Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4167

Search results for: global warming

4167 Climate Change, Global Warming and Future of Our Planet

Authors: Indu Gupta

Abstract:

Climate change and global warming is most burning issue for “our common future”. For this common global interest. Countries organize conferences of government and nongovernment type. Human being destroying the non-renewable resources and polluting the renewable resources of planet for economic growth. Air pollution is mainly responsible for global warming and climate change .Due to global warming ice glaciers are shrinking and melting. Forests are shrinking, deserts expanding and soil eroding. The depletion of stratospheric ozone layer is depleting and hole in ozone layer that protect us from harmful ultra violet radiation. Extreme high temperature in summer and extreme low temperature and smog in winters, floods in rainy season. These all are indication of climate change. The level of carbon dioxide and other heat trapping gases in the atmosphere is increasing at high speed. Nation’s are worried about environmental degradation.

Keywords: environmental degradation, global warming, soil eroding, ultra-Violate radiation

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4166 Programmable Shields in Space

Authors: Tapas Kumar Sinha, Joseph Mathew

Abstract:

At the moment earth is in grave danger due to threats of global warming. The temperature of the earth has risen by almost 20C. Glaciers in the Arctic have started to melt. It would be foolhardy to think that this is a small effect and in time it would go away. Global warming is caused by a number of factors. However, one sure and simple way to totally eliminate this problem is to put programmable shields in space. Just as an umbrella blocks sunlight, a programmable shield in space will block sun rays from reaching the earth as in a solar eclipse and cause cooling in the penumbral region just as it happens during an eclipse.

Keywords: glaciers, green house, global warming space, satellites

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4165 Combined Effect of Global Warming and Water Structures on Rivers’ Water Quality and Aquatic Life: Case Study of Esna Barrage on the Nile River in Egypt

Authors: Sherine A. El Baradei

Abstract:

Global warming and climatic change are very important topics that are being studied and investigated nowadays as they have lots of diverse impacts on mankind, water quality, aquatic life, wildlife,…etc. Also, many water and hydraulics structures like dams and barrages are being built every day to satisfy water consumption needs, irrigation purposes and power generating purposes. Each of global warming and water structures alone has diversity of impacts on water quality and aquatic life in rivers. This research is investigating the dual combined effect of both water structures and global warming on the water quality and aquatic life through mathematical modeling. A case study of the Esna Barrage on the Nile River in Egypt is being studied. This research study is taking into account the effects of both seasons; namely, winter and summer and their effects on air and hence water temperature of the Nile reach under study. To do so, the study is conducted on the last 23 years to investigate the effect of global warming and climatic change on the studied river water. The mathematical model is then combining the dual effect of the Esna barrage and the global warming on the water quality; as well as, on aquatic life of the Nile reach under study. From the results of the mathematical model, it could be concluded that the dual effect of water structures and global warming is very negative on the water quality and the aquatic life in rivers upstream those structures.

Keywords: aquatic life, barrages, climatic change, dissolved oxygen, global warming, river, water quality, water structures

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4164 Evaluation of Advanced Architectures for Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

Authors: Fabrizio Codella, Chris Parker, Samer Saab

Abstract:

The Kigali Amendment is driving the adoption of low Global Warming Potential refrigerants in commercial refrigeration systems in over a hundred countries. Several refrigeration systems for the small and large retail stores at mild and hot ambient temperature climates have been compared for hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), hydrofluoroolefins (HFO), transcritical CO₂ and propane, in typical and advanced system architectures. The results of system performance, emissions and lifetime cost have been compared. The greatest benefits were found to be obtained by low global warming potential HFO advanced systems.

Keywords: commercial refrigeration, CO₂, emissions, HFO, lifetime cost, performance

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4163 Developing a Video Game (Historia’s Nightmare) and Finding Out if We Can Use It to Raise Social Awareness and Improve Learning

Authors: Hasibul Kabir, Samin Shahriar Tokey, Md. Tofazzal Hossain

Abstract:

One of the most necessary things in the present time is raising social awareness about global warming and climate change among the people. Though many types of mediums and techniques have been used to teach people about this global phenomenon, there are still more effective ways to reach people with useful information about global warming. As many traditional methods to teach people about global warming and climate change did not work well, video games were overdue. To learn how effective a video game can be in this regard, we developed a Video game, "Historia's Nightmare," that teaches people about Global warming and climate change. The game was designed to entertain people and give them an idea about the reasons and consequences of global warming and climate change while not being like traditional educational games. The game threw a mini quiz consisting of two MCQs based on the information shown in the game, where a gamer had to pass the quiz to reach the next level. We published the game on different platforms to let all types of people play and complete our experiment effectively. The game continuously communicated with our server to send data about gamers' performance. We observed the data, including the participants' performance, time spent, quiz score, and the in-game feedback on a regular basis, and finally came to a verdict. In our experiment, we have found that most participants positively accepted the game and learned something new. The participants who spent more on our game performed better in both quiz and the game. Our experiment's result demonstrates that video games can be a great way to teach people something, particularly to raise social awareness about global warming and climate change. It also demonstrates that the game can be a significant element in education and learning improvement.

