Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3407

Search results for: residual stress

3407 The Influence of Residual Stress on Hardness and Microstructure in Railway Rails

Authors: Muhammet Emre Turan, Sait Özçelik, Yavuz Sun


In railway rails, residual stress was measured and the values of residual stress were associated with hardness and micro structure in this study. At first, three rails as one meter long were taken and residual stresses were measured by cutting method according to the EN 13674-1 standardization. In this study, strain gauge that is an electrical apparatus was used. During the cutting, change in resistance in rail gave us residual stress value via computer program. After residual stress measurement, Brinell hardness distribution were performed for head parts of rails. Thus, the relationship between residual stress and hardness were established. In addition to that, micro structure analysis was carried out by optical microscope. The results show that, the micro structure and hardness value was changed with residual stress.

Keywords: residual stress, hardness, micro structure, rail, strain gauge

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
3406 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: Osamu Takakuwa, Yuta Mano, Hitoshi Soyama


This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: hydrogen embrittlement, residual stress, surface finishing, stainless steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
3405 The Relationship between Fatigue Crack Growth and Residual Stress in Rails

Authors: F. Husem, M. E. Turan, Y. Sun, H. Ahlatci, I. Tozlu


Residual stress and fatigue crack growth rates are important to determine mechanical behavior of rails. This study aims to make relationship between residual stress and fatigue crack growth values in rails. For this purpose, three R260 quality rails (0.6-0.8% C, 0.6-1.25 Mn) were chosen. Residual stress of samples was measured by cutting method that is related in railway standard. Then samples were machined for fatigue crack growth test and analyze was completed according to the ASTM E647 standard which gives information about parameters of rails for this test. Microstructure characterizations were examined by Light Optic Microscope (LOM). The results showed that residual stress change with fatigue crack growth rate. The sample has highest residual stress exhibits highest crack growth rate and pearlitic structure can be seen clearly for all samples by microstructure analyze.

Keywords: residual stress, fatigue crack growth, R260, SEM, ASTM E647

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
3404 Electro-Discharge Drilling in Residual Stress Measurement of Annealed St.37 Steel

Authors: H. Gholami, M. Jalali Azizpour


For materials such as hard coating whose stresses state are difficult to obtain by a widely used method called high-speed hole-drilling method (ASTM Standard E837). It is important to develop a non contact method. This process itself imposes an additional stresses. The through thickness residual stress of st37 steel using elector-discharge was investigated. The strain gage and dynamic strain indicator used in all cases was FRS-2-11 rosette type and TML 221, respectively. The average residual stress in depth of 320 µm was -6.47 MPa.

Keywords: HVOF, residual stress, thermal spray, WC-Co

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
3403 Simulation the Effect of Temperature on the Residual Stress in Shot Peening Process Using FEM Method

Authors: M. Jalali Azizpour, H. Mohammadi Majd, A.R. Aboudi Asl, D. Sajedipour, V. Tawaf


Sandblasting is a generally used surface treatment technique to improve the residual stress and adhesion of coatings to substrate. The goal of this work is to study the effect of temperature on the residual stress in sandblasting AISI1045 substrate. For this purpose a two dimensional axisymmetric model of shot impacting on an AISI 1045 disc was generated using ABAQUS version 6.10. The result shows for sandblasting temperature there is an optimum condition. In addition there are other effective factors that influence the fatigue life of parts.

Keywords: modeling, shot peen, residual stress, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
3402 A Comparative Study of the Effects of Vibratory Stress Relief and Thermal Aging on the Residual Stress of Explosives Materials

Authors: Xuemei Yang, Xin Sun, Cheng Fu, Qiong Lan, Chao Han


Residual stresses, which can be produced during the manufacturing process of plastic bonded explosive (PBX), play an important role in weapon system security and reliability. Residual stresses can and do change in service. This paper mainly studies the influence of vibratory stress relief (VSR) and thermal aging on residual stress of explosives. Firstly, the residual stress relaxation of PBX via different physical condition of VSR, such as vibration time, amplitude and dynamic strain, were studied by drill-hole technique. The result indicated that the vibratory amplitude, time and dynamic strain had a significant influence on the residual stress relief of PBX. The rate of residual stress relief of PBX increases first and then decreases with the increase of dynamic strain, amplitude and time, because the activation energy is too small to make the PBX yield plastic deformation at first. Then the dynamic strain, time and amplitude exceed a certain threshold, the residual stress changes show the same rule and decrease sharply, this sharply drop of residual stress relief rate may have been caused by over vibration. Meanwhile, the comparison between VSR and thermal aging was also studied. The conclusion is that the reduction ratio of residual stress after VSR process with applicable vibratory parameters could be equivalent to 73% of thermal aging with 7 days. In addition, the density attenuation rate, mechanical property, and dimensional stability with 3 months after VSR process was almost the same compared with thermal aging. However, compared with traditional thermal aging, VSR only takes a very short time, which greatly improves the efficiency of aging treatment for explosive materials. Therefore, the VSR could be a potential alternative technique in the industry of residual stress relaxation of PBX explosives.

