as mullite, quarz, magnetite, and glass. The research results indicate that the phase composition of products after zeolitization was differentiated. The material after synthesis in 3M NaOH solution was found to contain mullite, quarz, magnetite, and Na-LSX zeolite. The products of synthesis in 4M NaOH solution were very similar to those in 3M solution (mullite, quarz, magnetite, Na-LSX zeolite), but they additionally contained hydrosodalite. The material after synthesis in 6M NaOH solution contains mullite, quarz, magnetite (similarly to synthesis in 3M and 4M NaOH solition) and additionally hydrosodalite. Therefore, the products of synthesis contain relic components from the fly ash input sample in the form of mullite, quarz, and magnetite, as well as new phases, which are Na-LSX zeolite and hydrosodalite. It should be noted that the products of synthesis in the case of 4M NaOH solution contained both new phases (Na-LSX zeolite and hydrosodalite), while the products from the extreme concentration of NaOH solutions (3M and 6M) contained only one of them. Observations in the scanning electron microscope revealed the new phases’ morphology. It was found that Na-LSX zeolite formed cubic crystals, whereas hydrosodalite formed characteristic aggregations. The results of investigations into the chemical composition in the micro area of phase grains in the products after synthesis reveal some dependencies, among others a characteristic increase in the content of sodium, related to the increased concentration of NaOH solution.

Keywords: Na-LSX, fly ash, hydrosodalite, zeolite

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1605 Synthesis of Filtering in Stochastic Systems on Continuous-Time Memory Observations in the Presence of Anomalous Noises

Authors: S. Rozhkova, O. Rozhkova, A. Harlova, V. Lasukov

Abstract:

We have conducted the optimal synthesis of root-mean-squared objective filter to estimate the state vector in the case if within the observation channel with memory the anomalous noises with unknown mathematical expectation are complement in the function of the regular noises. The synthesis has been carried out for linear stochastic systems of continuous-time.

Keywords: mathematical expectation, filtration, anomalous noise, memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
1604 Hybrid Temporal Correlation Based on Gaussian Mixture Model Framework for View Synthesis

Authors: Deng Zengming, Wang Mingjiang

Abstract:

As 3D video is explored as a hot research topic in the last few decades, free-viewpoint TV (FTV) is no doubt a promising field for its better visual experience and incomparable interactivity. View synthesis is obviously a crucial technology for FTV; it enables to render images in unlimited numbers of virtual viewpoints with the information from limited numbers of reference view. In this paper, a novel hybrid synthesis framework is proposed and blending priority is explored. In contrast to the commonly used View Synthesis Reference Software (VSRS), the presented synthesis process is driven in consideration of the temporal correlation of image sequences. The temporal correlations will be exploited to produce fine synthesis results even near the foreground boundaries. As for the blending priority, this scheme proposed that one of the two reference views is selected to be the main reference view based on the distance between the reference views and virtual view, another view is chosen as the auxiliary viewpoint, just assist to fill the hole pixel with the help of background information. Significant improvement of the proposed approach over the state-of –the-art pixel-based virtual view synthesis method is presented, the results of the experiments show that subjective gains can be observed, and objective PSNR average gains range from 0.5 to 1.3 dB, while SSIM average gains range from 0.01 to 0.05.

Keywords: fusion method, Gaussian mixture model, hybrid framework, view synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
1603 A Multilevel-Synthesis Approach with Reduced Number of Switches for 99-Level Inverter

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, V. Ramu, K. Ramakrishna

Abstract:

In this paper, an efficient multilevel wave form synthesis technique is proposed and applied to a 99-level inverter. The basic principle of the proposed scheme is that the continuous output voltage levels can be synthesized by the addition or subtraction of the instantaneous voltages generated from different voltage levels. This synthesis technique can be realized by an array of switching devices composing full-bridge inverter modules and proper mixing of each bi-directional switch modules. The most different aspect, compared to the conventional approach, in the synthesis of the multilevel output waveform is the utilization of a combination of bidirectional switches and full bridge inverter modules with reduced number of components. A 99-level inverter consists of three full-bridge modules and six bi-directional switch modules. The validity of the proposed scheme is verified by the simulation.

