Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 148

Search results for: aviation

148 Work demand and Prevalence of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Case Study of Pakistan Aviation Maintenance Workers

Authors: Muzamil Mahmood, Afshan Naseem, Muhammad Zeeshan Mirza, Yasir Ahmad, Masood Raza

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to analyze how aviation maintenance workers’ characteristics and work demand affect their development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Guided by literature on task characteristics, work demand, and WMSDs, data is collected from 128 aviation maintenance workers of private and public airlines. Data is then analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. It is found that task characteristics have a significant positive effect on WMSDs and an increase in tasks performed by aviation maintenance workers leads to increase in WMSDs. Work demand did not have a significant effect on WMSDs. The task characteristics of aviation maintenance workers moderates the relationship between their work demand and WMSDs. This reveals that task characteristics of aviation maintenance workers enhance the effect of work demand on WMSDs. The task characteristics of aviation maintenance workers are challenging and unpredictable. Subsequently, WMSDs are prevalent among aviation maintenance workers. The work demand of aviation maintenance workers does not influence their development of WMSDs. Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority should minimize the intensity of tasks assigned to aviation maintenance workers by introducing work dynamisms such as task sharing, job rotation, and probably teleworking to enhance flexibility. Human Resource and Recruitment Department need to consider the ability and fitness levels of potential aviation maintenance workers during recruitment. In addition, regular physical activities and ergonomic policies should be put in place by the management of the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority to reduce the incidences of WMSDs.

Keywords: work related musculoskeletal disorders, ergonomics, occupational health and safety, human factors

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147 A Review on Aviation Emissions and Their Role in Climate Change Scenarios

Authors: J. Niemisto, A. Nissinen, S. Soimakallio

Abstract:

Aviation causes carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and other climate forcers which increase the contribution of aviation on climate change. Aviation industry and number of air travellers are constantly increasing. Aviation industry has an ambitious goal to strongly cut net CO2 emissions. Modern fleet, alternative jet fuels technologies and route optimisation are important technological tools in the emission reduction. Faster approaches are needed as well. Emission trade systems, voluntary carbon offset compensation schemes and taxation are already in operation. Global scenarios of aviation industry and its greenhouse gas emissions and other climate forcers are discussed in this review study based on literature and other published data. The focus is on the aviation in Nordic countries, but also European and global situation are considered. Different emission reduction technologies and compensation modes are examined. In addition, the role of aviation in a single passenger’s (a Finnish consumer) annual carbon footprint is analysed and a comparison of available emission calculators and carbon offset systems is performed. Long-haul fights have a significant role in a single consumer´s and company´s carbon footprint, but remarkable change in global emission level would need a huge change in attitudes towards flying.

Keywords: aviation, climate change, emissions, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
146 Developing Model for Fuel Consumption Optimization in Aviation Industry

Authors: Somesh Kumar Sharma, Sunanad Gupta

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The contribution of aviation to society and economy is undisputedly significant. The aviation industry drives economic and social progress by contributing prominently to tourism, commerce and improved quality of life. Identifying the amount of fuel consumed by an aircraft while moving in both airspace and ground networks is critical to air transport economics. Aviation fuel is a major operating cost parameter of the aviation industry and at the same time it is prone to various constraints. This article aims to develop a model for fuel consumption of aviation product. The paper tailors the information for the fuel consumption optimization in terms of information development, information evaluation and information refinement. The information is evaluated and refined using statistical package R and Factor Analysis which is further validated with neural networking. The study explores three primary dimensions which are finally summarized into 23 influencing variables in contrast to 96 variables available in literature. The 23 variables explored in this study should be considered as highly influencing variables for fuel consumption which will contribute significantly towards fuel optimization.

Keywords: fuel consumption, civil aviation industry, neural networking, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
145 The Formulation of R&D Strategy for Biofuel Technology: A Case Study of the Aviation Industry in Iran

