Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Search results for: biochemistry

63 Plasma Biochemistry Values in Wild Hawksbill Turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) during Nesting and Foraging Seasons in Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf

Authors: Fateme Afkhami, Mohsen Ehsanpour, Majid Afkhami, Maryam Ehsanpour


Normal reference ranges of biochemical parameters are considered important for assessing and monitoring the health status of sea turtles. For this means, serum biochemistry determinations were analyzed in normal adult nesting and foraging hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata). Blood samples were collected in March–April during nesting season and December-November in the foraging season. Plasma biochemistry values, except for creatinine and lipase were significant between the two periods. FBS, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), bilirubin, total protein, LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), CK (creatine kinase) and amylase were significantly higher in nesting season than foraging season (P<0.05). On the other hand urea, ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and albumin in the nesting season were significantly lower than foraging season (P<0.05). It was concluded that the nesting E. imbricata showed significant variation in their biochemical profile due to reproductive output. This study has produced working reference intervals useful for hawksbill turtles for future conservation and rehabilitation projects in the Persian Gulf and may be of assistance in similar programs worldwide.

Keywords: plasma biochemistry, nesting, foraging, hawksbill turtles, Persian Gulf

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62 Growth Performance and Blood Characteristics of Broilers Chicken Fed on Diet Containing Brewer Spent Grain at Finisher Phase

Authors: O. A. Anjola, M. A. Adejobi, L. A Tijani


This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brewer spent grain (BSG) on growth performance and serum biochemistry characteristics of blood of broilers chickens. Three hundred and fifteen (4 weeks old) Oba – Marshall Broilers were used for the experiment. Five experimental diets were formulated with diet 1 (T1) containing 100% soya bean meal as the control, Diet 2, 3, 4 and 5 had BSG as replacement for soya bean meal at 0%, 36%, 57%, 76% and 100% respectively. The birds were allocated into each dietary group in a completely randomized design with 63 chicks in 3 replicates of 21 chicks each. The birds were offered these diets ad libitum from four weeks old to nine weeks old (35 days). Feed intake, body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were assessed. Blood samples were also collected to examine the effect of BSG waste on hematology and serum biochemistry of broilers. Result indicated that BSG did not significantly (P>0.05) affect feed intake and weight gain. However, FCR and final weight of finishing broilers differs significantly (P<0.05) among treatments. The blood hematology and serum biochemistry indices did not follow a particular trend. Cholesterol concentration reduced with increasing level of BSG in the diet. Hb, RBC, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, heterophiles and MCHC were significant (P<0.05) while MHC and MVC were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by BSG in diets. serum total protein, albumin, and cholesterol concentration also showed significance (P<0.05) difference. Thus, BSG can replace soya bean meal up to 14% in the broiler finisher diet without deleterious effect on the growth, hematology and the serum biochemistry of broiler chicken.

Keywords: broilers, growth performance, haematology, serum biochemistry

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61 Effects of Corynebacterium cutis Lysate Administration on Hematology and Biochemistry Parameters with PPR Vaccine

Authors: Burak Dik, Oguzhan Avci, Irmak Dik, Emre Bahcivan


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alone and combined administration of Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine with Corynebacterium cutis lysate (CCL) on the hematology and biochemistry parameters levels in sheep. CCL and PPR vaccine changes cell and organ activity. In this study, 12 ewes were divided into equal groups; first group; PPR vaccine was applied only one time 1 mL subcutan of armpit on 6 sheep, and the second group; CCL (1 mL) and PPR vaccine (1 mL) combination were applied only one time subcutan of armpit on 6 sheep. Blood samples were collected before treatment (0. hour, control) and after treatment (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) from the sheep. Plasma and serum samples were evaluated for hematology and biochemistry parameters and there were statistically significant in sheep. In conclusion, combined usage of PPR vaccine with CCL may not influence cells and organs. Repeated CCL treatment with vaccine can create hepatotoxic, renal and bone marrow effects in sheep.