Keywords: video game, global warming, social awareness, climate change, education, feedback

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4162 The Effect of Global Warming on Water Resources

Authors: Ehsan Soltanzadeh, Hassan Zare

Abstract:

This paper introduces examples of the influences of global warming on water resources and means of adaptation. The contributing causes of shortage in water resources are sophisticated and have interactions with each other. The world-scale phenomena like global warming have led to an increase in air and ocean’s mean temperature, and this has already caused adverse effects on water resources. Other factors that exacerbated this situation such as population increase, changes in farming habits, rise in city dwellers, unbalanced request for energy and aquatic resources, improved living standards, new eating habits, increasing economic growth and consequently flourishing industrial activities, and different types of pollution such as air, water, etc., are compelling more pressure on our limited water resources. The report will briefly discuss climate change and its detrimental impacts on the water resources and finally will introduce two effective solutions to mitigate the consequences or even reverse them in the near to mid-term future: utilization of molten salt technology for storing huge amounts of generated electricity in solar power plants to accommodate power grid demands, and implementing fuel cell CHPs to reduce carbon emission, and consequently, mitigate the global warming phenomenon as the major root cause of threatening water resources.

Keywords: climate change, global warming, water resources, GHG emissions, fuel cell-CHP, solar power plant, molten salt storage

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4161 Climate Change and Global Warming: Effect on Indian Agriculture and Legal Control

Authors: Aman Guru, Chiron Singhi

Abstract:

The Earth’s climate is being changed at an unrivalled rate since beginning of the evolution of the Earth, 4–5 billion years back, but presently it gained pace due to unintentional anthropogenic disturbances and also increased global warming since the mid-20th century, and these incessant changes in the climatic pattern may bring unpropitious effect on global health and security. Today, however, it is not only the air, or water that are polluted, but the whole atmosphere is prone to pollution and this resulted in other cascading ramification in the form of change in the pattern of rainfall, melting of ice, the rise in the sea level etc. Human activities like production, transport, burning of fuels are adding umpteen dangerous pollutants to the atmosphere which in turn gives rise to global warming. Agriculture plays an imperative part in India's economy. Agriculture, along with fisheries and forestry, is one of the largest contributors to the Gross Domestic Product in India. Research on the effect of climate change and vulnerability of agriculture is a high need in India. A steady increase of CO2 is a primary cause of climate change and global warming and which in turn have a great impact on Indian agriculture. The research focuses on the effect of climate change on Indian agriculture and the proceedings and legal control of legislative measures on such issues and the ways to implement such laws which can help to provide a solution to these problems which can prove beneficial to Indian farmers and their agricultural produce.

Keywords: agriculture, climate change, global warming, India laws, legislative measures

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4160 An Application of Remote Sensing for Modeling Local Warming Trend

Authors: Khan R. Rahaman, Quazi K. Hassan

Abstract:

Global changes in climate, environment, economies, populations, governments, institutions, and cultures converge in localities. Changes at a local scale, in turn, contribute to global changes as well as being affected by them. Our hypothesis is built on a consideration that temperature does vary at local level (i.e., termed as local warming) in comparison to the predicted models at the regional and/or global scale. To date, the bulk of the research relating local places to global climate change has been top-down, from the global toward the local, concentrating on methods of impact analysis that use as a starting point climate change scenarios derived from global models, even though these have little regional or local specificity. Thus, our focus is to understand such trends over the southern Alberta, which will enable decision makers, scientists, researcher community, and local people to adapt their policies based on local level temperature variations and to act accordingly. Specific objectives in this study are: (i) to understand the local warming (temperature in particular) trend in context of temperature normal during the period 1961-2010 at point locations using meteorological data; (ii) to validate the data by using specific yearly data, and (iii) to delineate the spatial extent of the local warming trends and understanding influential factors to adopt situation by local governments. Existing data has brought the evidence of such changes and future research emphasis will be given to validate this hypothesis based on remotely sensed data (i.e. MODIS product by NASA).