Keywords: explosives, residual stresses, thermal aging, vibratory stress relief, VSR

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3401 A Numerical Study of the Interaction between Residual Stress Profiles Induced by Quasi-Static Plastification

Authors: Guilherme F. Guimaraes, Alfredo R. De Faria, Ronnie R. Rego, Andre L. R. D'Oliveira


The development of methods for predicting manufacturing phenomena steadily grows due to their high potential to contribute to the component’s performance and durability. One of the most relevant phenomena in manufacturing is the residual stress state development through the manufacturing chain. In most cases, the residual stresses have their origin due to heterogenous plastifications produced by the processes. Although a few manufacturing processes have been successfully approached by numerical modeling, there is still a lack of understanding on how these processes' interactions will affect the final stress state. The objective of this work is to analyze the influence of previous stresses on the residual stress state induced by plastic deformation of a quasi-static indentation. The model consists of a simplified approach of shot peening, modeling four cases with variations in indenter size and force. This model was validated through topography, measured by optical 3D focus-variation, and residual stress, measured with the X-ray diffraction technique. The validated model was then exposed to several initial stress states, and the effect on the final residual stress was analyzed.

Keywords: plasticity, residual stress, finite element method, manufacturing

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3400 Assessment of Residual Stress on HDPE Pipe Wall Thickness

Authors: D. Sersab, M. Aberkane


Residual stresses, in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes, result from a nonhomogeneous cooling rate that occurs between the inner and outer surfaces during the extrusion process in manufacture. Most known methods of measurements to determine the magnitude and profile of the residual stresses in the pipe wall thickness are layer removal and ring slitting method. The combined layer removal and ring slitting methods described in this paper involves measurement of the circumferential residual stresses with minimal local disturbance. The existing methods used for pipe geometry (ring slitting method) gives a single residual stress value at the bore. The layer removal method which is used more in flat plate specimen is implemented with ring slitting method. The method permits stress measurements to be made directly at different depth in the pipe wall and a well-defined residual stress profile was consequently obtained.

Keywords: residual stress, layer removal, ring splitting, HDPE, wall thickness

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
3399 The Effect of Material Properties and Volumetric Changes in Phase Transformation to the Final Residual Stress of Welding Process

Authors: Djarot B. Darmadi


The wider growing Finite Element Method (FEM) application is caused by its benefits of cost saving and environment friendly. Also, by using FEM a deep understanding of certain phenomenon can be achieved. This paper observed the role of material properties and volumetric change when Solid State Phase Transformation (SSPT) takes place in residual stress formation due to a welding process of ferritic steels through coupled Thermo-Metallurgy-Mechanical (TMM) analysis. The correctness of FEM residual stress prediction was validated by experiment. From parametric study of the FEM model, it can be concluded that the material properties change tend to over-predicts residual stress in the weld center whilst volumetric change tend to underestimates it. The best final result is the compromise of both by incorporates them in the model which has a better result compared to a model without SSPT.

Keywords: residual stress, ferritic steels, SSPT, coupled-TMM

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
3398 Estimation of Residual Stresses in Thick Walled Cylinder by Radial Basis Artificial Neural

Authors: Mohammad Heidari


In this paper a method for high strength steel is proposed of residual stresses in autofrettaged tubes by combination of artificial neural networks is presented. Many different thick walled cylinders that were subjected to different conditions were studied. At first, the residual stress is calculated by analytical solution. Then by changing of the parameters that influenced in residual stresses such as percentage of autofrettage, internal pressure, wall ratio of cylinder, material property of cylinder, bauschinger and hardening effect factor, a neural network is created. These parameters are the input of network. The output of network is residual stress. Numerical data, employed for training the network and capabilities of the model in predicting the residual stress has been verified. The output obtained from neural network model is compared with numerical results, and the amount of relative error has been calculated. Based on this verification error, it is shown that the radial basis function of neural network has the average error of 2.75% in predicting residual stress of thick wall cylinder. Further analysis of residual stress of thick wall cylinder under different input conditions has been investigated and comparison results of modeling with numerical considerations shows a good agreement, which also proves the feasibility and effectiveness of the adopted approach.