Keywords: Corynebacterium cutis lysate, hematology, peste des petits ruminants, vaccine

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60 Evaluation of Biochemical Parameters in the Blood of Dromedary (Camelus Dromedarius)

Authors: M. Titaouine, T. Meziane, K. Deghnouche


The purpose of this study was to determine reference serum biochemistry values from dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria and to evaluate potential sources of physiological variability such as the sex, age and season on serum data. Usual serum biochemistry values were determined in blood samples from 26 apparently healthy dromedaries, 11 males and 15 females, divided into 3 lots (ender 4years), (between 5 and 10 years), (up 10 years). Parametric reference ranges and physiological variations are determined for calcium (Ca), organic phosphate (P), magnesium (Mg), natrium (Na), potassium (K), iron (Fe), glucose, triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, urea, creatinine, total proteins and albumin. The results demonstrate: * Values which agreed with literature * Significant statistically differences (Anova test, p < 0.05) depending on: -the sex for Na, glucose, TG, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, albumin, -the age for Ca, P, K, Mg, glucose, TG, b and g globulin, -and season for Fe, urea, total proteins, TG, cholesterol and glucose. These reference ranges for serum biochemical analysis can be used for metabolic and nutritional disorders detection in dromedary.

Keywords: age, biochemistry, dromadery, season, sex

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59 Intestine Characteristics and Blood Profile of Broiler Chickens Treated with Garlic

Authors: Oguike, Ilouno, Amaduruonye


A completely randomized design experiment with 3 treatments was conducted to study the effects of garlic on intestine characteristics, haematology and serum biochemistry of Marshal broilers. Thirty three (33) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to each treatment designated T1, T2 and T3. The birds in each treatment were replicated 3 times with 11 broilers per replicate. They were fed diets supplemented with garlic at 0, 1.5 and 2.5 % /kg feed for t1, T2 and T3, respectively with T1 as control. Data were collected on intestine parameters, serum biochemical parameters and haematological indices. The results showed significant (P>0.05) dose-dependent decrease in intestine weight and caeca microbial load of the broilers. The intestine of broilers in the treatments showed normal histological architecture in all the treatments. The red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), haemoglobin (Hb) and other haematological indices showed no significant differences (P<0.05) among the treatments. Cholesterol, globulin, glucose and alanin aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly different (P<0.05) among the treatment groups. Serum biochemical parameters such as, total protein albumin, bilirubin and others were not significant among the treatments. All the blood parameters studied fall within the normal range for broilers. Garlic supplementation in the diets of broilers did not have any detrimental effects on the treated birds since their serum biochemistry and haematology fall within the normal range for broilers birds. The microbial examination of intestine and caeca, as well as the histopathological studies of the intestine confirmed antimicrobial properties of garlic.

Keywords: broiler, biochemistry and haematology, garlic, intestine

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58 A Comparative Study on the Use of Learning Resources in Learning Biochemistry by MBBS Students at Ras Al Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University, UAE

Authors: B. K. Manjunatha Goud, Aruna Chanu Oinam


The undergraduate medical curriculum is oriented towards training the students to undertake the responsibilities of a physician. During the training period, adequate emphasis is placed on inculcating logical and scientific habits of thought; clarity of expression and independence of judgment; and ability to collect and analyze information and to correlate them. At Ras Al Khaimah Medical and Health Sciences University (RAKMHSU), Biochemistry a basic medical science subject is taught in the 1st year of 5 years medical course with vertical interdisciplinary interaction with all subjects, which needs to be taught and learned adequately by the students to be related to clinical case or clinical problem in medicine and future diagnostics so that they can practice confidently and skillfully in the community. Based on these facts study was done to know the extent of usage of library resources by the students and the impact of study materials on their preparation for examination. It was a comparative cross sectional study included 100 and 80 1st and 2nd-year students who had successfully completed Biochemistry course. The purpose of the study was explained to all students [participants]. Information was collected on a pre-designed, pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was validated by the senior faculties and pre tested on students who were not involved in the study. The study results showed that 80.30% and 93.15% of 1st and 2nd year students have the clear idea of course outline given in course handout or study guide. We also found a statistically significant number of students agreed that they were benefited from the practical session and writing notes in the class hour. A high percentage of students [50% and 62.02%] disagreed that that reading only the handouts is enough for their examination as compared to other students. The study also showed that only 35% and 41% of students visited the library on daily basis for the learning process, around 65% of students were using lecture notes and text books as a tool for learning and to understand the subject and 45% and 53% of students used the library resources (recommended text books) compared to online sources before the examinations. The results presented here show that students perceived that e-learning resources like power point presentations along with text book reading using SQ4R technique had made a positive impact on various aspects of their learning in Biochemistry. The use of library by students has overall positive impact on learning process especially in medical field enhances the outcome, and medical students are better equipped to treat the patient. But it’s also true that use of library use has been in decline which will impact the knowledge aspects and outcome. In conclusion, a student has to be taught how to use the library as learning tool apart from lecture handouts.

