Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 123

Search results for: biofuel

123 Geospatial Land Suitability Modeling for Biofuel Crop Using AHP

Authors: Naruemon Phongaksorn


The biofuel consumption has increased significantly over the decade resulting in the increasing request on agricultural land for biofuel feedstocks. However, the biofuel feedstocks are already stressed of having low productivity owing to inappropriate agricultural practices without considering suitability of crop land. This research evaluates the land suitability using GIS-integrated Analytic Hierarchy Processing (AHP) of biofuel crops: cassava, at Chachoengsao province, in Thailand. AHP method that has been widely accepted for land use planning. The objective of this study is compared between AHP method and the most limiting group of land characteristics method (classical approach). The reliable results of the land evaluation were tested against the crop performance assessed by the field investigation in 2015. In addition to the socio-economic land suitability, the expected availability of raw materials for biofuel production to meet the local biofuel demand, are also estimated. The results showed that the AHP could classify and map the physical land suitability with 10% higher overall accuracy than the classical approach. The Chachoengsao province showed high and moderate socio-economic land suitability for cassava. Conditions in the Chachoengsao province were also favorable for cassava plantation, as the expected raw material needed to support ethanol production matched that of ethanol plant capacity of this province. The GIS integrated AHP for biofuel crops land suitability evaluation appears to be a practical way of sustainably meeting biofuel production demand.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Processing (AHP), Cassava, Geographic Information Systems, Land suitability

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122 Assessing Transition to Renewable Energy for Transportation in Indonesia through Drop-in Biofuel Utilization

Authors: Maslan Lamria, Ralph E. H. Sims, Tatang H. Soerawidjaja


In increasing its self-sufficiency on transportation fuel, Indonesia is currently developing commercial production and use of drop-in biofuel (DBF) from vegetable oil. To maximize the level of success, it is necessary to get insights on how the implementation would develop as well as any important factors. This study assessed the dynamics of transition from existing fossil fuel system to a renewable fuel system, which involves the transition from existing biodiesel to projected DBF. A systems dynamics approach was applied and a model developed to simulate the dynamics of liquid biofuel transition. The use of palm oil feedstock was taken as a case study to assess the projected DBF implementation by 2045. The set of model indicators include liquid fuel self-sufficiency, liquid biofuel share, foreign exchange savings and green-house gas emissions reduction. The model outputs showed that supports on DBF investment and use play an important role in the transition progress. Given assumptions which include application of a maximum level of supports over time, liquid fuel self-sufficiency would be still unfulfilled in which palm biofuel contribution is 0.2. Thus, other types of feedstock such as algae and oil feedstock from marginal lands need to be developed synergically. Regarding support on DBF use, this study recommended that removal of fossil subsidy would be necessary prior to applying a carbon tax policy effectively.

Keywords: biofuel, drop-in biofuel, energy transition, liquid fuel

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121 Towards Renewable Energy: A Qualitative Study of Biofuel Development Policy in Indonesia

Authors: Arie Yanwar Kapriadi


This research is aiming to develop deeper understanding of the scale of power that shaped the biofuel policy. This research is important for the following reasons. Firstly, this research will enrich the body of literature within the field of political ecology, scale and environmental governance. Secondly, by focussing on energy transition policies, this research offers a critical perspective on how government policy, aimed at delivering low carbon sustainable energy systems, being scaled and implemented through multi variate stakeholders. Finally, the research could help the government of Indonesia as a policy evaluation on delivering low carbon sustainable energy systems at the macro level that (possibility) being unable to be delivered at different scale and instead being perceived differently by different stakeholders. Qualitative method is applied particularly an in depth interview with government officials as well as policy stakeholders outside of government and people in positions of responsibility with regards to policy delivery. There are 4 field study location where interview took place as well as sites visit to some biofuel refining facilities. There are some major companies which involve on the production and distribution of biofuel and its relation with biofuel feedstock industry as the source of data. The research investigates how the government biofuel policies correlated with other policy issues such as land reclassification and carbon emission reduction which also influenced plantations expansion as well as its impact on the local people. The preliminary result shows tension of power between governing authorities caused the Indonesian biofuel policy being unfocused which led to failing to meet its mandatory blending target despite the abundance of its feedstock.

Keywords: biofuel, energy transition, renewable energy, political ecology

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
120 Study of Biofuel Produced by Babassu Oil Fatty Acids Esterification

Authors: F. A. F. da Ponte, J. Q. Malveira, I. A. Maciel, M. C. G. Albuquerque


In this work aviation, biofuel production was studied by fatty acids (C6 to C16) esterification. The process variables in heterogeneous catalysis were evaluated using an experimental design. Temperature and reaction time were the studied parameters, and the methyl esters content was the response of the experimental design. An ion exchange resin was used as a heterogeneous catalyst. The process optimization was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) and polynomial model of second order. Results show that the most influential variables on the linear coefficient of each effect studied were temperature and reaction time. The best result of methyl esters conversion in the experimental design was under the conditions: 10% wt of catalyst; 100 °C and 4 hours of reaction. The best-achieved conversion was 96.5% wt of biofuel.