Keywords: thick walled cylinder, residual stress, radial basis, artificial neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
3397 Study on Residual Stress Measurement of Inconel-718 under Different Lubricating Conditions

Authors: M. Sandeep Kumar, Vasu Velagapudi, A. Venugopal


When machining is carried out on a workpiece, residual stresses are induced in the workpiece due to nonuniform thermal and mechanical loads. These stresses play a vital role in the surface integrity of the final product or the output. Inconel 718 is commonly used in critical structural components of aircraft engines due to its properties at high temperatures. Therefore it is important to keep down the stresses induced due to machining. This can be achieved through proper lubricating conditions. In this work, experiments were carried out to check the influence of the developed nanofluid as cutting fluids on residual stresses developed during the course of machining. The results of MQL/Nanofluids were compared with MQL/Vegetable oil and dry machining lubricating condition. Results indicate the reduction in residual stress with the use of MQL/Nanofluid.

Keywords: nanofluids, MQL, residual stress, Inconel-718

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
3396 Numerical Investigation on Optimizing Fatigue Life in a Lap Joint Structure

Authors: P. Zamani, S. Mohajerzadeh, R. Masoudinejad, K. Farhangdoost


The riveting process is one of the important ways to keep fastening the lap joints in aircraft structures. Failure of aircraft lap joints directly depends on the stress field in the joint. An important application of riveting process is in the construction of aircraft fuselage structures. In this paper, a 3D finite element method is carried out in order to optimize residual stress field in a riveted lap joint and also to estimate its fatigue life. In continue, a number of experiments are designed and analyzed using design of experiments (DOE). Then, Taguchi method is used to select an optimized case between different levels of each factor. Besides that, the factor which affects the most on residual stress field is investigated. Such optimized case provides the maximum residual stress field. Fatigue life of the optimized joint is estimated by Paris-Erdogan law. Stress intensity factors (SIFs) are calculated using both finite element analysis and experimental formula. In addition, the effect of residual stress field, geometry, and secondary bending are considered in SIF calculation. A good agreement is found between results of such methods. Comparison between optimized fatigue life and fatigue life of other joints has shown an improvement in the joint’s life.

Keywords: fatigue life, residual stress, riveting process, stress intensity factor, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
3395 Measurements of Recovery Stress and Recovery Strain of Ni-Based Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: W. J. Kim


The behaviors of the recovery stress and strain of an ultrafine-grained Ni-50.2 at.% Ti alloy prepared by high-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) were examined by a specially designed tensile-testing set up, and the factors that influence the recovery stress and strain were studied. After HRDSR, both the recovery stress and strain were enhanced compared to the initial condition. The constitutive equation showing that the maximum recovery stress is a sole function of the recovery strain was developed based on the experimental data. The recovery strain increased as the yield stress increased. The maximum recovery stress increased with an increase in yield stress. The residual recovery stress was affected by the yield stress as well as the austenite-to-martensite transformation temperature. As the yield stress increased and as the martensitic transformation temperature decreased, the residual recovery stress increased.

Keywords: high-ratio differential speed rolling, tensile testing, severe plastic deformation, shape memory alloys

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3394 Computation of Thermal Stress Intensity Factor for Bonded Composite Repairs in Aircraft Structures

Authors: Fayçal Benyahia, Abdelmohsen Albedah, Bel Abbes Bachir Bouiadjra


In this study the Finite element method is used to analyse the effect of the thermal residual stresses resulting from adhesive curing on the performances of the bonded composite repair in aircraft structures. The stress intensity factor at the crack tip is chosen as fracture criterion in order to estimate the repair performances. The obtained results show that the presence of the thermal residual stresses reduces considerably the repair performances and consequently decreases the fatigue life of cracked structures. The effects of the curing temperature, the adhesive properties and the adhesive thickness on the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) variation with thermal stresses are also analysed.