Keywords: local warming, climate change, urban area, Alberta, Canada

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4159 Modeling Local Warming Trend: An Application of Remote Sensing Technique

Authors: Khan R. Rahaman, Quazi K. Hassan

Abstract:

Global changes in climate, environment, economies, populations, governments, institutions, and cultures converge in localities. Changes at a local scale, in turn, contribute to global changes as well as being affected by them. Our hypothesis is built on a consideration that temperature does vary at local level (i.e., termed as local warming) in comparison to the predicted models at the regional and/or global scale. To date, the bulk of the research relating local places to global climate change has been top-down, from the global toward the local, concentrating on methods of impact analysis that use as a starting point climate change scenarios derived from global models, even though these have little regional or local specificity. Thus, our focus is to understand such trends over the southern Alberta, which will enable decision makers, scientists, researcher community, and local people to adapt their policies based on local level temperature variations and to act accordingly. Specific objectives in this study are: (i) to understand the local warming (temperature in particular) trend in context of temperature normal during the period 1961-2010 at point locations using meteorological data; (ii) to validate the data by using specific yearly data, and (iii) to delineate the spatial extent of the local warming trends and understanding influential factors to adopt situation by local governments. Existing data has brought the evidence of such changes and future research emphasis will be given to validate this hypothesis based on remotely sensed data (i.e. MODIS product by NASA).

Keywords: local warming, climate change, urban area, Alberta, Canada

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4158 The Energy Consumption by the Sector of Transport and His Impact on the Atmospheric Pollution

Authors: Mme Hamani Née Guessas Ghaniya

Abstract:

The transport is the base of the development of the exchanges and the business, being both a recognized determiner of the economic and social development. The development of the transport is in the center of the big challenges of development of countries, but it is also at the heart of big contradictions, since we integrate the environmental issues which are bound to him, in particular through the questions of energy. Indeed, the energy consumption by the sector of transport is one of bigger concerns, because it is increasing and it has a big impact on our environment. The main consequences are, the atmospheric pollution causing an increase of the greenhouse effect which causes a global warming. These global warming risks to engender a partial cast iron of polar caps so raising the level of seas, flooding the low coastal zones, certain islands and the deltas. Thus, the purpose of this communication is to present the impact of the energy consumption by the sector of transport on the air quality, showing its effect on the health and on the global warming.

Keywords: energy consumption, sector of transport, air quality, atmospheric pollution

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4157 Visualize Global Warming and Its Consequences Using Augmented Reality

Authors: K. R. Parvathy, R. Rao Bhavani , M. L. McLain, Kamal Bijlani, R. Jayakrishnan

Abstract:

Augmented Reality (AR) technology is considered to be an important emerging technology used in education today. One potentially key use of AR in education is to teach socio-scientific issues (SSI), topics that inure students towards social conscience and critical thinking. This work uses multiple markers and virtual buttons that interact with each other, creating a life-like visual spectacle. Learning about issues such as global warming by using AR technology, students will have an increased sense of experiencing immersion, immediacy, and presence, thereby enhancing their learning as well as likely improving their ability to make better informed decisions about considerations of such issues. Another advantage of AR is that it is a low cost technology, making it advantageous for educators to adapt to their classrooms. Also in this work we compare the effectiveness of AR versus ordinary video by polling a group of students to assess the content understandability, effectiveness and interaction of both the delivery methods.

Keywords: augmented reality, global warming, multiple markers, virtual buttons

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4156 The Nexus between Climate Change and Criminality: The Nigerian Experience

Authors: Dagaci Aliyu Manbe, Anthony Abah Ebonyi

Abstract:

The increase in global temperatures is worsened by frequent natural events and human activities. Climate change has taken a prominent space in the global discourse on crime and criminality. Compared to when the subject centred around the discussion on the depletion of the ozone layer and global warming, today, the narrative revolves around the implications of changes in weather and climatic conditions in relations to violent crimes or conflict that traverse vast social, economic, and political spaces in different countries. Global warming and climate change refer to an increase in average global temperatures in the Earth’s near-surface air and oceans, which occurs due to human activities such as deforestation and the burning of fossil fuel such as gas flaring. The trend is projected to continue, if unchecked. This paper seeks to explore the nexus between climate change and criminality in Nigeria. It further examines the main ecological changes that predispose conflict dynamics of security threats factored by climate change to peaceful co-existence in Nigeria. It concludes with some recommendations on the way forward.