Keywords: esterification, ion-exchange resins, response surface methodology, biofuel

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119 The Formulation of R&D Strategy for Biofuel Technology: A Case Study of the Aviation Industry in Iran

Authors: Maryam Amiri, Ali Rajabzade, Gholam Reza Goudarzi, Reza Heidari


Growth of technology and environmental changes are so fast and therefore, companies and industries have much tendency to do activities of R&D for active participation in the market and achievement to a competitive advantages. Aviation industry and its subdivisions have high level technology and play a special role in economic and social development of countries. So, in the aviation industry for getting new technologies and competing with other countries aviation industry, there is a requirement for capability in R&D. Considering of appropriate R&D strategy is supportive that day technologies of the world can be achieved. Biofuel technology is one of the newest technologies that has allocated discussion of the world in aviation industry to itself. The purpose of this research has been formulation of R&D strategy of biofuel technology in aviation industry of Iran. After reviewing of the theoretical foundations of the methods and R&D strategies, finally we classified R&D strategies in four main categories as follows: internal R&D, collaboration R&D, out sourcing R&D and in-house R&D. After a review of R&D strategies, a model for formulation of R&D strategy with the aim of developing biofuel technology in aviation industry in Iran was offered. With regard to the requirements and aracteristics of industry and technology in the model, we presented an integrated approach to R&D. Based on the techniques of decision making and analyzing of structured expert opinion, 4 R&D strategies for different scenarios and with the aim of developing biofuel technology in aviation industry in Iran were recommended. In this research, based on the common features of the implementation process of R&D, a logical classification of these methods are presented as R&D strategies. Then, R&D strategies and their characteristics was developed according to the experts. In the end, we introduced a model to consider the role of aviation industry and biofuel technology in R&D strategies. And lastly, for conditions and various scenarios of the aviation industry, we have formulated a specific R&D strategy.

Keywords: aviation industry, biofuel technology, R&D, R&D strategy

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118 Environmental Sustainability: A Renewable Energy Prospect with a Biofuel Alternative

Authors: Abul Quasem Al-Amin, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Mohammad Nurul Azam, Walter Leal Filho


With regard to the future energy strategy and vision, this study aimed to find the drawbacks of proposed energy diversification policy for 2020. To have a clear picture of the drawback and competitive alternative, this study has explored two scenarios, namely Scenario a and Scenario b. The Scenario a indicates that in the year 2020 the GHG emissions would be 823,498.00 million tons (Mt) with a 2020 final demand and proposed fuel mix such as by the Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy. In contrast, as an alternative, the Scenario b with biofuel potentials indicates that the substitution of coal energy by 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively, with biofuel, would reduce the GHG emissions from 374,551.00, 405,118.00, and 823,498.00 million tons to 339,964.00, 329,834.00, and 305,288.00 million tons, respectively, by the present fuel mix, business-as-usual fuel mix, and proposed fuel mix up to the year 2020. Therefore, this study has explored a healthy alternative by introducing biofuel renewable energy option instead of conventional energy utilization in the power generation with environmental aspect in minds. This study effort would lessen the gap between GHG mitigation and future sustainable development and would useful to formulate effective renewable energy strategy in Malaysia.

Keywords: energy, environmental impacts, renewable energy, biofuel, energy policy

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117 Chemistry and Sources of Solid Biofuel Derived Ambient Aerosols during Cooking and Non-Cooking Hours in Rural Area of Khairatpur, North-Central India

Authors: Sudha Shukla, Bablu Kumar, Gyan Prakash Gupta, U. C. Kulshrestha


Air pollutants emitted from solid biofuels during cooking are the major contributors to poor air quality, respiratory problems, and radiative forcing, etc. in rural areas of most of developing countries. The present study reports the chemical characteristics and sources of ambient aerosols and traces gases during cooking and non-cooking hours emitted during biofuel combustion in a village in North-Central India. Fine aerosol samples along with gaseous species (Sox, NOx, and NH₃) were collected during September 2010-March 2011 at Khairatpur village (KPV) which is located in the Uttar Pradesh state in North-Central India. Results indicated that most of the major ions in aerosols and Sox, NOx, and NH₃ gases were found to be higher during cooking hours as compared to non-cooking hours suggesting that solid biofuel combustion is an important source of air pollution. Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that combustion of solid biofuel, vehicular emissions, and brick kilns were the major sources of fine aerosols and trace gases in the village. A health survey was conducted to find out the relation between users of biofuels and their health effects and the results revealed that most of the women in the village were suffering from diseases associated with biofuel combustion during cooking.

Keywords: ambient aerosols, biofuel combustion, cooking, health survey, rural area

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
116 Microwave Assisted Thermal Cracking of Castor Oil Zeolite ZSM-5 as Catalyst for Biofuel Production

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Ali Abdul Rahman–Al Ezzi, Tharmathas A/L Alagappan


The aim of this investigation was to produce biofuel from castor oil through microwave assisted thermal cracking with zeolite ZSM-5 as catalyst. The obtained results showed that microwave assisted thermal cracking of castor oil with Zeolite ZSM-5 as catalyst generates products consisting of alcohol, methyl esters and fatty acids. The products obtained from this experimental procedure by the cracking of castor oil are components of biodiesel. Samples of cracked castor oil containing 1, 3 and 5wt % catalyst was analyzed, however, only the sample containing the 5wt % catalyst showed significant presence of condensate. FTIR and GCMS studies show that the condensate obtained is an unsaturated fatty acid, is 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid, suitable for biofuel use. 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid with a molecular weight of 280.445 g/mol. Characterization of the sample demonstrates that functional group for the products from the three samples display a similar peak in the FTIR graph analysis at 1700 cm-1 and 3600 cm-1. The result obtained from GCMS shows that there are 16 peaks obtained from the sample. The compound with the highest peak area is 9, 12-octadecadienoic acid with a retention time of 9.941 and 24.65 peak areas. All these compounds are organic material and can be characterized as biofuel and biodiesel.