Keywords: medical education, learning resources, study guide, biochemistry

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57 Intra-Erythrocytic Trace Elements Profile of EMU (Dromaius novaehollandiae) Le Souef 1907

Authors: Adebayo Adewumi


Emu Dromaius novaehollandiae the second largest bird in the world started its domestication in the United States in the early 1980's and the present trend in the production of emu in the U.S can be compared with cattle industry. As the population of many wildlife species in Nigeria declined due to unsustainable harvest of bush meat, animals like snails, antelopes,Ostrich, Emu and rodents have been domesticated. Although this improved livestock production in Nigeria, the basic physiological parameters of these mini- livestock are not known. Especially the intra-erythrocyte trace elements of domesticated emu, For this study, emu blood was obtained from Ajanla farms, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. There, 16 emus at age of 20 months were bled through jugular vein in a semi-intensive system for a period of 12 months. The intra-erythrocyte trace elements Cu, Zn, and Mg in healthy Emu were measured. The influences of sex and age on these parameters were investigated. No age or sex differences were observed in intra-erythrocytic Cu levels. Intra-erythrocytic Zn and Mg levels were significantly higher (P<0.05) in young Emu than in adults while males used significantly (P<0.05) higher intra erythrocytic Mg than females. intra-erythrocyte trace elements Cu, Zn and Mg is a good pointer to haemoglobin concentration which determines the state of wellness of an animal. The information from this work has provided a baseline data for further understanding of erythrocyte biochemistry of Emu in Nigeria.

Keywords: intra erythrocyte, trace elements, Emu, biochemistry

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56 Effects of UV-B Radiation on the Growth of Ulva Pertusa Kjellman Seedling

Authors: HengJiang Cai, RuiJin Zhang, JinSong Gui


Enhanced UV-B (280-320nm) radiation resulting from ozone depletion was one of the global environmental problems. The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on marine macro-algae were exposed to be the greatest in shallow intertidal environments because the macro-alga was often at or above the water during low tide. Ulva pertusa Kjellman was belonged to Chlorophyta (Phylum), Ulvales (Order), Ulvaceae (Family) which was widely distributed in the western Pacific coast, and the resources were extremely rich in China. Therefore, the effects of UV-B radiation on the growth of Ulva pertusa seedling were studied in this research. Ulva pertusa seedling appearances were mainly characterized by rod shapes and tadpole shapes. The percentage of rod shapes was 90.68%±2.50%. UV-B radiation could inhibit the growth of Ulva pertusa seedling, and the growth inhibition was more significant with the increased doses of UV-B radiation treatment. The relative inhibition rates of Ulva pertusa seedling length were16.11%, 24.98%and 39.04% respectively on the 30th day at different doses (30.96, 61.92 and 123.84 Jm-2d-1) of UV-B radiation. Ulva pertusa seedling had emerged death under UV-B radiation, and the death rates were increased with the increased doses of UV-B radiation treatment. Physiology and biochemistry of Ulva pertusa seedling could be affected by UV-B radiation treatment. The SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity was increased at low-dose UV-B radiation (30.96 Jm-2d-1), while was decreased at high-dose UV-B radiation (61.92 and 123.84 Jm-2d-1). UV-B radiation could inhibit CAT (catalase) activity all the while. It speculated that the reasons for growth inhibition and death of Ulva pertusa seedling were excess ROS (reactive oxygen species), which produced by UV-B radiation.