Keywords: bonded composite repair, residual stress, adhesion, stress transfer, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
3393 Properties of Poly(Amide-Imide) with Low Residual Stress for Electronic Material

Authors: Kwangin Kim, Taewon Yoo, Haksoo Han


Polyimide is a superior polymer in the electronics industry, and we conducted a study to synthesize poly(amide-imide) at low temperatures. Poly(amide-imide) was synthesized at low-temperature curing to offer a thermal stable membrane with low residual stress and good processability. As a result, the low crack polymer with good processability could be used to various applications such as semiconductors, integrated circuits, coating materials, membranes, and display. The synthesis of poly(amide-imide) at low temperatures was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Thermal stabilities of the polymer was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

Keywords: poly(amide-imide), residual stress, thermal stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
3392 Evaluation of Residual Stresses in Human Face as a Function of Growth

Authors: M. A. Askari, M. A. Nazari, P. Perrier, Y. Payan


Growth and remodeling of biological structures have gained lots of attention over the past decades. Determining the response of living tissues to mechanical loads is necessary for a wide range of developing fields such as prosthetics design or computerassisted surgical interventions. It is a well-known fact that biological structures are never stress-free, even when externally unloaded. The exact origin of these residual stresses is not clear, but theoretically, growth is one of the main sources. Extracting body organ’s shapes from medical imaging does not produce any information regarding the existing residual stresses in that organ. The simplest cause of such stresses is gravity since an organ grows under its influence from birth. Ignoring such residual stresses might cause erroneous results in numerical simulations. Accounting for residual stresses due to tissue growth can improve the accuracy of mechanical analysis results. This paper presents an original computational framework based on gradual growth to determine the residual stresses due to growth. To illustrate the method, we apply it to a finite element model of a healthy human face reconstructed from medical images. The distribution of residual stress in facial tissues is computed, which can overcome the effect of gravity and maintain tissues firmness. Our assumption is that tissue wrinkles caused by aging could be a consequence of decreasing residual stress and thus not counteracting gravity. Taking into account these stresses seems therefore extremely important in maxillofacial surgery. It would indeed help surgeons to estimate tissues changes after surgery.

Keywords: finite element method, growth, residual stress, soft tissue

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
3391 Study of Laser Induced Damage Threshold in HfO₂/SiO₂ Multilayer Films after β-Ray Irradiation

Authors: Meihua Fang, Tao Fei


Post-processing can effectively improve the resistance to laser damage in multilayer films used in a high power laser system. In this work, HfO₂/SiO₂ multilayer films are prepared by e-beam evaporation and then β-ray irradiation is employed as the post-processing method. The particle irradiation affects the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT), which includes defects, surface roughness, packing density, and residual stress. The residual stress that is relaxed during irradiation changes from compressive stress into tensile stress. Our results indicate that appropriate tensile stress can improve LIDT remarkably. In view of the fact that LIDT rises from 8 J/cm² to 12 J/cm², i.e., 50% increase, after the film has been irradiated by 2.2×10¹³/cm² β-ray, the particle irradiation can be used as a controllable and desirable post-processing method to improve the resistance to laser induced damage.

Keywords: β-ray irradiation, multilayer film, residual stress, laser-induced damage threshold

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3390 Experimental Stress Analysis on Pipeline in Condition of Frost Heave and Thaw Settlement

Authors: Zhiqiang Cheng, Qingliang He, Lu Li, Jie Ren


The safety of pipelines in the condition of frost heave or thaw settlement is necessarily evaluated. A full-scale experiment pipe with the typical structure configuration in station pipeline is constructed, the residual stress is tested with X-ray residual stress device, and the residual stress field of pipe is analyzed. The evolution of pipe strain with pressure in the scope of maximum allowable operation pressure (MAOP) is investigated by both strain gauge and X-ray methods. Load caused by frost heave or thaw settlement is simulated by two ways of lifting jack. The relation of maximum stress of pipe and clearances between supporter and pipe is studied in case of frost heave. The relation of maximum stress of pipe and maximum deformation of pipe on the ground is studied in case of thaw settlement. The study methods and results are valuable for safety assessment of station pipeline according to clearances or deformation in the condition of frost heave or thaw settlement.

Keywords: frost heave, pipeline, stress analysis, thaw settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
3389 Computation of Residual Stresses in Human Face Due to Growth