Keywords: castor oil, biofuel, biodiesel, thermal cracking, microwave

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
115 Seaweed as a Future Fuel Option: Potential and Conversion Technologies

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Tabassum, Ao Xia, Jerry D. Murphy


The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview of seaweed as the alternative feedstock for biofuel production and key conversion technologies. Resource depletion and climate change are the driving forces to hunt for renewable sources of energy. Macroalgae can be preferred over land based crops for biofuel production because they are not in competition with food crops for arable land, high growth rates and low lignin contents which require less energy-intensive pre-treatments. However, some disadvantages, such as high moisture content, seasonal variation in chemical composition and process inhibition limit its economic feasibility. Seaweed can be converted into gaseous and liquid fuel by different conversion technologies, but biogas via anaerobic digestion from seaweed is attracting increased attention due to its dual benefit of an economic source of bio-fuel and environment-friendly technology. Biodiesel and bioethanol conversion technologies from seaweed are still under development. A selection of high yielding seaweed species, optimal harvesting season and process optimization make them economically feasible for the alternative source of renewable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel in future.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biofuel, bio-methane, conversion technologies, seaweed

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
114 The Effects of Plantation Size and Internal Transport on Energy Efficiency of Biofuel Production

Authors: Olga Orynycz, Andrzej Wasiak


Mathematical model describing energetic efficiency (defined as a ratio of energy obtained in the form of biofuel to the sum of energy inputs necessary to facilitate production) of agricultural subsystem as a function of technological parameters was developed. Production technology is characterized by parameters of machinery, topological characteristics of the plantation as well as transportation routes inside and outside of plantation. The relationship between the energetic efficiency of agricultural and industrial subsystems is also derived. Due to the assumed large area of the individual field, the operations last for several days increasing inter-fields routes because of several returns. The total distance driven outside of the fields is, however, small as compared to the distance driven inside of the fields. This results in small energy consumption during inter-fields transport that, however, causes a substantial decrease of the energetic effectiveness of the whole system.

Keywords: biofuel, energetic efficiency, EROEI, mathematical modelling, production system

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
113 Promoting Biofuels in India: Assessing Land Use Shifts Using Econometric Acreage Response Models

Authors: Y. Bhatt, N. Ghosh, N. Tiwari


Acreage response function are modeled taking account of expected harvest prices, weather related variables and other non-price variables allowing for partial adjustment possibility. At the outset, based on the literature on price expectation formation, we explored suitable formulations for estimating the farmer’s expected prices. Assuming that farmers form expectations rationally, the prices of food and biofuel crops are modeled using time-series methods for possible ARCH/GARCH effects to account for volatility. The prices projected on the basis of the models are then inserted to proxy for the expected prices in the acreage response functions. Food crop acreages in different growing states are found sensitive to their prices relative to those of one or more of the biofuel crops considered. The required percentage improvement in food crop yields is worked to offset the acreage loss.

Keywords: acreage response function, biofuel, food security, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
112 Effects of Initial Moisture Content on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Norway Spruce Briquettes

Authors: Miloš Matúš, Peter Križan, Ľubomír Šooš, Juraj Beniak


The moisture content of densified biomass is a limiting parameter influencing the quality of this solid biofuel. It influences its calorific value, density, mechanical strength and dimensional stability as well as affecting its production process. This paper deals with experimental research into the effect of moisture content of the densified material on the final quality of biofuel in the form of logs (briquettes or pellets). Experiments based on the single-axis densification of the spruce sawdust were carried out with a hydraulic piston press (piston and die), where the densified logs were produced at room temperature. The effect of moisture content on the qualitative properties of the logs, including density, change of moisture, expansion and physical changes, and compressive and impact resistance were studied. The results show the moisture ranges required for producing good-quality logs. The experiments were evaluated and the moisture content of the tested material was optimized to achieve the optimum value for the best quality of the solid biofuel. The dense logs also have high-energy content per unit volume. The research results could be used to develop and optimize industrial technologies and machinery for biomass densification to achieve high quality solid biofuel.