Authors: Maryam Amiri, Ali Rajabzade, Gholam Reza Goudarzi, Reza Heidari

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Growth of technology and environmental changes are so fast and therefore, companies and industries have much tendency to do activities of R&D for active participation in the market and achievement to a competitive advantages. Aviation industry and its subdivisions have high level technology and play a special role in economic and social development of countries. So, in the aviation industry for getting new technologies and competing with other countries aviation industry, there is a requirement for capability in R&D. Considering of appropriate R&D strategy is supportive that day technologies of the world can be achieved. Biofuel technology is one of the newest technologies that has allocated discussion of the world in aviation industry to itself. The purpose of this research has been formulation of R&D strategy of biofuel technology in aviation industry of Iran. After reviewing of the theoretical foundations of the methods and R&D strategies, finally we classified R&D strategies in four main categories as follows: internal R&D, collaboration R&D, out sourcing R&D and in-house R&D. After a review of R&D strategies, a model for formulation of R&D strategy with the aim of developing biofuel technology in aviation industry in Iran was offered. With regard to the requirements and aracteristics of industry and technology in the model, we presented an integrated approach to R&D. Based on the techniques of decision making and analyzing of structured expert opinion, 4 R&D strategies for different scenarios and with the aim of developing biofuel technology in aviation industry in Iran were recommended. In this research, based on the common features of the implementation process of R&D, a logical classification of these methods are presented as R&D strategies. Then, R&D strategies and their characteristics was developed according to the experts. In the end, we introduced a model to consider the role of aviation industry and biofuel technology in R&D strategies. And lastly, for conditions and various scenarios of the aviation industry, we have formulated a specific R&D strategy.

Keywords: aviation industry, biofuel technology, R&D, R&D strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 477
144 “Friction Surfaces” of Airport Emergency Plan

Authors: Jakub Kraus, Vladimír Plos, Peter Vittek

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This article focuses on the issue of airport emergency plans, which are documents describing reactions to events with impact on aviation safety or aviation security. The article specifically focuses on the use and creation of emergency plans, where could be found a number of disagreements between different stakeholders, for which the airport emergency plan applies. Those are the friction surfaces of interfaces, which is necessary to identify and ensure them smooth process to avoid dangerous situations or delay.

Keywords: airport emergency plan, aviation safety, aviation security, comprehensive management system, friction surfaces of airport emergency plan, interfaces of processes

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
143 Perception of Aerospace Engineering Students in Saudi Arabia on Aviation Sustainability

Authors: Badr A. Al-Harbi, Fahd T. Abdullah, Mazen T. Wali, Mohammed W. Al-Obaidi, Reda M. Bakhdlg

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Over the past few years, the aviation society had demonstrated a huge concern for securing the sustainability of commercial aviation. Future aerospace engineers in Saudi Arabia are expected to play a major role in dealing with these aspects, taking into consideration the expected growth in both traffic, passenger mileage, and fleet expansions in the region. In the present work, the authors investigate the perception of engineering students in the two undergraduate aerospace engineering programs in the Kingdom. A questionnaire was distributed using google forms and targeted approximately 300 students in both programs on several WhatsApp groups. Data collection was stopped after one week when a response rate above 35% was reached. The questionnaire aimed at assessing the students’ awareness of sustainable aviation and associated obstacles. The results obtained from the study indicate the necessity of introducing curricular modifications to address the subject with more targeted extracurricular activities and better use of social media, which is becoming a main source of students’ awareness.

Keywords: aviation, engineering education, students’ perception, sustainable aviation

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
142 Green Aviation System: The Way Forward for Better Environment

Authors: Ramana Reddy, Vijay Kothari

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Aircraft provide a fast, reliable mode of transport with no comparable alternative for long distance travel. Throughout the years, technology improvements have been made to aircraft and engines to make them more fuel efficient. Air traffic continues to grow around the world and needs more aircrafts to accommodate such rapid growth. This has direct consequences on two of the most important environmental factors i.e. emissions and noise. Aviation contributes about 2% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Aviation emits a number of pollutants that alter the chemical composition of the atmosphere, changing its radiative balance and hence influencing the climate. In order to reduce or if possible eliminate potential harm to the environment and also make air travel efficient and economical, an environmentally beneficial concept called “Green Aviation System” is required. This is a structured frame work with elements like innovative technologies/tools in engineering design, manufacturing, airport and fleet operations.

Keywords: air traffic, environment, emissions, noise, green aviation system

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141 Aviation versus Aerospace: A Differential Analysis of Workforce Jobs via Text Mining

Authors: Sarah Werner, Michael J. Pritchard

Abstract:

From pilots to engineers, the skills development within the aerospace industry is exceptionally broad. Employers often struggle with finding the right mixture of qualified skills to fill their organizational demands. This effort to find qualified talent is further complicated by the industrial delineation between two key areas: aviation and aerospace. In a broad sense, the aerospace industry overlaps with the aviation industry. In turn, the aviation industry is a smaller sector segment within the context of the broader definition of the aerospace industry. Furthermore, it could be conceptually argued that -in practice- there is little distinction between these two sectors (i.e., aviation and aerospace). However, through our unstructured text analysis of over 6,000 job listings captured, our team found a clear delineation between aviation-related jobs and aerospace-related jobs. Using techniques in natural language processing, our research identifies an integrated workforce skill pattern that clearly breaks between these two sectors. While the aviation sector has largely maintained its need for pilots, mechanics, and associated support personnel, the staffing needs of the aerospace industry are being progressively driven by integrative engineering needs. Increasingly, this is leading many aerospace-based organizations towards the acquisition of 'system level' staffing requirements. This research helps to better align higher educational institutions with the current industrial staffing complexities within the broader aerospace sector.