Keywords: cascaded connection, multilevel inverter, synthesis, total harmonic distortion

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1602 Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel and Sonochemical Combination

Authors: Sabriye Piskin, Sibel Kasap, Muge Sari Yilmaz

Abstract:

Nanocrystalline TiO2 particles were successfully synthesized via sol-gel and sonochemical combination using titanium tetraisopropoxide as a precursor at lower temperature for a short time. The effect of the reaction parameters (hydrolysis media, acid media, and reaction temperatures) on the synthesis of TiO2 particles were investigated in the present study. Characterizations of synthesized samples were prepared by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was shown that the reaction parameters played a significant role in the synthesis of TiO2 particles.

Keywords: crystalline TiO2, sonochemical mechanism, sol-gel reaction, XRD

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1601 Synthesis of Biostabilized Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia indica Extract and Its Antimicrobial and Anticancer Properties

Authors: Rebecca Thombre, Aishwarya Borate

Abstract:

Chemical synthesis of nanoparticles produces toxic by-products, as a result of which eco-friendly methods of synthesis are gaining importance. The synthesis of nanoparticles using plant derived extracts is economical, safe and eco-friendly. Biostabilized gold nanoparticles were synthesized using extracts of Garcinia indica. The gold nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry and demonstrated a peak at 527 nm. The presence of plant derived peptides and phytoconstituents was confirmed using the FTIR spectra. TEM analysis revealed formation of gold nanopyramids and nanorods. The SAED analysis confirmed the crystalline nature of nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles demonstrated antibacterial and antifungal activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Pichia pastoris. The cytotoxic activity of gold nanoparticles was studied using HEK, Hela and L929 cancerous cell lines and the apoptosis of cancerous cells were observed using propidium iodide staining. Thus, a simple and eco-friendly method for synthesis of biostabilized gold nanoparticles using fruit extracts of Garcinia indica was developed and the nanoparticles had potent antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties.

Keywords: cytotoxic, gold nanoparticles, green synthesis, Garcinia indica, anticancer

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1600 Efficient Synthesis of Benzothiazolyl Thioureas Based Thiazoline Heterocycles

Authors: Hummera Rafique, Aamer Saeed

Abstract:

2-Aminobenzothiazoles are highly biologically active compounds, as many important applications are associated with this nucleus. They serve as precursors for the synthesis of thioureas. Benzothiazolyl thioureas are exceptionally versatile building blocks towards the synthesis of a wide variety of heterocyclic systems, which also possess extensive range of bioactivities. These thioureas were converted into five-membered heterocycles with imino moiety like N-[3-(2-Benzothiazolyl)-4-methylthiazol-2(3H)-ylidene] benzamides by base-catalyzed cyclization of corresponding thioureas with 2-bromoacetone and triethylamine in good yields.

Keywords: N-[3-(2-Benzothiazolyl)-4-methylthiazol-2(3H)-ylidene]benzamides, 1-(substitutedbenzo[d] thiazol-2-yl)-3-aroylthioureas, 2-aminobenzothiazoles, antibacterial activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
1599 Green Synthesis of Red-Fluorescent Gold Nanoclusters: Characterization and Application for Breast Cancer Detection

Authors: Agnė Mikalauskaitė, Renata Karpicz, Vitalijus Karabanovas, Arūnas Jagminas

Abstract:

The use of biocompatible precursors for the synthesis and stabilization of fluorescent gold nanoclusters (NCs) with strong red photoluminescence creates an important link between natural sciences and nanotechnology. Herein, we report the cost-effective synthesis of Au nanoclusters by templating and reduction of chloroauric acid with the cheap amino acid food supplements. This synthesis under the optimized conditions leads to the formation of biocompatible Au NCs having good stability and intense red photoluminescence, peaked at 680 to 705 nm, with a quantum yield (QY) of ≈7% and the average lifetime of up to several µs. The composition and luminescent properties of the obtained NCs were compared with ones formed via well-known bovine serum albumin reduction approach. Our findings implied that synthesized Au NCs tend to accumulate in more tumorigenic breast cancer cells (line MDA-MB-213) and after dialysis can be prospective for bio imagining.