Keywords: biomass, briquettes, densification, fuel quality, moisture content, density

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111 Evaluation and Selection of Elite Jatropha Genotypes for Biofuel

Authors: Bambang Heliyanto, Rully Dyah Purwati, Hasnam, Fadjry Djufry


Jatropha curcas L., a drought tolerant and monoecious perennial shrub, has received attention worldwide during the past decade. Realizing the facts, the Indonesian government has decided to option for Jatropha and palm oil for in country biofuel production. To support the program development of high yielding jatropha varieties is necessary. This paper reviews Jatropha improvement program in Indonesia using mass selection and hybrid development. To start with, at the end of 2005, in-country germplasm collection was mobilized to Lampung and Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) provinces and successfully collected 15 provenances/sub-provenances which serves as a base population for selection. A significant improvement has been achieved through a simple recurrent breeding selection during 2006 to 2007. Seed yield productivity increased more than double, from 0.36 to 0.97 ton dry seed per hectare during the first selection cycle (IP-1), and then increased to 2.2 ton per hectare during the second cycles (IP-2) in Lampung provenance. Similar result was also observed in NTB provenance. Seed yield productivity increased from 0.43 ton to 1 ton dry seed per hectare in the first cycle (IP-1), and then 1.9 ton in the second cycle (IP-2). In 2008, the population IP-3 resulted from the third cycle of selection have been identified which were capable of producing 2.2 to 2.4 ton seed yield per hectare. To improve the seed yield per hectare, jatropha hybrid varieties was developed involving superior provenances. As a result a Jatropha Energy Terbarukan (JET) variety-2 was released in 2017 with seed yield potential of 2.6 ton per hectare. The use of this high yielding genotypes for biofuel is discussed.

Keywords: Jatropha curcas, provenance, biofuel, improve population, hybrid

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110 Investigating the Effect of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coating on Diesel Engine with Lemon Oil Biofuel

Authors: V. Karthickeyan


The demand for energy is anticipated to increase, due to growing urbanization, industrialization, upgraded living standards and cumulatively increasing human population. The general public is becoming gradually aware of the diminishing fossil fuel resources along with the environmental issues, and it has become clear that biofuel is intended to make significant support to the forthcoming energy needs of the native and industrial sectors. Nowadays, the investigation on biofuels obtained from peels of fruits and vegetables have gained the consideration as an environment-friendly alternative to diesel. In the present work, biofuel was produced from non-edible Lemon Oil (LO) using steam distillation process. LO is characterized by its beneficial aspects like low kinematic viscosity and enhanced calorific value which provides better fuel atomization and evaporation. Furthermore, the heating values of the biofuels are approximately equal to diesel. A single cylinder, four-stroke diesel engine was used for this experimentation. An engine modification technique namely Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) was attempted. Combustion chamber components were thermally coated with ceramic material namely partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). The benefit of thermal barrier coating is to diminish the heat loss from engine and transform the collected heat into piston work. Performance characteristics like Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) and Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) were analyzed. Combustion characteristics like in-cylinder pressure and heat release rate were analyzed. In addition, the following engine emissions namely nitrogen oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), and smoke were measured. The acquired performance combustion and emission characteristics of uncoated engine were compared with PSZ coated engine. From the results, it was perceived that the LO biofuel may be considered as the prominent alternative in the near prospect with thermal barrier coating technique to enrich the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine.

Keywords: ceramic material, thermal barrier coating, biofuel and diesel engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
109 Mass Production of Endemic Diatoms in Polk County, Florida Concomitant with Biofuel Extraction

Authors: Melba D. Horton


Algae are identified as an alternative source of biofuel because of their ubiquitous distribution in aquatic environments. Diatoms are unique forms of algae characterized by silicified cell walls which have gained prominence in various technological applications. Polk County is home to a multitude of ponds and lakes but has not been explored for the presence of diatoms. Considering the condition of the waters brought about by predominant phosphate mining activities in the area, this research was conducted to determine if endemic diatoms are present and explore their potential for low-cost mass production. Using custom-built photobioreactors, water samples from various lakes provided by the Polk County Parks and Recreation and from nearby ponds were used as the source of diatoms together with other algae obtained during collection. Results of the initial culture cycles were successful, but later an overgrowth of other algae crashed the diatom population. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to tease out some factors possibly contributing to the die-off. Generally, the total biomass declines after two culture cycles and the causative factors need further investigation. The lipid yield is minimum; however, the high frustule production after die-off adds value to the overall benefit of the harvest.

Keywords: diatoms, algae, biofuel, lipid, photobioreactor, frustule

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108 Assessing Social Sustainability for Biofuels Supply Chains: The Case of Jet Biofuel in Brazil

Authors: Z. Wang, F. Pashaei Kamali, J. A. Posada Duque, P. Osseweijer


Globally, the aviation sector is seeking for sustainable solutions to comply with the pressure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Jet fuels derived from biomass are generally perceived as a sustainable alternative compared with their fossil counterparts. However, the establishment of jet biofuels supply chains will have impacts on environment, economy, and society. While existing studies predominantly evaluated environmental impacts and techno-economic feasibility of jet biofuels, very few studies took the social / socioeconomic aspect into consideration. Therefore, this study aims to provide a focused evaluation of social sustainability for aviation biofuels with a supply chain perspective. Three potential jet biofuel supply chains based on different feedstocks, i.e. sugarcane, eucalyptus, and macauba were analyzed in the context of Brazil. The assessment of social sustainability is performed with a process-based approach combined with input-output analysis. Over the supply chains, a set of social sustainability issues including employment, working condition (occupational accident and wage level), labour right, education, equity, social development (GDP and trade balance) and food security were evaluated in a (semi)quantitative manner. The selection of these social issues is based on two criteria: (1) the issues are highly relevant and important to jet biofuel production; (2) methodologies are available for assessing these issues. The results show that the three jet biofuel supply chains lead to a differentiated level of social effects. The sugarcane-based supply chain creates the highest number of jobs whereas the biggest contributor of GDP turns out to be the macauba-based supply chain. In comparison, the eucalyptus-based supply chain stands out regarding working condition. It is also worth noting that biojet fuel supply chain with high level of social benefits could result in high level of social concerns (such as occupational accident, violation of labour right and trade imbalance). Further research is suggested to investigate the possible interactions between different social issues. In addition, the exploration of a wider range of social effects is needed to expand the comprehension of social sustainability for biofuel supply chains.