Keywords: aerospace industry, job demand, text mining, workforce development

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
140 Relationship between Relational Energy, Emotional Labour and Cognitive Flexibility of Cabin Crew

Authors: Rithi Baruah

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The aviation industry is one such sectors whose primary aim is to work for the safety and comfort of their clients and customers. The crew members in the aviation industry include pilots, flight attendants, air traffic controllers, baggage personnel and maintenance personnel. This study will concentrate on the frontline employees of the aviation industry, the flight attendants. Flight attendants belong to the niche group of population who are paid to smile. Although the profession seems to be very glamorous, it is physically and psychologically very taxing. Energy at workplace is a fairly new concept and is an organizational resource which helps employee attain their goals. Therefore, the researcher will aim to establish the relationship between relational energy and the major issue of emotional labor and cognitive flexibility among flight attendants. The researcher will hypothesize that there will be a negative relationship between relational energy and emotional labour, and a positive relationship between relational energy and cognitive flexibility. Also, a positive relationship will be expected between cognitive flexibility and emotional labour of cabin crew. A quantitative research design will be used to study the relationship among 50 flight attendants in India. The findings of the research will not only help the aviation sector but will be a major contribution to the existing literature of aviation psychology in India which is scanty. The relationships can also provide scope to develop a model using the same. From crew resource management and aviation psychology perspectives, relationships among the study variables will not only provide scope for helping the aviation employees in particular but also develop the performance and safety of aviation sector at large.

Keywords: cabin crew, cognitive flexibility, emotional labour, relational energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
139 Statistical Analysis of Failure Cases in Aerospace

Authors: J. H. Lv, W. Z. Wang, S.W. Liu

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The major concern in the aviation industry is the flight safety. Although great effort has been put onto the development of material and system reliability, the failure cases of fatal accidents still occur nowadays. Due to the complexity of the aviation system, and the interaction among the failure components, the failure analysis of the related equipment is a little difficult. This study focuses on surveying the failure cases in aviation, which are extracted from failure analysis journals, including Engineering Failure Analysis and Case studies in Engineering Failure Analysis, in order to obtain the failure sensitive factors or failure sensitive parts. The analytical results show that, among the failure cases, fatigue failure is the largest in number of occurrence. The most failed components are the disk, blade, landing gear, bearing, and fastener. The frequently failed materials consist of steel, aluminum alloy, superalloy, and titanium alloy. Therefore, in order to assure the safety in aviation, more attention should be paid to the fatigue failures.

Keywords: aerospace, disk, failure analysis, fatigue

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
138 Using Lean Six-Sigma in the Improvement of Service Quality at Aviation Industry: Case Study at the Departure Area in KKIA

Authors: Tareq Al Muhareb, Jasper Graham-Jones

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The service quality is a significant element in aviation industry especially in the international airports. Through this paper, the researchers built a model based on Lean six sigma methodologies and applied it in the departure area at KKIA (King Khalid International Airport) in order to assess it. This model characterized with many special features that can become over the cultural differences in aviation industry since it is considered the most critical circumstance in this field. Applying the model of this study is depending on following the DMAIC procedure systemized in lean thinking aspects. This model of Lean-six-sigma as a managerial procedure is mostly focused on the change management culture that requires high level of planning, organizing, modifying, and controlling in order to benefit from strengths as well as revoke weaknesses.

Keywords: lean-six-sigma, service quality, aviation industry, KKIA (King Khalid International Airport), SERVQUAL

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
137 The Impact of Temperamental Traits of Candidates for Aviation School on Their Strategies for Coping with Stress during Selection Exams in Physical Education