Authors: M. A. Askari, M. A. Nazari, P. Perrier, Y. Payan


Growth and remodeling of biological structures have gained lots of attention over the past decades. Determining the response of the living tissues to the mechanical loads is necessary for a wide range of developing fields such as, designing of prosthetics and optimized surgery operations. It is a well-known fact that biological structures are never stress-free, even when externally unloaded. The exact origin of these residual stresses is not clear, but theoretically growth and remodeling is one of the main sources. Extracting body organs from medical imaging, does not produce any information regarding the existing residual stresses in that organ. The simplest cause of such stresses is the gravity since an organ grows under its influence from its birth. Ignoring such residual stresses might cause erroneous results in numerical simulations. Accounting for residual stresses due to tissue growth can improve the accuracy of mechanical analysis results. In this paper, we have implemented a computational framework based on fixed-point iteration to determine the residual stresses due to growth. Using nonlinear continuum mechanics and the concept of fictitious configuration we find the unknown stress-free reference configuration which is necessary for mechanical analysis. To illustrate the method, we apply it to a finite element model of healthy human face whose geometry has been extracted from medical images. We have computed the distribution of residual stress in facial tissues, which can overcome the effect of gravity and cause that tissues remain firm. Tissue wrinkles caused by aging could be a consequence of decreasing residual stress and not counteracting the gravity. Considering these stresses has important application in maxillofacial surgery. It helps the surgeons to predict the changes after surgical operations and their consequences.

Keywords: growth, soft tissue, residual stress, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
3388 FEM Simulation of Tool Wear and Edge Radius Effects on Residual Stress in High Speed Machining of Inconel718

Authors: Yang Liu, Mathias Agmell, Aylin Ahadi, Jan-Eric Stahl, Jinming Zhou


Tool wear and tool geometry have significant effects on the residual stresses in the component produced by high-speed machining. In this paper, Coupled Eulerian and Lagrangian (CEL) model is adopted to investigate the residual stress in high-speed machining of Inconel718 with a CBN170 cutting tool. The result shows that the mesh with the smallest size of 5 um yields cutting forces and chip morphology in close agreement with the experimental data. The analysis of thermal loading and mechanical loading are performed to study the effect of segmented chip morphology on the machined surface topography and residual stress distribution. The effects of cutting edge radius and flank wear on residual stresses formation and distribution on the workpiece were also investigated. It is found that the temperature within 100um depth of the machined surface increases drastically due to the more friction heat generation with the contact area of tool and workpiece increasing when a larger edge radius and flank wear are used. With the depth further increasing, the temperature drops rapidly for all cases due to the low conductivity of Inconel718. Consequently, higher and deeper tensile residual stress is generated on the superficial. Furthermore, an increased depth of plastic deformation and compressive residual stress is noticed in the subsurface, which is attributed to the reduction of the yield strength under the thermal effect. Besides, the ploughing effect produced by a larger tool edge radius contributes more than flank wear. The magnitude variation of the compressive residual stress caused by various edge radius and flank wear have a totally opposite trend, which depends on the magnitude of the ploughing and friction pressure acting on the machined surface.

Keywords: Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian, segmented chip, residual stress, tool wear, edge radius, Inconel718

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3387 The Development of a Residual Stress Measurement Method for Roll Formed Products

Authors: Yong Sun, Vladimir Luzin, Zhen Qian, William J. T. Daniel, Mingxing Zhang, Shichao Ding


The residual stresses in roll formed products are generally very high and un-predictable. This is due to the occurrence of redundant plastic deformation in roll forming process and it can cause various product defects. Although the residual stresses of a roll formed product consist of longitudinal and transverse residual stresses components, but the longitudinal residual stresses plays a key role to the product defects of a roll formed product and therefore, only the longitudinal residual stresses concerned by the roll forming scholars and engineers. However, how to inspect the residual stresses of a product quickly and economically as a routine operation is still a challenge. This paper introduces a residual stresses measurement method called slope cutting method to study the longitudinal residual stresses through layers geometrically to a roll formed products or a product with similar process such as a rolled sheet. The detailed measuring procedure is given and discussed. The residual stresses variation through the layer can be derived based on the variation of curvature in different layers and steps. The slope cutting method has been explored and validated by experimental study on a roll-formed square tube. The neutron diffraction method is applied to validate the accuracy of the newly proposed layering removal materials results. The two set results agree with each other very well and therefore, the method is expected to be a routine testing method to monitor the quality of a product been formed and that is a great impact to roll forming industry.