Keywords: biobased supply chain, jet biofuel, social assessment, social sustainability, socio-economic impacts

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107 Thermodynamic Analysis of a Multi-Generation Plant Driven by Pine Sawdust as Primary Fuel

Authors: Behzad Panahirad, UğUr Atikol


The current study is based on a combined heat and power system with multi-objectives, driven by biomass. The system consists of a combustion chamber (CC), a single effect absorption cooling system (SEACS), an air conditioning unit (AC), a reheat steam Rankine cycle (RRC), an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and an electrolyzer. The purpose of this system is to produce hydrogen, electricity, heat, cooling, and air conditioning. All the simulations had been performed by Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software. Pine sawdust is the selected biofuel for the combustion process. The overall utilization factor (εₑₙ) and exergetic efficiency (ψₑₓ) were calculated to be 2.096 and 24.03% respectively. The performed renewable and environmental impact analysis indicated a sustainability index of 1.316 (SI) and a specific CO2 emission of 353.8 kg/MWh. The parametric study is conducted based on the variation of ambient (sink) temperature, biofuel mass flow rate, and boilers outlet temperatures. The parametric simulation showed that the increase in biofuel mass flow rate has a positive effect on the sustainability of the system.

Keywords: biomass, exergy assessment, multi-objective plant, CO₂ emission, irreversibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
106 Bioethanol Production from Marine Algae Ulva Lactuca and Sargassum Swartzii: Saccharification and Process Optimization

Authors: M. Jerold, V. Sivasubramanian, A. George, B.S. Ashik, S. S. Kumar


Bioethanol is a sustainable biofuel that can be used alternative to fossil fuels. Today, third generation (3G) biofuel is gaining more attention than first and second-generation biofuel. The more lignin content in the lignocellulosic biomass is the major drawback of second generation biofuels. Algae are the renewable feedstock used in the third generation biofuel production. Algae contain a large number of carbohydrates, therefore it can be used for the fermentation by hydrolysis process. There are two groups of Algae, such as micro and macroalgae. In the present investigation, Macroalgae was chosen as raw material for the production of bioethanol. Two marine algae viz. Ulva Lactuca and Sargassum swartzii were used for the experimental studies. The algal biomass was characterized using various analytical techniques like Elemental Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to understand the physio-Chemical characteristics. The batch experiment was done to study the hydrolysis and operation parameters such as pH, agitation, fermentation time, inoculum size. The saccharification was done with acid and alkali treatment. The experimental results showed that NaOH treatment was shown to enhance the bioethanol. From the hydrolysis study, it was found that 0.5 M Alkali treatment would serve as optimum concentration for the saccharification of polysaccharide sugar to monomeric sugar. The maximum yield of bioethanol was attained at a fermentation time of 9 days. The inoculum volume of 1mL was found to be lowest for the ethanol fermentation. The agitation studies show that the fermentation was higher during the process. The percentage yield of bioethanol was found to be 22.752% and 14.23 %. The elemental analysis showed that S. swartzii contains a higher carbon source. The results confirmed hydrolysis was not completed to recover the sugar from biomass. The specific gravity of ethanol was found to 0.8047 and 0.808 for Ulva Lactuca and Sargassum swartzii, respectively. The purity of bioethanol also studied and found to be 92.55 %. Therefore, marine algae can be used as a most promising renewable feedstock for the production of bioethanol.

Keywords: algae, biomass, bioethaol, biofuel, pretreatment

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105 Electrochemical Studies of Nickel Nanoparticles Decorated the Surface of Some Conducting Polymers for Glucose Oxidation in Biofuel Cells

Authors: Z. Khalifa, K. M. Hassan, M. Abdel Azzem


Potential strategies for deriving useful forms of renewable high density energy from abundant energy stored in carbohydrates is direct conversion of glucose (GLU) to electrical power. A three novel versatile modified electrodes, synthesized by electrochemical polymerization of organic monomers on glassy carbon electrodes (GC), have been developed for biofuel cells results in stable and long-term power production. Electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose in alkaline solution on conducting polymers electrodes modified by incorporation of Ni nanoparticles (NiNPs) onto poly(1,5-aminonaphthalene) (1,5-PDAN), poly(1,8-diaminonaphthalene) (1,8-PDAN) and poly(1-amino-2-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone) (PAMAQ) was investigated. The electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose at NiNPs-modified 1,5-PDAN/GC, 1,8-PDAN/GC and PAMAQ/GC electrodes has been studied using voltammetry technique. The PDAN electrodes show a slight activity in the potential of interest. The prepared NiNPs/PAMAQ/GC catalyst showed a very interesting catalytic activity that was nicely comparable to the NiNPs/1,5-PDAN/GC, NiNPs/1,8-PDAN/GC modified electrodes. In advance, both shows a significant more catalytic activity compared to the reported data for electrodes for glucose electrocatalytic oxidation.