Authors: Robert Jedrys, Zdzislaw Kobos, Justyna Skrzynska, Zbigniew Wochynski

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Professions connected to aviation require an assessment of the suitability of health, psychological and psychomotor skills and overall physical fitness of the organism, who applies. Assessment of the physical condition is conducted by the committees consisting of aero-medical specialists in clinical medicine and aviation. In addition, psychological predispositions should be evaluated by specialized psychologists familiar with the specifics of the tasks and requirements for the various positions in aviation. Both, physical abilities and general physical fitness of candidates for aviation shall be assessed during the selection exams, which also test the ability to deal with stress what is very important in aviation. Hence, the mentioned exams in physical education not only help to judge on the ranking in candidates in terms of their efficiency and performance, but also allows to evaluate the functioning under stress measured using psychological tests. Moreover, before-test stress is a predictors of successfulness in the next stages of education and practical training in the aviation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of temperamental traits on strategies used for coping with stress during selection exams in physical education, deciding on admission to aviation school. The study involved 30 candidates for fighter pilot training in aviation school . To evaluate the temperament 'The Formal Characteristics of Behavior-Temperament Inventory' (FCB-TI) by B. Zawadzki and J.Strelau was used. To determine the pattern of coping with stress 'The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations' (CISS) to N. S. Endler and J. D. A. Parker were engaged. Study of temperament and styles of coping with stress was conducted directly before the exam selection of physical education. The results were analyzed with 'Statistica 9' program. The studies showed that:-There is a negative correlation between such a temperament feature as 'perseverance' and preferred style of coping with stress concentrated on the task (r = -0.590; p < 0.004); -There is a positive correlation between such a feature of temperament as 'emotional reactivity,' and preference to deal with a stressful situation with ‘style centered on emotions’ (r = 0.520; p <0.011); -There is a negative correlation between such a feature of temperament as ‘strength’ and ‘style of coping with stress concentrated on emotions’ (r = -0.580; p < 0.004). Studies indicate that temperament traits determine the perception of stress and preferred coping styles used during the selection, as during the exams in physical education.

Keywords: aviation, physical education, stress, temperamental traits

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
136 Evaluating Textbooks for Brazilian Air Traffic Controllers’ English Language Training: A Checklist Proposal

Authors: Elida M. R. Bonifacio

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English language proficiency has become an essential issue in aviation communication after aviation incidents, and accidents happened. Lack of proficiency or inappropriate use of the English language has been found as one of the factors that cause most of those incidents or accidents. Therefore, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) established the requirements for minimum English language proficiency of aviation personnel, especially pilots and air traffic controllers in the 192 member states. In Brazil, the discussions about this topic became patent after an accident that occurred in 2006, which was a mid-air collision and costed the life of 154 passengers and crew members. Thus, the number of schools and private practitioners willing to teach English for aviation purposes started to increase. Although the number of teaching materials internationally used for general purposes is relatively large, it would be inappropriate to adopt the same materials in classes that focus on communication in aviation contexts. On the contrary, the options of aviation English materials are scarce; moreover, they are internationally used and may not fulfill the linguistic needs of all their users around the world. In order to diminish the problems that Brazilian practitioners may encounter in the adoption of materials that demand a great level of adaptation to meet their students’ needs, a checklist was thought to evaluate textbooks. The aim of this paper is to propose a checklist that evaluates textbooks used in English language training of Brazilian air traffic controllers. The criteria used to compound the checklist are based on materials development literature, as well as on linguistic requirements established by ICAO on its publications, on English for Specific Purposes (ESP) principles, and on Brazilian aviation English language proficiency test format. The checklist has as main indicators the language learning tenets under which the book was written, graphical features, lexical, grammatical and functional competencies required for minimum proficiency, similarities to official testing format, and support materials, totaling 117 items marked as YES, NO or PARTIALLY. In order to verify if the use of the checklist is effective, an aviation English textbook was evaluated. From this evaluation, it is possible to measure quantitatively how much the material meets the students’ needs and to offer a tool to help professionals engaged in aviation English teaching around the world to choose the most appropriate textbook according to their audience. From the results, practitioners are able to verify which items the material does not fulfill and to make proper adaptations since the perfect material will be difficult to find.

Keywords: aviation English, ICAO, materials development, English language proficiency

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135 Assessing the Incapacity of Indonesian Aviators Medical Conditions in 2016 – 2017

Authors: Ferdi Afian, Inne Yuliawati

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Background: The change in causes of death from infectious diseases to non-communicable diseases also occurs in the aviation community in Indonesia. Non-communicable diseases are influenced by several internal risk factors, such as age, lifestyle changes and the presence of other diseases. These risk factors will increase the incidence of heart diseases resulting in the incapacity of Indonesian aviators which will disrupt flight safety. Method: The study was conducted by collecting secondary data. The retrieval of primary data was obtained from medical records at the Indonesian Aviation Health Center in 2016-2017. The subjects in this study were all cases of incapacity in Indonesian aviators medical conditions. Results: In this study, there were 15 cases of aviators in Indonesia who experienced incapacity of medical conditions related to heart and lung diseases in 2016-2017. Based on the secondary data contained in the flight medical records at the Aviation Health Center Aviation, it was found that several factors related to aviators incapacity causing its inability to carried out flight duties. Conclusion: Incapacity of Indonesian aviators medical conditions are most affected by the high value of Body Mass Index (86%) and less affected by high of Uric Acid in the blood (26%) and Hyperglycemia (26%).