Keywords: conflict, climate change, criminality, global warning, peace

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4155 Uncertainty in Near-Term Global Surface Warming Linked to Pacific Trade Wind Variability

Authors: M. Hadi Bordbar, Matthew England, Alex Sen Gupta, Agus Santoso, Andrea Taschetto, Thomas Martin, Wonsun Park, Mojib Latif

Abstract:

Climate models generally simulate long-term reductions in the Pacific Walker Circulation with increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases. However, over two recent decades (1992-2011) there was a strong intensification of the Pacific Trade Winds that is linked with a slowdown in global surface warming. Using large ensembles of multiple climate models forced by increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and starting from different ocean and/or atmospheric initial conditions, we reveal very diverse 20-year trends in the tropical Pacific climate associated with a considerable uncertainty in the globally averaged surface air temperature (SAT) in each model ensemble. This result suggests low confidence in our ability to accurately predict SAT trends over 20-year timescale only from external forcing. We show, however, that the uncertainty can be reduced when the initial oceanic state is adequately known and well represented in the model. Our analyses suggest that internal variability in the Pacific trade winds can mask the anthropogenic signal over a 20-year time frame, and drive transitions between periods of accelerated global warming and temporary slowdown periods.

Keywords: trade winds, walker circulation, hiatus in the global surface warming, internal climate variability

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4154 Peltier Air Conditioning System for Preventing Ambient Heating: An Alternative to Gas Air Conditioners

Authors: Siamak Eskandari, Neda Ebadi

Abstract:

After discovering and using Freon as refrigerant in refrigerators and air conditioners, researchers have been working hard to minimize massive environmental damage caused by this type of systems, including ozone depletion, heat production, and urban warming. However, there is a growing concern for global warming and climate change and its impacts on climates. Although gas air conditioners can provide comfort in short term, there are long-term consequences and effects, including global warming, polar ice melting, sea level rising, rising sea surface temperatures, reduction in seasonal precipitation, tropical storms, and drought. In this theoretical and practical study, Peltier electronic chip was used with no gas in the structure and operation. In fact, cooling and heating are based on bipolar electronics. With an innovative method, Peltier air conditioners provide cooling in warm seasons and heating in cold seasons in buildings. Such a system prevents ambient warming. The problem of air circulation between high buildings in large cities and draught will be considerably resolved through the use of the silent fan in the system. In addition, the system is designed and developed in accordance with international standards such as LEED and Energy Star.

Keywords: energy, Building cooling and heating, peltier, leed, energy star

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4153 CO2 Sequestration for Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery: A New Approach

Authors: Abhinav Sirvaiya, Karan Gupta, Pankaj Garg

Abstract:

The global warming due to the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is the most prominent issue of environment that the world is facing today. To solve this problem at global level, sequestration of CO2 in deep and unmineable coal seams has come out as one of the attractive alternatives to reduce concentration in atmosphere. This sequestration technology is not only going to help in storage of CO2 beneath the sub-surface but is also playing a major role in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery (ECBM) by displacing the adsorbed methane. This paper provides the answers for the need of CO2 injection in coal seams and how recovery is enhanced. We have discussed the recent development in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery and the economic scenario of the same. The effect of injection on the coal reservoir has also been discussed. Coal is a good absorber of CO2. That is why the sequestration of CO2 is emerged out to be a great approach, not only for storage purpose but also for enhancing coal bed methane recovery.

Keywords: global warming, carbon dioxide (CO2), CO2 sequestration, enhance coal bed methane (ECBM)

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4152 Conversion of Atmospheric Carbone Dioxide into Minerals at Room Conditions by Using the Sea Water Plus Various Additives

Authors: Muthana A. M. Jamel Al-Gburi

Abstract:

Elimination of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from the atmosphere is very important but complicated since there is increasing in the amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which mainly caused by some of the human activities and the burning of fossil fuels. So that will lead to global warming. The global warming affects the earth temperature causing an increase to a higher level and, at the same time, creates tornadoes and storms. In this project, we are going to do a new technique for extracting carbon dioxide directly from the air and change it to useful minerals and Nano scale fibers made of carbon by using several chemical processes through chemical reactions. So, that could lead to an economical and healthy way to make some valuable building materials. Also, it may even work as a weapon against environmental change. In our device (Carbone Dioxide Domestic Extractor), we are using Ocean-seawater to dissolve the CO₂ gas and then converted it into carbonate minerals by using a number of additives like Shampoo, clay, and MgO. Note that the atmospheric air includes CO₂ gas, has circulated within the seawater by the air pump. More, that we will use a number of chemicals agents to convert the water acid into useful minerals. After we constructed the system, we did intense experiments and investigations to find the optimum chemical agent, which must be work at the environmental condition. Further to that, we will measure the solubility of CO₂ and other salts in the seawater.