Keywords: growth, physiology and biochemistry, Ulva pertusa Kjellman, UV-B radiation

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55 Growth Performance and Economy of Production of Pullets Fed on Different Energy Based Sources

Authors: O. A. Anjola, M. A. Adejobi, A. Ogunbameru, F. P. Agbaye, R. O. Odunukan


This experiment was conducted for 8 weeks to evaluate the growth performance and economics of pullets fed on different dietary energy sources. A total of 300 Harco black was used for this experiment. The birds were completely randomized and divided into four diet treatment groups. Each treatment group had three replicates of twenty-five birds per replicate. Four diets containing maize, spaghetti, noodles, and biscuit was formulated to represent diet 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Diet 1 containing maize is the control, while diet 2, 3, and 4 contains spaghetti, noodles, and biscuit waste meal at 100% replacement for maize on weight for weight basis. Performance indices on Feed intake, body weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and economy of production were measured. Blood samples were also collected for heamatology and serum biochemistry assessment. The result of the experiment indicated that different dietary energy source fed to birds significantly (P < 0.05) affect feed intake, body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The best cost of feed per kilogram of body weight gain was obtained in Spaghetti based diet (₦559.30). However, the best performance were obtained from diet 1(maize), it can be concluded that spaghetti as a replacement for maize in diet of pullet is most economical and profitable for production without any deleterious effects attached. Blood parameters of birds were not significantly (p > 0.05) influenced by the use of the dietary energy sources used in this experiment.

Keywords: growth performance, spaghetti, noodles, biscuit, profit, hematology, serum biochemistry

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54 Sol-Gel Coated Fabric for Controlled Release of Mosquito Repellent

Authors: Bhaskar M. Murai, Neeraj Banchor, Ishveen Chabbra, Madhusudhan Nadgir, S. Vidhya


Sol-gel technology combined with electronics and biochemistry helps to overcome the problems caused by mosquitoes by developing a portable, low-cost device which enables controlled release of trapped compound inside it. It is a wet-chemical technique which is used primarily for fabrication of silicate gel which is usually allowed to dry as per requirement. The outcome is solid rock hard material which is porous and has lots of applications in different fields. Taking porosity as a key factor, allethrin a naturally occurring synthetic compound with molecular mass 302.40 was entrapped inside the sol-gel matrix as a dopant. Allethrin is commonly used as an insecticide and is a key ingredient in commercially available mosquitoes repellent in Asian and subtropical countries. It has low toxicity for humans and birds, and are used in many household insecticides such as RAID as well as mosquito coils. They are however highly toxic to fish and bees. Insects subject to its exposure become paralyzed (nervous system effect) before dying. They are also used as an ultra-low volume spray for outdoor mosquito control. Therefore, there is a need for controlled release of allethrin in the environment. For controlled release of allethrin from sol-gel matrix, its (allethrin) we utilized temperature based controlled evaporation through porous sol-gel. Different types of fabric like cotton, Terri-cotton, polyester, surgical cap, knee-cap etc are studied and the best with maximum absorption capacity is selected to hold the sol-gel matrix with maximum quantity. For sol-gel coating 2 x 2cm cloth pieces are dipped in sol-gel solution for 10 minutes and by calculating the weight difference we concluded that Terri cotton is best suitable for our project. An electronic circuit with heating plate is developed in to test the controlled release of compound. An oscillatory circuit is used to produce the required heat.

Keywords: sol-gel, allethrin, TEOS, biochemistry

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53 Some Hematological Parameters of the Mauremys rivulata in Two Different Water Quality in the Biga Stream (Çanakkale, Turkey)

Authors: Cigdem Gul, Murat Tosunoglu, Nurcihan Hacioglu


The contamination or desiccation of fresh waters also has a negative effect on freshwater turtles like other fresh water-dependent species. In order to conserve those species, which are confronted with such negative conditions, it is necessary to know beforehand the biology and the physiology of species. In this study, a comprehensive health assessment was conducted on a total of 20 clinically normal individuals free living Western Caspian Turtle (Mauremys rivulata) captured from two different freshwater localities in the Biga stream (Çanakkale-Turkey). When comparing our findings with the Turkish legislation (Water pollution control regulation), the 1. Locality of the Biga stream in terms of total coliform classified as "high quality water" (Coliform: 866.66 MPN/100 mL), while the 2. Locality was a “contaminated water" (Coliform: 53266.66 MPN/100 mL). Blood samples for hematological and biochemical analyses were obtained from the dorsal coccygeal vein. A total of 1-2 mL of blood was collected from each of the specimens via needle. After the required procedures had been performed, the turtles were put back in the same localities. Hematological and biochemical analyses based on high quality water and contaminated water, respectively, are as follows: Red blood cell count (512600-582666.66 per cubic millimeter of blood), white blood cell count (5920-5980 per cubic millimeter of blood), hematocrit value (24-24.66 %), hemoglobin concentration (6.52-6.35 g/dl), mean corpuscular volume (466.20-468.98 fl), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (125.77-113.84 pg), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (28.25-26.49 %), glucose (94.43-87.43 mg/dl), creatinine (0.23-0.3241 mg/dl), uric acid (12.59-10.48 mg/L), albumin (1.46-1.25 g/dl), calcium (8.67-9.59 mg/dl), triglyceride (95.55-75.21 mg/dl), and total protein (4.85-3.45 g/dl). When an examination was made depending on the water quality of freshwater, variations were detected in hematology and biochemistry values, but not found significant difference.