Keywords: biofuel cells, glucose oxidation, electrocatalysis, nanoparticles and modified electrodes

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
104 Lipidomic Profiling of Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus abundans towards Deciphering Phospholipids and Glycolipids under Nitrogen Limited Condition

Authors: J. Singh, Swati Dubey, R. P. Singh


Microalgal strains can accumulate greatly enhanced levels of lipids under nitrogen-deficient condition, making these as one of the most promising sustainable sources for biofuel production. High-grade biofuel production from microalgal biomass could be facilitated by analysing the lipid content of the microalgae and enumerating its dynamics under varying nutrient conditions. In the present study, a detailed investigation of changes in lipid composition in Chlorella species and Scenedesmus abundans in response to nitrogen limited condition was performed to provide novel mechanistic insights into the lipidome during stress conditions. The mass spectroscopic approaches mainly LC-MS and GC-MS were employed for lipidomic profiling in both the microalgal strains. The analyses of lipid profiling using LC-MS revealed distinct forms of lipids mainly phospho- and glycolipids, including betaine lipids, and various other forms of lipids in both the microalgal strains. As detected, an overall decrease in polar lipids was observed. However, GC-MS analyses had revealed that the synthesis of the storage lipid i.e. triacylglycerol (TAG) was substantially stimulated in both the strains under nitrogen limited conditions. The changes observed in the overall fatty acid profile were primarily due to the decrease in proportion of polar lipids to TAGs. This study had enabled in analysing a detailed and orchestrated form of lipidomes in two different microalgal strains having potential for biodiesel production.

Keywords: biofuel, GC-MS, LC-MS, lipid, microalgae

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
103 Metabolic and Adaptive Laboratory Evolutionary Engineering (ALE) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Second Generation Biofuel Production

Authors: Farnaz Yusuf, Naseem A. Gaur


The increase in environmental concerns, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves and intense interest in achieving energy security has led to a global research effort towards developing renewable sources of fuels. Second generation biofuels have attracted more attention recently as the use of lignocellulosic biomass can reduce fossil fuel dependence and is environment-friendly. Xylose is the main pentose and second most abundant sugar after glucose in lignocelluloses. Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not readily uptake and use pentose sugars. For an economically feasible biofuel production, both hexose and pentose sugars must be fermented to ethanol. Therefore, it is important to develop S. cerevisiae host platforms with more efficient xylose utilization. This work aims to construct a xylose fermenting yeast strains with engineered oxido-reductative pathway for xylose metabolism. Engineered strain was further improved by adaptive evolutionary engineering approach. The engineered strain is able to grow on xylose as sole carbon source with the maximum ethanol yield of 0.39g/g xylose and productivity of 0.139g/l/h at 96 hours. The further improvement in strain development involves over expression of pentose phosphate pathway and protein engineering of xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase to change their cofactor specificity in order to reduce xylitol accumulation.

Keywords: biofuel, lignocellulosic biomass, saccharomyces cerevisiae, xylose

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
102 Time-Course Lipid Accumulation and Transcript Analyses of Lipid Biosynthesis Gene of Chlorella sp.3 under Nitrogen Limited Condition

Authors: Jyoti Singh, Swati Dubey, Mukta Singh, R. P. Singh


The freshwater microalgae Chlorella sp. is alluring considerable interest as a source for biofuel production due to its fast growth rate and high lipid content. Under nitrogen limited conditions, they can accumulate significant amounts of lipids. Thus, it is important to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of their lipid metabolism. In this study under nitrogen limited conditions, regular pattern of growth characteristics lipid accumulation and gene expression analysis of key regulatory genes of lipid biosynthetic pathway were carried out in microalgae Chlorella sp 3. Our results indicated that under nitrogen limited conditions there is a significant increase in the lipid content and lipid productivity, achieving 44.21±2.64 % and 39.34±0.66 mg/l/d at the end of the cultivation, respectively. Time-course transcript patterns of lipid biosynthesis genes i.e. acetyl coA carboxylase (accD) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (dgat) showed that during late log phase of microalgae Chlorella sp.3 both the genes were significantly up regulated as compared to early log phase. Moreover, the transcript level of the dgat gene is two-fold higher than the accD gene. The results suggested that both the genes responded sensitively to the nitrogen limited conditions during the late log stage, which proposed their close relevance to lipid biosynthesis. Further, this transcriptome data will be useful for engineering microalgae species by targeting these genes for genetic modification to improve microalgal biofuel quality and production.

Keywords: biofuel, gene, lipid, microalgae

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
101 Evaluation of Durability Performance for Bio-Energy Co-Product

Authors: Bo Yang, Hali̇l Ceylan, Ali Ulvi̇ Uzer


This experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of biofuel co-products (BCPs) with sulfur-free lignin addition on the unconsolidated on strength and durability behavior in pavement soil stabilization subjected to freezing–thawing cycles. For strength behavior, a series of unconfined compression tests were conducted. Mass losses were also calculated after freezing–thawing cycles as criteria for durability behavior. To investigate the effect of the biofuel co-products on the durability behavior of the four type’s soils, mass losses were calculated after 12 freezing–thawing cycles. The co-products tested are promising additives for improving durability under freeze-thaw conditions, and each type has specific advantages.