Keywords: global warming, CO₂ gas, ocean-sea water, additives, solubility level

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4151 The Environmental Challenges of Energy Generation and Usage in Nigeria

Authors: Aliyu Mohammed Lawal, Dahiru Ya'u Gital

Abstract:

The problems placed on the environment as a result of energy generation and usage in Nigeria are: Potential damage to the environment health by Co, Co2, Sox and Nox effluent gas emissions and global warming. For instance in the year 2004 in Nigeria energy consumption was 58% oil and 34% natural gas but about 94 million metric tons of Co2 was emitted out of which 64% came from fossil fuels while about 35% came from fuel wood. The findings from this research on how to alleviate these problems are that long term sustainable development solutions should be enhanced globally; energy should be used more rationally renewable energy resources should be exploited and the existing emissions should be controlled to tolerate limits because the increase in energy demand in Nigeria places enormous strain on current energy facilities.

Keywords: energy generation, environmental health, effluent gas emission, global warming, fossil fuel

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4150 Comparative Life Cycle Analysis of Selected Modular Timber Construction and Assembly Typologies

Authors: Benjamin Goldsmith, Felix Heisel

Abstract:

The building industry must reduce its emissions in order to meet 2030 neutrality targets, and modular and/or offsite construction is seen as an alternative to conventional construction methods which could help achieve this goal. Modular construction has previously been shown to be less wasteful and has a lower global warming potential (GWP). While many studies have been conducted investigating the life cycle impacts of modular and conventional construction, few studies have compared different types of modular assembly and construction in order to determine which offer the greatest environmental benefits over their whole life cycle. This study seeks to investigate three different modular construction types -infill frame, core, and podium- in order to determine environmental impacts such as GWP as well as circularity indicators. The study will focus on the emissions of the production, construction, and end-of-life phases. The circularity of the various approaches will be taken into consideration in order to acknowledge the potential benefits of the ability to reuse and/or reclaim materials, products, and assemblies. The study will conduct hypothetical case studies for the three different modular construction types, and in doing so, control the parameters of location, climate, program, and client. By looking in-depth at the GWP of the beginning and end phases of various simulated modular buildings, it will be possible to make suggestions on which type of construction has the lowest global warming potential.

Keywords: modular construction, offsite construction, life cycle analysis, global warming potential, environmental impact, circular economy

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4149 Climate Changes and Ecological Response on the Tibetan Plateau

Authors: Weishou Shen, Changxin Zou, Dong Liu

Abstract:

High-mountain environments are experiencing more rapid warming than lowlands. The Tibetan (Qinghai-Xizang, TP) Plateau, known as the “Third Pole” of the Earth and the “Water Tower of Asia,” is the highest plateau in the world, however, ecological response to climate change has been hardly documented in high altitude regions. In this paper, we investigated climate warming induced ecological changes on the Tibetan Plateau over the past 50 years through combining remote sensing data with a large amount of in situ field observation. The results showed that climate warming up to 0.41 °C/10 a has greatly improved the heat conditions on the TP. Lake and river areas exhibit increased trend whereas swamp area decreased in the recent 35 years. The expansion in the area of the lake is directly related to the increase of precipitation as well as the climate warming up that makes the glacier shrink, the ice and snow melting water increase and the underground frozen soil melting water increase. Climate warming induced heat condition growth and reduced annual range of temperature, which will have a positive influence on vegetation, agriculture production and decreased freeze–thaw erosion on the TP. Terrestrial net primary production and farmland area on the TP have increased by 0.002 Pg C a⁻¹ and 46,000 ha, respectively. We also found that seasonal frozen soil depth decreased as the consequence of climate warming. In the long term, accelerated snow melting and thinned seasonal frozen soil induced by climate warming possibly will have a negative effect on alpine ecosystem stability and soil preservation.

Keywords: global warming, alpine ecosystem, ecological response, remote sensing

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4148 Sustainable Development of HV Substation in Urban Areas Considering Environmental Aspects

Authors: Mahdi Naeemi Nooghabi, Mohammad Tofiqu Arif

Abstract:

Gas Insulated Switchgears by using an insulation material named SF6 (Sulphur Hexafluoride) and its significant dielectric properties have been the only choice in urban areas and other polluted industries. However, the initial investment of GIS is more than conventional AIS substation, its total life cycle costs caused to reach huge amounts of electrical market share. SF6 environmental impacts on global warming, atmosphere depletion, and decomposing to toxic gases in high temperature situation, and highest rate in Global Warming Potential (GWP) with 23900 times of CO2e and a 3200-year period lifetime was the only undeniable concern of GIS substation. Efforts of international environmental institute and their politic supports have been able to lead SF6 emission reduction legislation. This research targeted to find an appropriate alternative for GIS substations to meet all advantages in land occupation area and to improve SF6 environmental impacts due to its leakage and emission. An innovative new conceptual design named Multi-Storey prepared a new AIS design similar in land occupation, extremely low Sf6 emission, and maximum greenhouse gas emission reduction. Surprisingly, by considering economic benefits due to carbon price saving, it can earn more than $675 million during the 30-year life cycle by replacing of just 25% of total annual worldly additional GIS switchgears.