Keywords: biochemistry, freshwater quality, hematological parameters, Mauremys rivulata.

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52 Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal on Blood Biochemical Changes and Lipid Profile of Vanaraja Chicken in Tropics

Authors: Kaushalendra Kumar, Abhishek Kumar, Chandra Moni, Sanjay Kumar, P. K. Singh, Ajeet Kumar


Present study investigated the dietary inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) on production efficiency, hemato-biochemical profile and economy of Vanaraja birds under tropical condition. Experiment was conducted for a period of 56 days on 300 Vanaraja birds randomly divided in to five different experimental groups including control of 60 birds each group replicated with 20 chicks in each replicate. T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 were offered with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% Moringa oleifera leaf meal along with basal ration. All the standard managemental practices were followed during experimental period including vaccination schedule. Locally available Moringa oleifera leaves were harvested at mature stage and allowed to dry under shady and aerated conditions. Thereafter, dried leaves were milled to make a leaf meal and stored in the airtight nylon bags to avoid any possible contamination from foreign material and use for experiment. Production parameters were calculated based on the amount of feed consumed and weight gain every weeks. The body weight gain of T2 group was significantly (P < 0.05) higher side whereas T3 group was comparable with control. The feed conversion ratio for T2 group was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower than all other treatment groups, while none of the group was comparable with each other. At the end of the experiment blood samples were collected from birds for haematology study while serum biochemistry performed using spectrophotometer following statndard protocols. The haematological attributes were significantly (P > 0.05) not differed among the groups. However, serum biochemistry showed significant reduction (P < 0.05) of blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and creatinine level with higher level of MOLM diet, indicates better utilization of protein supplemented through MOLM. The total cholesterol and triglyceride level was declined significantly (P < 0.05) as compare to control group with increased level of MOLM in basal diet, decreasing trend of serum cholesterol noted. However, value of HDL for T3 group was highest and for T1 group was lowest but no significant difference (P < 0.05) found among the groups. It might be due to presence of β-sitosterol a bioactive compound present in MOLM which causes lowering of plasma concentration of LDL. During experiment total, LDL and VLDL level was found to be decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as compare to control group. It was observed that the production efficiency of birds significantly improved with 5% followed by 10% Moringa oleifera leaf meal among the treatment groups. However, the maximum profit per kg live weight was noted in 10 % level and least profit observed in 20% MOLM fed group. It was concluded that the dietary inclusion of MOLM improved overall performances without affecting metabolic status and effective in reducing cholesterol level reflects healthy chicken production for human consumption.

Keywords: hemato biochemistry, Moringa oleifera leaf meal, performance, Vanaraja birds

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51 Constraint-Based Computational Modelling of Bioenergetic Pathway Switching in Synaptic Mitochondria from Parkinson's Disease Patients

Authors: Diana C. El Assal, Fatima Monteiro, Caroline May, Peter Barbuti, Silvia Bolognin, Averina Nicolae, Hulda Haraldsdottir, Lemmer R. P. El Assal, Swagatika Sahoo, Longfei Mao, Jens Schwamborn, Rejko Kruger, Ines Thiele, Kathrin Marcus, Ronan M. T. Fleming