Keywords: gold nanoclusters, proteins, materials chemistry, red-photoluminescence, bioimaging

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1598 Biobased Polyurethane Derived from Transesterified Castor Oil: Synthesis and Charecterization

Authors: Sonalee Das, Smita Mohanty, S. K. Nayak

Abstract:

Recent years has witnessed the increasing demand for natural resources and products in polyurethane synthesis because of global warming, sustainable development and oil crisis. For this purpose, different plant oils such as soybean oil, castor oil and linseed oil are extensively used. Moreover, the isocyanate used for the synthesis of polyurethane is derived from petroleum resources. In this present work attempts have been made for the successful synthesis of biobased isocyanate from castor oil with partially biobased isocyanate in presence of catalyst dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL). The goal of the present study was to investigate the thermal, mechanical, morphological and chemical properties of the synthesized polyurethane in terms of castor oil modification. The transesterified polyol shows broad and higher hydroxyl value as compared to castor oil which was confirmed by FTIR studies. The FTIR studies also revealed the successful synthesis of bio based polyurethane by showing characteristic peaks at 3300cm-1, 1715cm-1 and 1532cm-1 respectively. The TGA results showed three step degradation mechanism for the synthesized polyurethane from modified and unmodified castor oil. However, the modified polyurethane exhibited higher degradation temperature as compared to unmodified one. The mechanical properties also demonstrated higher tensile strength for modified polyurethane as compared to unmodified one.

Keywords: castor oil, partially biobased Isocyanate, polyurethane synthesis, FTIR

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1597 Excitation Modeling for Hidden Markov Model-Based Speech Synthesis Based on Wavelet Analysis

Authors: M. Kiran Reddy, K. Sreenivasa Rao

Abstract:

The conventional Hidden Markov Model (HMM)-based speech synthesis system (HTS) uses only a pulse excitation model, which significantly differs from natural excitation signal. Hence, buzziness can be perceived in the speech generated using HTS. This paper proposes an efficient excitation modeling method that can significantly reduce the buzziness, and improve the quality of HMM-based speech synthesis. The proposed approach models the pitch-synchronous residual frames extracted from the residual excitation signal. Each pitch synchronous residual frame is parameterized using 30 wavelet coefficients. These 30 wavelet coefficients are found to accurately capture the perceptually important information present in the residual waveform. In synthesis phase, the residual frames are reconstructed from the generated wavelet coefficients and are pitch-synchronously overlap-added to generate the excitation signal. The proposed excitation modeling method is integrated into HMM-based speech synthesis system. Evaluation results indicate that the speech synthesized by the proposed excitation model is significantly better than the speech generated using state-of-the-art excitation modeling methods.

Keywords: excitation modeling, hidden Markov models, pitch-synchronous frames, speech synthesis, wavelet coefficients

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1596 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Octahedral Molecular Sieve from Mn Oxide Residues

Authors: Irlana C. do Mar, Thayna A. Ferreira, Dayane S. Rezende, Bruno A. M. Figueira, José M. R. Mercury

Abstract:

This work presents a low-cost Mn starting material to synthesis manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve with Mg²⁺ in the tunnel (Mg-OMS-1), based on the Mn residues from Carajás Mineral Province (Amazon, Brazil). After hydrothermal and cation exchange procedures, the Mn residues transformed to a single phase, Mg-OMS-1. The raw material and the synthesis processes were analyzed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The tunnel structure was synthesized hydrothermally at 180 °C for three days without impurities. According to the XRD analysis, the formation of crystalline Mg-OMS-1 was identified through reflections at 9.8º, 12º and 18º (2θ), as well as a thermal stability around 300 ºC. The SEM analysis indicated that the final product presents good crystallinity with a homogeneous size. In addition, an intense and diagnostic FTIR band was identified at 515 cm⁻¹ related to the MnO₆ octahedral stretching vibrations.