Keywords: AIS substation, GIS substation, SF6, greenhouse gas, global warming potential, carbon price, emission

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4147 Impact of Global Warming on the Total Flood Duration and Flood Recession Time in the Meghna Basin Using Hydrodynamic Modelling

Authors: Karan Gupta

Abstract:

The floods cause huge loos each year, and their impact gets manifold with the increase of total duration of flood as well as recession time. Moreover, floods have increased in recent years due to climate change in floodplains. In the context of global climate change, the agreement in Paris convention (2015) stated to keep the increase in global average temperature well below 2°C and keep it at the limit of 1.5°C. Thus, this study investigates the impact of increasing temperature on the stage, discharge as well as total flood duration and recession time in the Meghna River basin in Bangladesh. This study considers the 100-year return period flood flows in the Meghna river under the specific warming levels (SWLs) of 1.5°C, 2°C, and 4°C. The results showed that the rate of increase of duration of flood is nearly 50% lesser at ∆T = 1.5°C as compared to ∆T = 2°C, whereas the rate of increase of duration of recession is 75% lower at ∆T = 1.5°C as compared to ∆T = 2°C. Understanding the change of total duration of flood as well as recession time of the flood gives a better insight to effectively plan for flood mitigation measures.

Keywords: flood, climate change, Paris convention, Bangladesh, inundation duration, recession duration

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4146 Experimental Study of CO2 Absorption in Different Blend Solutions as Solvent for CO2 Capture

Authors: Rouzbeh Ramezani, Renzo Di Felice

Abstract:

Nowadays, removal of CO2 as one of the major contributors to global warming using alternative solvents with high CO2 absorption efficiency, is an important industrial operation. In this study, three amines, including 2-methylpiperazine, potassium sarcosinate and potassium lysinate as potential additives, were added to the potassium carbonate solution as a base solvent for CO2 capture. In order to study the absorption performance of CO2 in terms of loading capacity of CO2 and absorption rate, the absorption experiments in a blend of additives with potassium carbonate were carried out using the vapor-liquid equilibrium apparatus at a temperature of 313.15 K, CO2 partial pressures ranging from 0 to 50 kPa and at mole fractions 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4. Furthermore, the performance of CO2 absorption in these blend solutions was compared with pure monoethanolamine and with pure potassium carbonate. Finally, a correlation with good accuracy was developed using the nonlinear regression analysis in order to predict CO2 loading capacity.

Keywords: absorption rate, carbon dioxide, CO2 capture, global warming, loading capacity

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4145 Carbon Storage in Natural Mangrove Biomass: Its Destruction and Potential Impact on Climate Change in the UAE

Authors: Hedaya Ali Al Ameri, Alya A. Arabi

Abstract:

Measuring the level of carbon storage in mangroves’ biomass has a potential impact in the climate change of UAE. Carbon dioxide is one of greenhouse gases. It is considered to be a main reason for global warming. Deforestation is a key source of the increase in carbon dioxide whereas forests such as mangroves assist in removing carbon dioxide from atmosphere by storing them in its biomass and soil. By using Kauffman and Donato methodology, above- and below-ground biomass and carbon stored in UAE’s natural mangroves were quantified. Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) released to the atmosphere was then estimated in case of mangroves deforestation in the UAE. The results show that the mean total biomass of mangroves in the UAE ranged from 15.75 Mg/ha to 3098.69 Mg/ha. The estimated CO2eq released upon deforestation in the UAE was found to have a minimal effect on the temperature increase and thus global warming.

Keywords: carbon stored in biomass, mangrove deforestation, temperature change, United Arab Emirate

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4144 Carbon Footprint and Exergy Destruction Footprint in White Wine Production Line

Authors: Mahmut Genc, Seda Genc

Abstract:

Wine is the most popular alcoholic drink in the World with 274.4 million of hectoliter annual production in the year of 2015. The wine industry is very important for some regions as well as creating significant value in their economies. This industry is very sensitive to the global warming since viticulture highly depends on climate and geographical region. Sustainability concept is a crucial issue for the wine industry and sustainability performances of wine production processes should be determined. Although wine production industry is an energy intensive sector as a whole, the most energy intensive products are widely used both in the viti and vinicultural process. In this study, gate-to-gate LCA approach in energy resource utilization and global warming potential impacts for white wine production line were attempted and carbon footprint and exergy destruction footprint were calculated, accordingly. As a result, carbon footprint and exergy destruction footprint values were calculated to be 1.75 kg CO2eq and 365.3kW, respectively.