Keywords: durability, mass lose, freezing–thawing test, bio-energy co-product, soil stabilization

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100 Biobutanol Production from Date Palm Waste by Clostridium acetobutylicum

Authors: Diya Alsafadi, Fawwaz Khalili, Mohammad W. Amer


Butanol is an important industrial solvent and potentially a better liquid transportation biofuel than ethanol. The cost of feedstock is one key problem associated with the biobutanol production. Date palm is sugar-rich fruit and highly abundant. Thousands of tons of date wastes that generated from date processing industries are thrown away each year and imposing serious environmental problems. To exploit the utilization of renewable biomass feedstock, date palm waste was utilized for butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1731. Fermentation conditions were optimized by investigating several parameters that affect the production of butanol such as temperature, substrate concentration and pH. The highest butanol yield (1.0 g/L) and acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) content (1.3 g/L) were achieved at 20 g/L date waste, pH 5.0 and 37 °C. These results suggest that date palm waste can be used for biobutanol production.

Keywords: biofuel, acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation, date palm waste, Clostridium acetobutylicum

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99 Screening Microalgae Strains Which Were Isolated from Agriculture and Municipal Wastewater Drain, Reno, Nevada and Reuse of Effluent Water from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant in Microalgae Cultivation for Biofuel Feedstock

Authors: Nita Rukminasari


The aim of this study is to select microalgae strains, which were isolated from agriculture and municipal wastewater drain, Reno, Nevada that has highest growth rate and lipid contents. The experiments in this study were carried out in two consecutive stages. The first stage is aimed at testing the survival capability of all isolated microalgae strains and determining the best candidates to grow in centrate cultivation system. The second stage was targeted at determination the highest growth rate and highest lipid content of the selected top performing algae strain when cultivated on centrate wastewater. 26 microalgae strains, which were isolated from municipal and agriculture waste water, were analyzed using Flow cytometer for FACS of lipid with BODIPY and Nile Red as a lipid dyes and they grew on 96 wells plate for 31 days to determine growth rate as a based line data for growth rate. The result showed that microalgae strains which showed a high mean of fluorescence for BODIPY and Nile Red were F3.BP.1, F3.LV.1, T1.3.1, and T1.3.3. Five microalgae strains which have high growth rate were T1.3.3, T2.4.1. F3.LV.1, T2.12.1 and T3.3.1. In conclusion, microalgae strain which showed the highest starch content was F3.LV.1. T1.3.1 had the highest mean of fluorescence for Nile Red and BODIPY. Microalgae strains were potential for biofuel feedstock such as F3.LV.1 and T1.3.1, those microalgae strains showed a positive correlation between growth rate at stationary phase, biomass and meant of fluorescence for Nile Red and BODIPY.

Keywords: agriculture and municipal wastewater, biofuel, centrate, microalgae

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98 Capability of Marine Macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum for Wastewater Phytoremediation and Biofuel Recovery

Authors: Zhipeng Chen, Lingfeng Wang, Shuang Qiu, Shijian Ge


Macroalgae are larger in size compared with microalgae; hence, they imposed lower separation and drying costs. To explore the potential for enhancing cultivation conditions in macroalgae Chaetomorpha linum (C. linum)-based bioreactor for nutrient recovery from municipal wastewaters and examine the biochemical composition of the macroalgae for the potential downstream production of biofuels, screening experiments were performed. This study suggested that C. linum grew well on primary (PW), secondary (SW), and centrate wastewater (CW). A step feeding approach was shown to significantly enhance biomass productivity when grown on 10% CW; meanwhile, nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies increased to 86.8 ± 1.1% and 92.6 ± 0.2%, respectively. The CO₂-supplemented SW cultures were 1.20 times more productive than the corresponding controls without CO₂ supplementation. These findings demonstrate that C. linum could represent a promising and efficient wastewater treatment alternative which could also provide a feedstock for downstream processing to biofuels.

Keywords: biofuel production, macroalgae, nutrient removal, wastewater

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97 Deciphering Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Folic Acid for the Applications of Tissue Engineering and Biofuel Cell

Authors: Sharda Nara, Bansi Dhar Malhotra


Investigation of the vitamins as an electron transfer mediator could significantly assist in merging the area of tissue engineering and electronics required for the implantable therapeutic devices. The present study report that the molecules of folic acid released by Providencia rettgeri via fermentation route under the anoxic condition of the microbial fuel cell (MFC) exhibit characteristic electrochemical and optical properties, as indicated by absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and cyclic voltammetry studies. The absorption spectroscopy has depicted an absorption peak at 263 nm with a small bulge around 293 nm on day two of bacterial culture, whereas an additional peak was observed at 365 nm on the twentieth day. Furthermore, the PL spectra has indicated that the maximum emission occurred at various wavelengths 420, 425, 440, and 445 nm when excited by 310, 325, 350, and 365 nm. The change of emission spectra with varying excitation wavelength might be indicating the presence of tunable optical bands in the folic acid molecules co-related with the redox activity of the molecules. The results of cyclic voltammetry studies revealed that the oxidation and reduction occurred at 0.25V and 0.12V, respectively, indicating the electrochemical behavior of the folic acid. This could be inferred that the released folic acid molecules in a MFC might undergo inter as well as intra molecular electron transfer forming different intermediate states while transferring electrons to the electrode surface. Synchronization of electrochemical and optical properties of folic acid molecules could be potentially promising for the designing of electroactive scaffold and biocompatible conductive surface for the applications of tissue engineering and biofuel cells, respectively.