Keywords: roll forming, residual stress, measurement method, neutron diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
3386 Elevated Temperature Shot Peening for M50 Steel

Authors: Xinxin Ma, Guangze Tang, Shuxin Yang, Jinguang He, Fan Zhang, Peiling Sun, Ming Liu, Minyu Sun, Liqin Wang


As a traditional surface hardening technique, shot peening is widely used in industry. By using shot peening, a residual compressive stress is formed in the surface which is beneficial for improving the fatigue life of metal materials. At the same time, very fine grains and high density defects are generated in the surface layer which enhances the surface hardness, either. However, most of the processes are carried out at room temperature. For high strength steel, such as M50, the thickness of the strengthen layer is limited. In order to obtain a thick strengthen surface layer, elevated temperature shot peening was carried out in this work by using Φ1mm cast ion balls with a speed of 80m/s. Considering the tempering temperature of M50 steel is about 550 oC, the processing temperature was in the range from 300 to 500 oC. The effect of processing temperature and processing time of shot peening on distribution of residual stress and surface hardness was investigated. As we known, the working temperature of M50 steel can be as high as 315 oC. Because the defects formed by shot peening are unstable when the working temperature goes higher, it is worthy to understand what happens during the shot peening process, and what happens when the strengthen samples were kept at a certain temperature. In our work, the shot peening time was selected from 2 to 10 min. And after the strengthening process, the samples were annealed at various temperatures from 200 to 500 oC up to 60 h. The results show that the maximum residual compressive stress is near 900 MPa. Compared with room temperature shot peening, the strengthening depth of 500 oC shot peening sample is about 2 times deep. The surface hardness increased with the processing temperature, and the saturation peening time decreases. After annealing, the residual compressive stress decreases, however, for 500 oC peening sample, even annealing at 500 oC for 20 h, the residual compressive stress is still over 600 MPa. However, it is clean to see from SEM that the grain size of surface layers is still very small.

Keywords: shot peening, M50 steel, residual compressive stress, elevated temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
3385 Effect of Cladding Direction on Residual Stress Distribution in Laser Cladded Rails

Authors: Taposh Roy, Anna Paradowska, Ralph Abrahams, Quan Lai, Michael Law, Peter Mutton, Mehdi Soodi, Wenyi Yan


In this investigation, a laser cladding process with a powder feeding was used to deposit stainless steel 410L (high strength, excellent resistance to abrasion and corrosion, and great laser compatibility) onto railhead (higher strength, heat treated hypereutectoid rail grade manufactured in accordance with the requirements of European standard EN 13674 Part 1 for R400HT grade), to investigate the development and controllability of process-induced residual stress in the cladding, heat-affected zone (HAZ) and substrate and to analyse their correlation with hardness profile during two different laser cladding directions (across and along the track). Residual stresses were analysed by neutron diffraction at OPAL reactor, ANSTO. Neutron diffraction was carried out on the samples in longitudinal (parallel to the rail), transverse (perpendicular to the rail) and normal (through thickness) directions with high spatial resolution through the thickness. Due to the thick rail and thin cladding, 4 mm thick reference samples were prepared from every specimen by Electric Discharge Machining (EDM). Metallography across the laser claded sample revealed four distinct zones: The clad zone, the dilution zone, HAZ and the substrate. Compressive residual stresses were found in the clad zone and tensile residual stress in the dilution zone and HAZ. Laser cladding in longitudinally cladding induced higher tensile stress in the HAZ, whereas transversely cladding rail showed lower tensile behavior.

Keywords: laser cladding, residual stress, neutron diffraction, HAZ

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
3384 Finite Element Modeling of Ultrasonic Shot Peening Process using Multiple Pin Impacts

Authors: Chao-xun Liu, Shi-hong Lu


In spite of its importance to the aerospace and automobile industries, little or no attention has been devoted to the accurate modeling of the ultrasonic shot peening (USP) process. It is therefore the purpose of this study to conduct finite element analysis of the process using a realistic multiple pin impacts model with the explicit solver of ABAQUS. In this paper, we research the effect of several key parameters on the residual stress distribution within the target, including impact velocity, incident angle, friction coefficient between pins and target and impact number of times were investigated. The results reveal that the impact velocity and impact number of times have obvious effect and impacting vertically could produce the most perfect residual stress distribution. Then we compare the results with the date in USP experiment and verify the exactness of the model. The analysis of the multiple pin impacts date reveal the relationships between peening process parameters and peening quality, which are useful for identifying the parameters which need to be controlled and regulated in order to produce a more beneficial compressive residual stress distribution within the target.