Keywords: carbon footprint, exergy analysis, exergy destruction footprint, white wine

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4143 Carbon Footprint of Blowmoulded Plastic Parts-Case Study on Automotive Industry

Authors: Mădălina Elena Mavrodin, Gabriela Andreea Despescu, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu

Abstract:

Long term trend of global warming has brought a very deep interest in climate change, which is due most likely to increasing concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. 0f these, particular attention is paid to carbon dioxide, which has led in desire for obtaining carbon footprint products. Automotive industry is one of the world’s most important economic sectors with a great impact over the environment through all range of activities. Its impact over the environment has been studied, researcher trying as much as possible to reduce it and to offer environmental friendly solution for the using, but also manufacturing cars. In the global endeavour to meet the international commitments in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, many companies integrate environmental issues into their management systems, with potential effects in their entire production chains. Several tools and calculators have been developed to measure the environmental impact of a product in the life cycle perspective of the whole product chain. There were a lot of ways to obtain the carbon footprint of driving a car, but the total carbon footprint of a car includes also the carbon footprint of all the components and accessories. In the automotive industry, one of the challenges is to calculate the carbon footprint of a car from ‘cradle to grave’; this meaning not only for driving the car, but also manufacturing it, so there can be an overview over the entire process of production.

Keywords: carbon footprint, global warming potential, greenhouse gases, manufacture, plastic air ducts

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4142 The Impact of Land Use Ex-Concession to the Environment in Dharmasraya District, West Sumatra Province, Indonesia

Authors: Yurike, Yonariza, Rudi Febriamansyah, Syafruddin Karimi

Abstract:

Forest is a natural resource that has an important function as a supporting element of human life. Forest degradation enormous impact on global warming is a reality we have experienced together, that disruption of ecosystems, extreme weather conditions, disruption of water management system watersheds and the threat of natural disasters as floods, landslides and droughts, even disruption food security. Dharmasraya is a district in the province of West Sumatra, which has an area of 92.150 ha of forest, which is largely a former production forest concessions (Forest Management Rights) which is supposed to be a secondary forest. This study answers about the impact of land use in the former concession area Dharmasraya on the environment. The methodology used is the household survey, key informants, and satellite data / GIS. From the results of the study, the former concession area in Dharmasraya experienced a reduction of forest cover over time significantly. Forest concessions should be secondary forests in Dharmasraya, now turned conversion to oil palm plantations. Population pressures and growing economic pressures, resulting in more intensive harvesting. As a result of these forest disturbances caused changes in forest functions. These changes put more emphasis towards economic function by ignoring social functions or ecological function. Society prefers to maximize their benefits today and pay less attention to the protection of natural resources. This causes global warming is increasing and this is not only felt by people around Dharmasraya but also the world. Land clearing by the community through a process in slash and burn. This fire was observed by NOAA satellites and recorded by the Forest Service of West Sumatra. This demonstrates the ability of trees felled trees to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) to be lost, even with forest fires accounted for carbon dioxide emitted into the air, and this has an impact on global warming. In addition to the change of control of land into oil palm plantations water service has been poor, people began to trouble the water and oil palm plantations are located in the watershed caused the river dried up. Through the findings of this study is expected to contribute ideas to the policy makers to pay more attention to the former concession forest management as the prevention or reduction of global warming.

Keywords: climate change, community, concession forests, environment

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4141 A Comparative Study on the Impact of Global Warming of Applying Low Carbon Factor Concrete Products

Authors: Su-Hyun Cho, Chang-U Chae

Abstract:

Environmental impact assessment techniques have been developed as a result of the worldwide efforts to reduce the environmental impact of global warming. By using the quantification method in the construction industry, it is now possible to manage the greenhouse gas is to systematically evaluate the impact on the environment over the entire construction process. In particular, the proportion of greenhouse gas emissions at the production stage of construction material occupied is high, and efforts are needed in particular in the construction field. In this study, intended for concrete products for the construction materials, by using the LCA evaluation method, we compared the results of environmental impact assessment and carbon emissions of developing products that have been applied low-carbon technologies compared to existing products. As a results, by introducing a raw material of industrial waste, showed carbon reduction. Through a comparison of the carbon emission reduction effect of low-carbon technologies, it is intended to provide academic data for the evaluation of greenhouse gases in the construction sector and the development of low-carbon technologies of the future.