Keywords: biofuel cell, electroactivity, folic acid, tissue engineering

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96 Waste to Biofuel by Torrefaction Technology

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Yu-Zen Lin, Wei-Zhi Chen


Torrefaction is one of waste to energy (WTE) technologies developing in Taiwan recently, which can reduce the moisture and impurities and increase the energy density of biowaste effectively. To understand the torrefaction characteristics of different biowaste and the influences of different torrefaction conditions, four typical biowaste were selected to carry out the torrefaction experiments. The physical and chemical properties of different biowaste prior to and after torrefaction were analyzed and compared. Experimental results show that the contents of elemental carbon and caloric value of the four biowaste were significantly increased after torrefaction. The increase of combustible and caloric value in bamboo was the greatest among the four biowaste. The caloric value of bamboo can be increased from 1526 kcal/kg to 6104 kcal/kg after 300oC and 1 hour torrefaction. The caloric value of torrefied bamboo was almost four times as the original. The increase of elemental carbon content in wood was the greatest (from 41.03% to 75.24%), and the next was bamboo (from 47.07% to 74.63%). The major parameters which affected the caloric value of torrefied biowaste followed the sequence of biowaste kinds, torrefaction time, and torrefaction temperature. The optimal torrefaction conditions of the experiments were bamboo torrefied at 300oC for 3 hours, and the corresponding caloric value of torrefied bamboo was 5953 kcal/kg. This caloric value is similar to that of brown coal or bituminous coal.

Keywords: torrefaction, waste to energy, calorie, biofuel

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95 Assessment of Biofuel Feedstock Production on Arkansas State Highway Transportation Department's Marginalized Lands

Authors: Ross J. Maestas


Biofuels are derived from multiple renewable bioenergy feedstocks including animal fats, wood, starchy grains, and oil seeds. Transportation agencies have considered growing the latter two on underutilized and nontraditional lands that they manage, such as in the Right of Way (ROW), abandoned weigh stations, and at maintenance yards. These crops provide the opportunity to generate revenue or supplement fuel once converted and offer a solution to increasing fuel costs and instability by creating a ‘home-grown’ alternative. Biofuels are non-toxic, biodegradable, and emit less Green House Gasses (GHG) than fossil fuels, therefore allowing agencies to meet sustainability goals and regulations. Furthermore, they enable land managers to achieve soil erosion and roadside aesthetic strategies. The research sought to understand if the cultivation of a biofuel feedstock within the Arkansas State Highway Transportation Department’s (AHTD) managed and marginalized lands is feasible by identifying potential land areas and crops. To determine potential plots the parcel data was downloaded from Arkansas’s GIS office. ArcGIS was used to query the data for all variations of the names of property owned by AHTD and a KML file was created that identifies the queried parcel data in Google Earth. Furthermore, biofuel refineries in the state were identified to optimize the harvest to transesterification process. Agricultural data was collected from federal and state agencies and universities to assess various oil seed crops suitable for conversion and suited to grow in Arkansas’s climate and ROW conditions. Research data determined that soybean is the best adapted biofuel feedstock for Arkansas with camelina and canola showing possibilities as well. Agriculture is Arkansas’s largest industry and soybean is grown in over half of the state’s counties. Successful cultivation of a feedstock in the aforementioned areas could potentially offer significant employment opportunity for which the skilled farmers already exist. Based on compiled data, AHTD manages 21,489 acres of marginalized land. The result of the feasibility assessment offer suggestions and guidance should AHTD decide to further investigate this type of initiative.

Keywords: Arkansas highways, biofuels, renewable energy initiative, marginalized lands

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94 The Methods of Immobilization of Laccase for Direct Transfer in an Enzymatic Fuel Cell

Authors: Afshin Farahbakhsh, Hoda Khodadadi


In this paper, we compare five methods of biological fuel cell fabrication by combining a Shewanella oneidensis microbial anode and a laccase-modified air-breathing cathode. As a result of biofuel cell laccase with graphite nanofibers, carbon surface (PAMAN) on the pt/hpg electrode, graphite sheets MWCNT and with (PG) and (MWCNT) showed, respectively. Describes methods for creating controllable and reproducible bio-anodes and demonstrates the versatility of hybrid biological fuel cells. The laccase-based biocathodes prepared either with the crude extract or with the purified enzyme can provide electrochemically active and stable biomaterials. The laccase-based biocathodes prepared either with the crude extract or with the purified enzyme can provide electrochemically active and stable biomaterials. When the device was fed with transdermal extracts, containing only 30μM of glucose, the average peak power was proportionally lower (0.004mW). The result of biofuel cell with graphite nanofibers showed the enzymatic fuel cell reaches 0.5 V at open circuit voltage with both, ethanol and methanol and the maximum current density observed for E2electrode was 228.94mAcm.

Keywords: enzymatic electrode, fuel cell, immobilization, laccase

Procedia PDF Downloads 146