Keywords: incapacity, aviators, flight, Indonesia

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
134 Assessment of Hydrogen Demand for Different Technological Pathways to Decarbonise the Aviation Sector in Germany

Authors: Manish Khanra, Shashank Prabhu

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The decarbonization of hard-to-abate sectors is currently high on the agenda in the EU and its member states, as these sectors have substantial shares in overall GHG emissions while it is facing serious challenges to decarbonize. In particular, the aviation sector accounts for 2.8% of global anthropogenic CO₂ emissions. These emissions are anticipated to grow dramatically unless immediate mitigating efforts are implemented. Hydrogen and its derivatives based on renewable electricity can have a key role in the transition towards CO₂-neutral flights. The substantial shares of energy carriers in the form of drop-in fuel, direct combustion and Hydrogen-to-Electric are promising in most scenarios towards 2050. For creating appropriate policies to ramp up the production and utilisation of hydrogen commodities in the German aviation sector, a detailed analysis of the spatial distribution of supply-demand sites is essential. The objective of this research work is to assess the demand for hydrogen-based alternative fuels in the German aviation sector to achieve the perceived goal of the ‘Net Zero’ scenario by 2050. Here, the analysis of the technological pathways for the production and utilisation of these fuels in various aircraft options is conducted for reaching mitigation targets. Our method is based on data-driven bottom-up assessment, considering production and demand sites and their spatial distribution. The resulting energy demand and its spatial distribution with consideration of technology diffusion lead to a possible transition pathway of the aviation sector to meet short-term and long-term mitigation targets. Additionally, to achieve mitigation targets in this sector, costs and policy aspects are discussed, which would support decision-makers from airline industries, policymakers and the producers of energy commodities.

Keywords: the aviation sector, hard-to-abate sectors, hydrogen demand, alternative fuels, technological pathways, data-driven approach

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133 The New Approach to Airport Emergency Plans

Authors: Jakub Kraus, Vladimír Plos, Peter Vittek

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This article deals with a new approach to the airport emergency plans, which are the basic documents and manuals for dealing with events with impact on safety or security. The article describes the identified parts in which the current airport emergency plans do not fulfill their role and which should therefore be considered in the creation of corrective measures. All these issues have been identified at airports in the Czech Republic and confirmed at airports in neighboring countries.

Keywords: airport emergency plan, aviation safety, aviation security, comprehensive management system

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
132 Saudi Arabian Aviation Construction Projects: Risks and Their Assessments

Authors: Ahmad Baghdadi, Mohammed Kishk

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Construction projects are unique and involve different level of complexity. Airports projects, among other construction projects, are considered to be very complex as they face a number of challenges which make them inevitably exposed to risks. However, in Saudi Arabia, the sector of aviation is considered an important sector owing to the fact that it is the first destination for Muslims on an annual basis. As a result the Saudi government has allocated a huge amount of their general budget to this sector through the General Authority of Civil Aviation (GACA). However, it has been found that the projects are still delivered with a significant number of time and cost overruns. These consequences are typically generated from the risks involved in the projects. Thus, there is a need to identify the number of risks thought to cause such overruns in project times and costs, as well as to assess their significances in terms of their likelihoods of occurrence and their impacts. Accordingly, this paper aims to identify risks associated with aviation construction projects in Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess their likelihoods of occurrence and impacts on such projects. In total, forty four risks have been identified through a critical literature review of common risks in similar projects, as well as thirteen semi-structured interviews with expert project managers involved in GACA’s projects. However, the assessment of the identified risks in term of their likelihoods of occurrence and impacts was obtained through the analysis of forty five questionnaires. Respondents of questionnaires include clients, contractors and consultants. The results show the risks of design changes by the client, labour issue, and setting a tight schedule by the client have the highest likelihoods of occurrence in GACA projects, while the risks of earthquakes, design constructability, and corruption have the greatest impacts.

Keywords: aviation construction projects, GACA, risks, risk assessment, Saudi Arabia

Procedia PDF Downloads 466
131 Flight School Perceptions of Electric Planes for Training

Authors: Chelsea-Anne Edwards, Paul Parker

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Flight school members are facing a major disruption in the technologies available for them to fly as electric planes enter the aviation industry. The year 2020 marked a new era in aviation with the first type certification of an electric plane. The Pipistrel Velis Electro is a two-seat electric aircraft (e-plane) designed for flight training. Electric flight training has the potential to deeply reduce emissions, noise, and cost of pilot training. Though these are all attractive features, understanding must be developed on the perceptions of the essential actor of the technology, the pilot. This study asks student pilots, flight instructors, flight center managers, and other members of flight schools about their perceptions of e-planes. The questions were divided into three categories: safety and trust of the technology, expected costs in comparison to conventional planes, and interest in the technology, including their desire to fly electric planes. Participants were recruited from flight schools using a protocol approved by the Office of Research Ethics. None of these flight schools have an e-plane in their fleet so these views are based on perceptions rather than direct experience. The results revealed perceptions that were strongly positive with many qualitative comments indicating great excitement about the potential of the new electric aviation technology. Some concerns were raised regarding battery endurance limits. Overall, the flight school community is clearly in favor of introducing electric propulsion technology and reducing the environmental impacts of their industry.