Keywords: CO₂ emissions, CO₂ reduction, ready-mixed concrete, environmental impact assessment

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4140 Monitoring and Management of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates for Determining the Level of Water Pollution Catchment Basin of Debed River, Armenia

Authors: Inga Badasyan

Abstract:

Every year we do monitoring of water pollution of catchment basin of Debed River. Next, the Ministry of Nature Protection does modeling programme. Finely, we are managing the impact of water pollution in Debed river. Ecosystem technologies efficiency performance were estimated based on the physical, chemical, and macrobiological analyses of water on regular base between 2012 to 2015. Algae community composition was determined to assess the ecological status of Debed river, while vegetation was determined to assess biodiversity. Last time, experts werespeaking about global warming, which is having bad impact on the surface water, freshwater, etc. As, we know that global warming is caused by the current high levels of carbon dioxide in the water. Geochemical modelling is increasingly playing an important role in various areas of hydro sciences and earth sciences. Geochemical modelling of highly concentrated aqueous solutions represents an important topic in the study of many environments such as evaporation ponds, groundwater and soils in arid and semi-arid zones, costal aquifers, etc. The sampling time is important for benthic macroinvertebrates, for that reason we have chosen in the spring (abundant flow of the river, the beginning of the vegetation season) and autumn (the flow of river is scarce). The macroinvertebrates are good indicator for a chromic pollution and aquatic ecosystems. Results of our earlier investigations in the Debed river reservoirs clearly show that management problem of ecosystem reservoirs is topical. Research results can be applied to studies of monitoring water quality in the rivers and allow for rate changes and to predict possible future changes in the nature of the lake.

Keywords: ecohydrological monitoring, flood risk management, global warming, aquatic macroinvertebrates

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4139 Estimation of Carbon Sequestration and Air Quality of Terrestrial Ecosystems Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Authors: Kanwal Javid, Shazia Pervaiz, Maria Mumtaz, Muhammad Ameer Nawaz Akram

Abstract:

Forests and grasslands ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Land management activities influence both ecosystems and enable them to absorb and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). Similarly, in Pakistan, these terrestrial ecosystems are well known to mitigate carbon emissions and have a great source to supply a variety of services such as clean air and water, biodiversity, wood products, wildlife habitat, food, recreation and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration is the main agenda of developed and developing nations to reduce the impacts of global warming. But the amount of carbon storage within these ecosystems can be affected by many factors related to air quality such as land management, land-use change, deforestation, over grazing and natural calamities. Moreover, the long-term capacity of forests and grasslands to absorb and sequester CO2 depends on their health, productivity, resilience and ability to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, the main rationale of this study is to monitor the difference in carbon amount of forests and grasslands of Northern Pakistan using MODIS data sets and map results using Geographic Information System. Results of the study conclude that forests ecosystems are more effective in reducing the CO2 level and play a key role in improving the quality of air.

Keywords: carbon sequestration, grasslands, global warming, climate change.

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4138 Modeling the Effects of Temperature on Ambient Air Quality Using AERMOD

Authors: Mustapha Babatunde, Bassam Tawabini, Ole John Nielson

Abstract:

Air dispersion (AD) models such as AERMOD are important tools for estimating the environmental impacts of air pollutant emissions into the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources. The outcome of these models is significantly linked to the climate condition like air temperature, which is expected to differ in the future due to the global warming phenomenon. With projections from scientific sources of impending changes to the future climate of Saudi Arabia, especially anticipated temperature rise, there is a potential direct impact on the dispersion patterns of air pollutants results from AD models. To our knowledge, no similar studies were carried out in Saudi Arabia to investigate such impact. Therefore, this research investigates the effects of climate temperature change on air quality in the Dammam Metropolitan area, Saudi Arabia, using AERMOD coupled with Station data using Sulphur dioxide (SO₂) – as a model air pollutant. The research uses AERMOD model to predict the SO₂ dispersion trends in the surrounding area. Emissions from five (5) industrial stacks on twenty-eight (28) receptors in the study area were considered for the climate period (2010-2019) and future period of mid-century (2040-2060) under different scenarios of elevated temperature profiles (+1ᵒC, + 3ᵒC and + 5ᵒC) across averaging time periods of 1hr, 4hr and 8hr. Results showed that levels of SO₂ at the receiving sites under current and simulated future climactic condition fall within the allowable limit of WHO and KSA air quality standards. Results also revealed that the projected rise in temperature would only have mild increment on the SO₂ concentration levels. The average increase of SO₂ levels was 0.04%, 0.14%, and 0.23% due to the temperature increase of 1, 3, and 5 degrees, respectively. In conclusion, the outcome of this work elucidates the degree of the effects of global warming and climate changes phenomena on air quality and can help the policymakers in their decision-making, given the significant health challenges associated with ambient air pollution in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: air quality, sulfur dioxide, dispersion models, global warming, KSA

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