Keywords: Mn residues , Octahedral Molecular Sieve, Synthesis, Characterization

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1595 Structural Characterization and Application of Tio2 Nano-Partical

Authors: Maru Chetan, Desai Abhilash

Abstract:

The structural characteristics & application of TiO2 powder with different phases are study by various techniques in this paper. TTIP, EG and citric acid use as Ti source and catalyst respectively synthesis for sol gel synthesis of TiO2 powder. To replace sol gel method we develop the new method of making nano particle of TiO2 powder. It is two route method one is physical and second one is chemical route. Specific aim to this process is to minimize the production cost and the large scale production of nano particle The synthesis product work characterize by EDAX, SEM, XRD tests.

Keywords: mortal and pestle, nano particle , TiO2, TTIP

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1594 Rapid Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles Using Eclipta prostrata Leaf Extract

Authors: Siva Prasad Peddi

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from silver nitrate through a rapid green synthesis method using Eclipta prostrata leaf extract as a reducing cum stabilizing agent. The experimental procedure was readily conducted at room temperature and pressure, and could be easily scaled up. The silver nanoparticles thus obtained were characterized using UV-Visible Spectroscopy (UV-VIS) which yielded an absorption peak at 416 nm. The biomolecules responsible for capping of the bio-reduced silver nanoparticles synthesized using plant extract were successfully identified through FTIR analysis. It was evinced through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that the silver nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and spherical in shape. The average size of the particles obtained using Scherrer’s formula was 27.4 nm. The adopted technique for silver nanoparticle synthesis is suitable for large-scale production.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, characterization, Eclipta prostrata

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1593 Synthesis of Plant-Mediated Silver Nanoparticles Using Erythrina indica Extract and Evaluation of Their Anti-Microbial Activities

Authors: Chandra Sekhar Singh, P. Chakrapani, B. Arun Jyothi, A. Roja Rani

Abstract:

The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) involves biocompatible ingredients under physiological conditions of temperature and pressure. Moreover, the biologically active molecules involved in the green synthesis of NPs act as functionalizing ligands, making these NPs more suitable for biomedical applications. Among the most important bioreductants are plant extracts, which are relatively easy to handle, readily available, low cost, and have been well explored for the green synthesis of other nanomaterials. Various types of metallic NPs have already been synthesized using plant extracts. They have wide applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In our study, we were described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from 1mM AgNO3 solution through the aqueous extract of Erythrina indica as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, X-ray diffraction, SEM and TEM analysis showed the average particle size of 30 nm as well as revealed their spherical structure. Further these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were found to be highly toxic against different human pathogens viz. two Gram positive namely Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis bacteria and two were Gram negative bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli). This is for the first time reporting that Erythrina indica plant extract was used for the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, antibacterial activity, FTIR, TEM, SEM

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1592 Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide and Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles Using Spinacia Oleracea Leaf Extract

Authors: Yameen Ahmed, Jamshid Hussain, Farman Ullah, Sohaib Asif

Abstract:

The investigation aims at the synthesis of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles using Spinacia oleracea leaf extract. These nanoparticles have many properties and applications. They possess antimicrobial catalytic properties and also they can be used in energy storage materials, gas sensors, etc. The Spinacia oleracea leaf extract behaves as a reducing agent in nanoparticle synthesis. The plant extract was first prepared and then treated with copper and cobalt salt solutions to get the precipitate. The salt solutions used for this purpose are copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO₄.5H₂O) and cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl₂.6H₂O). The UV-Vis, XRD, EDX, and SEM techniques are used to find the optical, structural, and morphological properties of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The UV absorption peaks are at 326 nm and 506 nm for copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles.

Keywords: cobalt oxide, copper oxide, green synthesis, nanoparticles

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1591 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Citrus aurantium Aqueous Pollen Extract and Their Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Mohammad Ali Karimi, Hossein Tavallali, Abdolhamid Hatefi-Mehrjardi

Abstract:

Pollen extract of in vitro plants raised of Citrus aurantium as reducer and stabilizer was assessed for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The synthesis of AgNPs was performed at room temperature assisting in solutions by reduction takes place rapidly for 10 min. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks in UV–Vis spectra indicated the formation of polydispersive AgNPs. Silver ions concentration, pH, temperature and reaction time were optimized in the synthesis of AgNPs. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized AgNPs were mostly spherical in shape with an average size of 15 nm. XRD study shows that the AgNPs are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic (fcc) geometry. It shows the significant antibacterial efficacy against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) by disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton Agar.