Degeneration of substantia nigra pars compacta dopaminergic neurons is one of the hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. These neurons have a highly complex axonal arborisation and a high energy demand, so any reduction in ATP synthesis could lead to an imbalance between supply and demand, thereby impeding normal neuronal bioenergetic requirements. Synaptic mitochondria exhibit increased vulnerability to dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. After biogenesis in and transport from the cell body, synaptic mitochondria become highly dependent upon oxidative phosphorylation. We applied a systems biochemistry approach to identify the metabolic pathways used by neuronal mitochondria for energy generation. The mitochondrial component of an existing manual reconstruction of human metabolism was extended with manual curation of the biochemical literature and specialised using omics data from Parkinson's disease patients and controls, to generate reconstructions of synaptic and somal mitochondrial metabolism. These reconstructions were converted into stoichiometrically- and fluxconsistent constraint-based computational models. These models predict that Parkinson's disease is accompanied by an increase in the rate of glycolysis and a decrease in the rate of oxidative phosphorylation within synaptic mitochondria. This is consistent with independent experimental reports of a compensatory switching of bioenergetic pathways in the putamen of post-mortem Parkinson's disease patients. Ongoing work, in the context of the SysMedPD project is aimed at computational prediction of mitochondrial drug targets to slow the progression of neurodegeneration in the subset of Parkinson's disease patients with overt mitochondrial dysfunction.

Keywords: bioenergetics, mitochondria, Parkinson's disease, systems biochemistry

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50 Fusarium Wilt of Tomato: Plant Growth, Physiology and Biological Disease Management

Authors: Amna Shoaib, Sidrah Hanif, Rashid Mehmood


Current research work was carried out to check influence of farmyard manure (FYM) in Lycopersicon esculentum L. against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FO) in copper polluted soil. Silt-loam soil naturally enriched with 70 ppm of Cu was inoculated with 1 x 106 spore suspensions of FO and incorporated with 0%, 1%, 1.5% or 2% FYM. The multilateral interaction of host-pathogen-metal-organic amendment was assessed in terms of morphology, growth, yield, physiology, biochemistry and metal uptake in tomato plant after 30 and 60 days of sowing. When soil was inoculated with FO, plant growth and biomass were significantly increased during vegetative stage, while declining during flowering stage with substantial increase in productivity over control. Infected plants exhibited late wilting and disease severity was found on 26-50% of plant during reproductive stage. Incorporation of up to 1% FYM suppressed disease severity, improved plant growth and biomass, while it decreased yield. Rest of manure doses was found ineffective in suppressing disease. Content of total chlorophyll, sugar and protein were significantly declined in FO inoculated plants and incorporation of FYM caused significant reduction or no influence on sugar and chlorophyll content, and no pronounced difference among different FYM doses were observed. On the other hand, proline, peroxidase, catalase and nitrate reductase activity were found to be increased in infected plants and incorporation of 1-2% FYM further enhanced the activity of these enzymes. Tomato plant uptake of 30-40% of copper naturally present in the soil and incorporation of 1-2% FYM markedly decreased plant uptake of metal by 15-30%, while increased Cu retention in soil. Present study concludes that lower dose (1%) of FYM could be used to manage disease, increase growth and biomass, while being ineffective for yield and productivity in Cu-polluted soil. Altered physiology/biochemistry of plant in response to any treatment could be served as basis for resistant against pathogen and metal homeostasis in plants.

Keywords: Lycopersicon esculentum, copper, Fusarium wilt, farm yard manure

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49 Simultaneous Determination of Cefazolin and Cefotaxime in Urine by HPLC

Authors: Rafika Bibi, Khaled Khaladi, Hind Mokran, Mohamed Salah Boukhechem


A high performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection at 264nm was developed and validate for quantitative determination and separation of cefazolin and cefotaxime in urine, the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer pH4,2(15 :85) (v/v) pumped through ODB 250× 4,6 mm, 5um column at a flow rate of 1ml/min, loop of 20ul. In this condition, the validation of this technique showed that it is linear in a range of 0,01 to 10ug/ml with a good correlation coefficient ( R>0,9997), retention time of cefotaxime, cefazolin was 9.0, 10.1 respectively, the statistical evaluation of the method was examined by means of within day (n=6) and day to day (n=5) and was found to be satisfactory with high accuracy and precision.

Keywords: cefazolin, cefotaxime, HPLC, bioscience, biochemistry, pharmaceutical

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
48 Sportomics Analysis of Metabolic Responses in Olympic Sprint Canoeists

Authors: A. Magno-França, A. M. Magalhães-Neto, F. Bachini, E. Cataldi, A. Bassini, L. C. Cameron


Sprint canoeing (SC) is part of the Olympic Games since 1936. Athletes compete in solo or double races of 200m and 1000m (40 sec and 240 sec, respectively). Due to its high intensity and duration, SC is extremely useful to study the blood kinetics of some metabolites in high energetic demand. Sportomics is a field of study combining “-omics” sciences with classical biochemical analyses in order to understand sports induced systemic changes. Here, we compare Sportomics findings during SC training sessions to describe metabolic responses of five top-level canoeists. Five Olympic world-class male athletes were evaluated during two days of training.