Keywords: electric planes, flight training, green aircraft, student pilots, sustainable aviation

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
130 A Research on the Benefits of Drone Usage in Industry by Determining Companies Using Drone in the World

Authors: Ahmet Akdemir, Güzide Karakuş, Leyla Polat

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Aviation that has been arisen in accordance with flying request that is existing inside of people, has not only made life easier by making a great contribution to humanity; it has also accelerated globalization by reducing distances between countries. It is seen that the growth rate of aviation industry has reached the undreamed level when it is looked back on. Today, the last point in aviation is unmanned aerial vehicles that are self-ventilating and move in desired coordinates without any onboard pilot. For those vehicles, there are two different control systems are developed. In the first type of control, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) moves according to instructions of a remote control. UAV that moves with a remote control is named as drone; it can be used personally. In the second one, there is a flight plan that is programmed and placed inside of UAV before flight. Recently, drones have started to be used in unimagined areas and utilize specific, important benefits for any industry. Within this framework, this study answers the question that is drone usage would be beneficial for businesses or not. To answer this question, applied basic methodologies are determining businesses using drone in the world, their purposes to use drone, and then, comparing their economy as before drone and after drone. In the end of this study, it is seen that many companies in different business areas use drone in logistics support, and it makes their work easier than before. This paper has contributed to academic literature about this subject, and it has introduced the benefits of drone usage for businesses. In addition, it has encouraged businesses that they keep pace with this technological age by following the developments about drones.

Keywords: aviation, drone, drone in business, unmanned aerial vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
129 Flow Characterization in Complex Terrain for Aviation Safety

Authors: Adil Rasheed, Mandar Tabib

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The paper describes the ability of a high-resolution Computational Fluid Dynamics model to predict terrain-induced turbulence and wind shear close to the ground. Various sensitivity studies to choose the optimal simulation setup for modeling the flow characteristics in a complex terrain are presented. The capabilities of the model are demonstrated by applying it to the Sandnessjøen Airport, Stokka in Norway, an airport that is located in a mountainous area. The model is able to forecast turbulence in real time and trigger an alert when atmospheric conditions might result in high wind shear and turbulence.

Keywords: aviation safety, terrain-induced turbulence, atmospheric flow, alert system

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128 EU Regulation 868/04: Report of a Unilateral Approach on Unfair Subsidisation and Unfair Pricing Practices and Its Failure

Authors: Andrea Trimarchi

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This paper is designed to provide a comprehensive overview on the EU Regulation No. 868/2004 concerning protection against subsidisation and unfair pricing practices regarding non-EU carriers and causing injury to Community air carriers. The analysis will focus, at first, on the exegetical scrutiny of the legal categories encompassed by the Regulation. In addition to that, while considering the peculiarities of such legal instrument, the attention will be addressed on the assessment on its effectiveness. The Regulation, indeed, having received lots of criticism, is in need of a profound revision. In this context, the present work will try to take into account the policy alternatives. In light of the failure of Regulation 868, which is to be seen as the expression of a unilateral and regional approach, there would seem to be the necessity for the aviation sector to reconsider the topic of subsidisation and unfair pricing practices in a more international oriented manner.

Keywords: non-EU airlines, aviation, subisidisation, unfair

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
127 Impact of Large Scale Solar Power Plant on Airports and Aviation

Authors: Munirah Stapah Salleh, Ahmad Rosly Abbas, Sazalina Zakaria, Nur Iffika Ruslan, Nurfaziera Rahim

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One of the areas that require a massive amount of energy is the airport. Hence, several airports have increased their reliance on renewable energy, specifically solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, to solve the issue. The interest regarding the installations of airport-based solar farms caught much attention. This, at the same time, helps to minimize the reliance on conventional energy sources that are fossil-based. However, many concerns were raised on the solar PV systems, especially on the effect of potential glare occurrence to the pilots during their flies. This paper will be discussing both the positive and negative impact of the large scale solar power plant on airports and aviation. Installing the large scale solar have negative impacts on airport and aviation, such as physical collision hazards, potential interference, or voltage problems with aircraft navigational and surveillance equipment as well as potential glare. On the positive side, it helps to lower environmental footprint, acquiring less energy from the utility provider, which are traditionally highly relying on other energy sources that have larger effects on the environment, and, last but not least, reduce the power supply uncertainty.