Keywords: ultrasonic shot peening, finite element, multiple pins, residual stress, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
3383 Simulation on Influence of Environmental Conditions on Part Distortion in Fused Deposition Modelling

Authors: Anto Antony Samy, Atefeh Golbang, Edward Archer, Alistair McIlhagger


Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the additive manufacturing techniques that has become highly attractive in the industrial and academic sectors. However, parts fabricated through FDM are highly susceptible to geometrical defects such as warpage, shrinkage, and delamination that can severely affect their function. Among the thermoplastic polymer feedstock for FDM, semi-crystalline polymers are highly prone to part distortion due to polymer crystallization. In this study, the influence of FDM processing conditions such as chamber temperature and print bed temperature on the induced thermal residual stress and resulting warpage are investigated using the 3D transient thermal model for a semi-crystalline polymer. The thermo-mechanical properties and the viscoelasticity of the polymer, as well as the crystallization physics, which considers the crystallinity of the polymer, are coupled with the evolving temperature gradient of the print model. From the results, it was observed that increasing the chamber temperature from 25°C to 75°C lead to a decrease of 1.5% residual stress, while decreasing bed temperature from 100°C to 60°C, resulted in a 33% increase in residual stress and a significant rise of 138% in warpage. The simulated warpage data is validated by comparing it with the measured warpage values of the samples using 3D scanning.

Keywords: finite element analysis, fused deposition modelling, residual stress, warpage

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3382 Experimental Investigation on Residual Stresses in Welded Medium-Walled I-shaped Sections Fabricated from Q460GJ Structural Steel Plates

Authors: Qian Zhu, Shidong Nie, Bo Yang, Gang Xiong, Guoxin Dai


GJ steel is a new type of high-performance structural steel which has been increasingly adopted in practical engineering. Q460GJ structural steel has a nominal yield strength of 460 MPa, which does not decrease significantly with the increase of steel plate thickness like normal structural steel. Thus, Q460GJ structural steel is normally used in medium-walled welded sections. However, research works on the residual stress in GJ steel members are few though it is one of the vital factors that can affect the member and structural behavior. This article aims to investigate the residual stresses in welded I-shaped sections fabricated from Q460GJ structural steel plates by experimental tests. A total of four full scale welded medium-walled I-shaped sections were tested by sectioning method. Both circular curve correction method and straightening measurement method were adopted in this study to obtain the final magnitude and distribution of the longitudinal residual stresses. In addition, this paper also explores the interaction between flanges and webs. And based on the statistical evaluation of the experimental data, a multilayer residual stress model is proposed.

Keywords: Q460GJ structural steel, residual stresses, sectioning method, welded medium-walled I-shaped sections

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3381 Reduction of Residual Stress by Variothermal Processing and Validation via Birefringence Measurement Technique on Injection Molded Polycarbonate Samples

Authors: Christoph Lohr, Hanna Wund, Peter Elsner, Kay André Weidenmann


Injection molding is one of the most commonly used techniques in the industrial polymer processing. In the conventional process of injection molding, the liquid polymer is injected into the cavity of the mold, where the polymer directly starts hardening at the cooled walls. To compensate the shrinkage, which is caused predominantly by the immediate cooling, holding pressure is applied. Through that whole process, residual stresses are produced by the temperature difference of the polymer melt and the injection mold and the relocation of the polymer chains, which were oriented by the high process pressures and injection speeds. These residual stresses often weaken or change the structural behavior of the parts or lead to deformation of components. One solution to reduce the residual stresses is the use of variothermal processing. Hereby the mold is heated – i.e. near/over the glass transition temperature of the polymer – the polymer is injected and before opening the mold and ejecting the part the mold is cooled. For the next cycle, the mold gets heated again and the procedure repeats. The rapid heating and cooling of the mold are realized indirectly by convection of heated and cooled liquid (here: water) which is pumped through fluid channels underneath the mold surface. In this paper, the influences of variothermal processing on the residual stresses are analyzed with samples in a larger scale (500 mm x 250 mm x 4 mm). In addition, the influence on functional elements, such as abrupt changes in wall thickness, bosses, and ribs, on the residual stress is examined. Therefore the polycarbonate samples are produced by variothermal and isothermal processing. The melt is injected into a heated mold, which has in our case a temperature varying between 70 °C and 160 °C. After the filling of the cavity, the closed mold is cooled down varying from 70 °C to 100 °C. The pressure and temperature inside the mold are monitored and evaluated with cavity sensors. The residual stresses of the produced samples are illustrated by birefringence where the effect on the refractive index on the polymer under stress is used. The colorful spectrum can be uncovered by placing the sample between a polarized light source and a second polarization filter. To show the achievement and processing effects on the reduction of residual stress the birefringence images of the isothermal and variothermal produced samples are compared and evaluated. In this comparison to the variothermal produced samples have a lower amount of maxima of each color spectrum than the isothermal produced samples, which concludes that the residual stress of the variothermal produced samples is lower.