Keywords: green synthesis, Citrus aurantium, silver nanoparticles, antibacterial activity

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1590 The Green Synthesis AgNPs from Basil Leaf Extract

Authors: Wanida Wonsawat

Abstract:

Bioreduction of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver ions (Ag+) using water extract of Thai basil leaf was successfully carried out. The basil leaf extract provided a reducing agent and stabilizing agent for a synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles received from cut and uncut basil leaf was compared. The resulting silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The maximum intensities of silver nanoparticle from cut and uncut basil leaf were 410 and 420, respectively. The techniques involved are simple, eco-friendly and rapid.

Keywords: basil leaves, silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, plant extract

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1589 Investigation on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt-Gadolinium Catalyst

Authors: Jian Huang, Weixin Qian, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Cobalt-gadolinium catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was prepared by impregnation method with commercial silica gel, and its texture properties were characterized by BET, XRD, and TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the addition of gadolinium to the cobalt catalyst might decrease the size of cobalt particles, and increased the dispersion of catalytic active cobalt phases. The carbon number distributions for the catalysts was calculated by ASF equation.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, cobalt-based catalysts, gadolinium, carbon number distributions

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1588 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Hydrosodalite by Using Ultrasounds

Authors: B. Białecka, Z. Adamczyk, M. Cempa

Abstract:

The use of ultrasounds in zeolization of fly ash can increase the efficiency of this process. The molar ratios of the reagents, as well as the time and temperature of the synthesis, are the main parameters determining the type and properties of the zeolite formed. The aim of the work was to create hydrosodalite in a short time (8h), with low NaOH concentration (3 M) and in low temperature (80°C). A zeolite material contained in fly ash from hard coal combustion in one of Polish Power Plant was subjected to hydrothermal alkaline synthesis. The phase composition of the ash consisted mainly of glass, mullite, quartz, and hematite. The dominant chemical components of the ash were SiO₂ (over 50%mas.) and Al₂O₃ (more than 28%mas.), whereas the contents of the remaining components, except Fe₂O₃ (6.34%mas.), did not exceed 4% mas. The hydrothermal synthesis of the zeolite material was carried out in the following conditions: 3M-solution of NaOH, synthesis time – 8 hours, 40 kHz-frequency ultrasounds during the first two hours of synthesis. The mineral components of the input ash as well as product after synthesis were identified in microscopic observations, in transmitted light, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron scanning microscopy (SEM/EDS). The chemical composition of the input ash was identified by the method of X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The obtained material apart from phases found in the initial fly ash sample, also contained new phases, i.e., hydrosodalite and NaP-type zeolite. The chemical composition in micro areas of grains indicated their diversity: i) SiO₂ content was in the range 30-59%mas., ii) Al₂O₃ content was in the range 24-35%mas., iii) Na₂O content was in the range 6-15%mas. This clearly indicates that hydrosodalite forms hypertrophies with NaP type zeolite as well as relict grains of fly ash. A small amount of potassium in the examined grains is noteworthy, which may indicate the substitution of sodium with potassium. This is confirmed by the high value of the correlation coefficient between these two components.

Keywords: fly ash, hydrosodalite, ultrasounds, zeolite

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1587 Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Hydrogels Based on Chitosan Derivatives

Authors: Mahmoud H. Abu Elella, Riham R. Mohamed, Magdy W. Sabaa

Abstract:

Firstly, synthesis of N-Quaternized Chitosan (NQC), then it was proven by FTIR and 1H-NMR analysis. The degree of quaternization(DQ 35% ) was determined by equation. Secondly, synthesis of cross-linked hydrogels composed of NQC and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in different weight ratios in presence of glutaraldehyde (GA) as cross-linking agent. Characterization of the prepared hydrogels was done using FTIR, SEM, XRD,and TGA. Swellability in simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions applied on NQC / PVA hydrogels and swelling rate(Wt%) and metal ions uptake was done on it.

Keywords: hydrogel, metal ions uptake, N-quaternized chitosan, poly (vinyl alcohol), swellability

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