Keywords: solar photovoltaic systems, large scale solar, airport, glare effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
126 Design & Development of a Static-Thrust Test-Bench for Aviation/UAV Based Piston Engines

Authors: Syed Muhammad Basit Ali, Usama Saleem, Irtiza Ali

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Internal combustion engines have been pioneers in the aviation industry, use of piston engines for aircraft propulsion, from propeller-driven bi-planes to turbo-prop, commercial, and cargo airliners. To provide an adequate amount of thrust piston engine rotates the propeller at a specific rpm, allowing enough mass airflow. Thrust is the only forward-acting force of an aircraft that helps heavier than air bodies to fly, depending on the mathematical model and variables included in that with the correct measurement. Test-benches have been a bench-mark in the aerospace industry to analyse the results before a flight, having paramount significance in reliability and safety engineering, depending on the mathematical model and variables included in that with the correct measurement. Calculation of thrust from a piston engine also depends on environmental changes, the diameter of the propeller, and the density of air. The project would be centered on piston engines used in the aviation industry for light aircraft and UAVs. A static thrust test bench involves various units, each performing a designed purpose to monitor and display. Static thrust tests are performed on the ground, and safety concerns hold paramount importance. The execution of this study involves research, design, manufacturing, and results based on reverse engineering initiating from virtual design, analytical analysis, and simulations. The final evaluation of results gathered from various methods such as co-relation between conventional mass-spring and digital loadcell. On average, we received 17.5kg of thrust (25+ engine run-ups – around 40 hours of engine run), only 10% deviation from analytically calculated thrust –providing 90% accuracy.

Keywords: aviation, aeronautics, static thrust, test bench, aircraft maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
125 USA Commercial Pilots’ Views of Crew Resource Management, Social Desirability, and Safety Locus of Control

Authors: Stephen Vera, Tabitha Black, Charalambos Cleanthous, Ryan Sain

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A gender comparison of USA commercial pilots’ demographics and views of CRM, social desirability and locus of control were surveyed. The Aviation safety locus of control (ASLOC) was used to measure external (ASLOC-E) or internal (ASLOC-I) aviation safety locus of control. The gender differences were explored using the ASLOC scores as a categorical variable. A differential comparison of crew resource management (CRM), based on the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) guidelines was conducted. The results indicated that the proportion of female to male respondents matches the current ratio of USA commercial pilots. Moreover, there were no significant differences regarding overall education and the total number of communication classes one took. Regarding CRM issues, there were no significant differences on their views regarding the roles of the PIC, stress, time management, and managing a flight team. The females scored significantly lower on aeronautical decision making (ADM) and communications. There were no significant differences on either the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) impression management (IM) or self-deceptive enhancement (SDE). Although there were no overall significant differences on the ASLOC, the females did score higher on the internal subscale than did the males. An additional comparison of socially desirable responding indicates that all scores may be invalid, especially from the female respondents.

Keywords: social desirability, safety locus of control, crew resource management, commercial pilots

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
124 Risk and Uncertainty in Aviation: A Thorough Analysis of System Vulnerabilities

Authors: C. V. Pietreanu, S. E. Zaharia, C. Dinu

Abstract:

Hazard assessment and risks quantification are key components for estimating the impact of existing regulations. But since regulatory compliance cannot cover all risks in aviation, the authors point out that by studying causal factors and eliminating uncertainty, an accurate analysis can be outlined. The research debuts by making delimitations on notions, as confusion on the terms over time has reflected in less rigorous analysis. Throughout this paper, it will be emphasized the fact that the variation in human performance and organizational factors represent the biggest threat from an operational perspective. Therefore, advanced risk assessment methods analyzed by the authors aim to understand vulnerabilities of the system given by a nonlinear behavior. Ultimately, the mathematical modeling of existing hazards and risks by eliminating uncertainty implies establishing an optimal solution (i.e. risk minimization).

Keywords: control, human factor, optimization, risk management, uncertainty

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123 A Fuzzy Risk Assessment Model for Airport Parallel Runway Operations

Authors: Awad Khireldin

Abstract:

The parallel runways are a common configuration of runways system in international airports, and according to International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), there are four modes for parallel runway operations, simultaneous approaches that contain independent parallel approaches, dependent parallel approaches, independent instrument departures from parallel runways, and segregated operations on parallel runways. This research offers a fuzzy risk assessment approach, which considers many factors, including separation distance/s between runways’ centerlines and all the other related factors. This fuzzy model can help the decision-maker in many aspects, e.g. evaluating the risk index to provide recommendations either by accepting the risk, accepting the risk with mitigation, or even rejecting taking the risk under the current circumstances.