Keywords: birefringence, injection molding, polycarbonate, residual stress, variothermal processing

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3380 A Finite Memory Residual Generation Filter for Fault Detection

Authors: Pyung Soo Kim, Eung Hyuk Lee, Mun Suck Jang


In the current paper, a residual generation filter with finite memory structure is proposed for fault detection. The proposed finite memory residual generation filter provides the residual by real-time filtering of fault vector using only the most recent finite observations and inputs on the window. It is shown that the residual given by the proposed residual generation filter provides the exact fault for noise-free systems. Finally, to illustrate the capability of the proposed residual generation filter, numerical examples are performed for the discretized DC motor system having the multiple sensor faults.

Keywords: residual generation filter, finite memory structure, kalman filter, fast detection

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3379 Fatigue Influence on the Residual Stress State in Shot Peened Duplex Stainless Steel

Authors: P. D. Pedrosa, J. M. A. Rebello, M. P. Cindra Fonseca


Duplex stainless steels (DSS) exhibit a biphasic microstructure consisting of austenite and delta ferrite. Their high resistance to oxidation, and corrosion, even in H2S containing environments, allied to low cost when compared to conventional stainless steel, are some properties which make this material very attractive for several industrial applications. However, several of these industrial applications imposes cyclic loading to the equipments and in consequence fatigue damage needs to be a concern. A well-known way of improving the fatigue life of a component is by introducing compressive residual stress in its surface. Shot peening is an industrial working process which brings the material directly beneath component surface in a high mechanical compressive state, so inhibiting fatigue crack initiation. However, one must take into account the fact that the cyclic loading itself can reduce and even suppress these residual stresses, thus having undesirable consequences in the process of improving fatigue life by the introduction of compressive residual stresses. In the present work, shot peening was used to introduce residual stresses in several DSS samples. These were thereafter submitted to three different fatigue regimes: low, medium and high cycle fatigue. The evolution of the residual stress during loading were then examined on both surface and subsurface of the samples. It was used the DSS UNS S31803, with microstructure composed of 49% austenite and 51% ferrite. The treatment of shot peening was accomplished by the application of blasting in two Almen intensities of 0.25 and 0.39A. The residual stresses were measured by X-ray diffraction using the double exposure method and a portable equipment with CrK radiation and the (211) diffracting plane for the austenite phase and the (220) plane for the ferrite phase. It is known that residual stresses may arise when two regions of the same material experienced different degrees of plastic deformation. When these regions are separated in respect to each other on a scale that is large compared to the material's microstructure they are called macro stresses. In contrast, microstresses can largely vary over distances which are small comparable to the scale of the material's microstructure and must balance zero between the phases present. In the present work, special attention will be paid to the measurement of residual microstresses. Residual stress measurements were carried out in test pieces submitted to low, medium and high-cycle fatigue, in both longitudinal and transverse direction of the test pieces. It was found that after shot peening, the residual microstress is tensile in the austenite and compressive in the ferrite phases. It was hypothesized that the hardening behavior of the austenite after shot peening was probably due to its higher nitrogen content. Fatigue cycling can effectively change this stress state but this effect was found to be dependent of the shot peening intensity was well as the fatigue range.

Keywords: residual stresses, fatigue, duplex steel, shot peening

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3378 Comparative Analysis of Residual Shear Depiction and Grain Distribution Characteristics of Slide Soil Profile Sections

Authors: Ephrem Getahun, Shengwen Qi, Songfeng Guo, Yu Zou, Melesse Alemayehu


Residual shear characteristics of slide soil profile sections (SSPS) were examined using ring shear tests to know the relative residual shear behaviors among the sections of slide soil. The multistage-multiphase shearing techniques were employed to perform the experiment for each soil specimen continuously towards large displacements. The grain distribution analysis of SSPS samples was characterized by coarsening upward from bottom slip to the top sections; however, the slip surface was considered as a sheared zone that endorses their low shear resistance for failure. There is an average range of 1-2.5 mm axial displacement on each stage of loadings and phases of shearing that depicts the significant effect of dilation and compression of soil specimen. The middle section has the largest consolidation percentage (10-29%), and vertical displacement compared to other sections and showed high shear strengthening behavior having maximum shear stress of 189kPa at 240kPa loading compared to basal and top sections. It is found that the middle section of SSPS has relatively high shear resistance behavior for large displacement shearing. The residual shear assessment indicates that there is a significant influence of large displacement and rate on the friction coefficient behaviors; it resulted in shear weakening effect to attain their residual condition.

Keywords: comparison, displacements, residual shear stress, shear behavior, slide soils

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