Keywords: airport, aviation, fuzzy logic, parallel runways operations, risk assessment

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122 Assessing the Correlation between Environmental Awareness and Variability of Employees’ Positions in Aviation and Aerospace Industries

Authors: Eva Maleviti, Evan Stamoulis

Abstract:

This paper is part of a wider research project, on environmental management in aviation and aerospace industries. The core elements of this research are the level of knowledge, awareness, applicability of environmental management systems, according to employees’ perspectives. This paper focuses at employees’ level of environmental awareness. The main scope of this research is to evaluate the level of environmental awareness and the adoption of environmental management practices. The primary scope of the research is to define a method to quantify the key indicators that would improve the implementation of environmental management. The opinion of people employed in aviation industry is considered, based on the versatility of their working positions. Up to this stage, 330 respondents have participated globally in the current research. This study uses a questionnaire survey to gain an understanding of the views and attitudes of aerospace staff toward environmental management. The results are analyzed through a quantitative approach using SPSS. The statistical significance shows that the data could follow the same distribution as the distribution of the total population that the sample belongs. As of the above, the number of respondents constitutes a representative sample of the total population. A descriptive analysis is presented. According to the responses given in the survey, the data are analyzed according to the working positions and the characteristics of each position that all the respondents hold. The results demonstrate that the level of environmental awareness is immediately linked with the employees’ positions. Managerial/post holder positions, as expected have, a higher level of environmental awareness. However, the level of applicability of environmental practices by the same group is considered low. The other working groups show variability in environmental awareness, which also depends on their operating task and the applicability or not of environmental practices. Flight operations and engineering/maintenance employees, that their tasks involve higher safety considerations, there are more reluctant in applying environmental practices in their positions. In the current paper an analysis of the data collection is presented, correlating them with the working positions and responsibilities of respondents.

Keywords: environmental awareness, environmental management, sustainability, sustainable aviation

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121 A Language Training Model for Pilots in Training

Authors: Aysen Handan Girginer

Abstract:

This study analyzes the possible causes of miscommunication between pilots and air traffic controllers by looking into a number of variables such as pronunciation, L1 interference, use of non-standard vocabulary. The purpose of this study is to enhance the knowledge of the aviation LSP instructors and to apply this knowledge to the design of new curriculum. A 16-item questionnaire was administered to 60 Turkish pilots who work for commercial airlines in Turkey. The questionnaire consists of 7 open-ended and 9 Likert-scale type questions. The analysis of data shows that there are certain pit holes that may cause communication problems for pilots that can be avoided through proper English language training. The findings of this study are expected to contribute to the development of new materials and to develop a language training model that is tailored to the needs of students of flight training department at the Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics. The results are beneficial not only to the instructors but also to the new pilots in training. Specific suggestions for aviation students’ training will be made during the presentation.

Keywords: curriculum design, materials development, LSP, pilot training

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120 Improvement of Realization Quality of Aerospace Products Using Augmented Reality Technology

Authors: Nuran Bahar, Mehmet A. Akcayol

Abstract:

In the aviation industry, many faults may occur frequently during the maintenance processes and assembly operations of complex structured aircrafts because of their high dependencies of components. These faults affect the quality of aircraft parts or developed modules adversely. Technical employee requires long time and high labor force while checking the correctness of each component. In addition, the person must be trained regularly because of the ever-growing and changing technology. Generally, the cost of this training is very high. Augmented Reality (AR) technology reduces the cost of training radically and improves the effectiveness of the training. In this study, the usage of AR technology in the aviation industry has been investigated and the effectiveness of AR with heads-up display glasses has been examined. An application has been developed for comparison of production process with AR and manual one.

Keywords: aerospace, assembly quality, augmented reality, heads-up display

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119 Understanding Student Pilot Mental Workload in Recreational Aircraft Training

Authors: Ron Bishop, Jim Mitchell, Talitha Best

Abstract:

The increase in air travel worldwide has resulted in a pilot shortage. To increase student pilot capacity and lower costs, flight schools have increased the use of recreational aircraft (RA) with technological advanced cockpits in flight schools. The impact of RA based training compared to general aviation (GA) aircraft training on student mental workload is not well understood. This research investigated student pilot (N = 17) awareness of mental workload between technologically advanced cockpit equipped RA training with analogue gauge equipped GA training. The results showed a significantly higher rating of mental workload across subscales of mental and physical demand on the NASA-TLX in recreational aviation aircraft training compared to GA aircraft. Similarly, thematic content analysis of follow-up questions identified that mental workload of the student pilots flying the RA was perceived to be more than the GA aircraft.

Keywords: mental workload, recreational aircraft, student pilot, training

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