Keywords: biochemistry of exercise, metabolomics, injury markers, sportomics

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47 Probiotics as an Alternative to Antibiotic Use in Pig Production

Authors: Z. C. Dlamini, R. L. S. Langa, A. I. Okoh, O. A. Aiyegoro


The indiscriminate usage of antibiotics in swine production have consequential outcomes; such as development of bacterial resistance to prophylactic antibiotics and possibility of antibiotic residues in animal products. The use of probiotics appears to be the most effective procedure with positive metabolic nutritional implications. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus reuteri ZJ625, Lactobacillus reuteri VB4, Lactobacillus salivarius ZJ614 and Streptococcus salivarius NBRC13956) administered as direct-fed microorganisms in weaned piglets. 45 weaned piglets blocked by weight were dived into 5 treatments groups: diet with antibiotic, diet with no-antibiotic and no probiotic, and diet with probiotic and diet with combination of probiotics. Piglets performance was monitored during the trials. Faecal and Ileum samples were collected for microbial count analysis. Blood samples were collected from pigs at the end of the trial, for analysis of haematological, biochemical and IgG stimulation. The data was analysed by Split-Plot ANOVA using SAS statistically software (SAS 9.3) (2003). The difference was observed between treatments for daily weight and feed conversion ratio. No difference was observed in analysis of faecal samples in regards with bacterial counts, difference was observed in ileums samples with enteric bacteria colony forming unit being lower in P2 treatment group as compared with lactic acid and total bacteria. With exception of globulin and albumin, biochemistry blood parameters were not affected, likewise for haematology, only basophils and segmented neutrophils were differed by having higher concentration in NC treatment group as compared with other treatment groups. Moreover, in IgG stimulation analysis, difference was also observed, with P2 treatment group having high concentration of IgG in P2 treatment group as compared to other groups. The results of this study suggest that probiotics have a beneficial effect on growth performances, blood parameters and IgG stimulation of pigs, most effective when they are administered in synergy form. This means that it is most likely that these probiotics will offer a significant benefit in pig farming by reducing risk of morbidity and mortality and produce quality meat that is more affordable to poorer communities, and thereby enhance South African pig industry’s economy. In addition, these results indicate that there is still more research need to be done on probiotics in regards with, i.e. dosage, shelf life and mechanism of action.

Keywords: antibiotics, biochemistry, haematology, IgG-stimulation, microbial count, probiotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
46 Study the Effect of Dermal Application of Stone Hair Dye on Experimental Animals

Authors: Hatem Abdel Moniem Ahmed, Ragaa Mohamed Abdel Maaboud, Heba A. Mubarak


A commercially available Stone Hair Dye (SHD) was spread in Upper Egypt and used for dying woman's hair. Paraphenyl-diamine (PPD) is the main component of SHD and reported as a toxic substance. This work aims to study the systemic effects induced in experimental animals as a result of dermal application of SHD. 21 rats were divided into three groups, and doses of SHD and PPD were applied according to body weight (25 mg/100 g body weight) for 90 days. The results revealed that insignificant decrease in RBC count and Hb level, but there were significant increases in the WBC count, AST, ALT, GPT, and total protein while creatinine level was insignificantly increased. Hepatocytes showed a lot of degenerative changes in the form of vacuolated cytoplasm and irregular deeply stained nuclei with vascular congestion and lymphocytic infiltration, while renal affection indicated the occurrence of atrophy of glomerular capillaries, hyperplasia, and widening of bowman space.

Keywords: PPD, SHD, rats and histology, biochemistry and hematology

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45 Blood Chemo-Profiling in Workers Exposed to Occupational Pyrethroid Pesticides to Identify Associated Diseases

Authors: O. O. Sufyani, M. E. Oraiby, S. A. Qumaiy, A. I. Alaamri, Z. M. Eisa, A. M. Hakami, M. A. Attafi, O. M. Alhassan, W. M. Elsideeg, E. M. Noureldin, Y. A. Hobani, Y. Q. Majrabi, I. A. Khardali, A. B. Maashi, A. A. Al Mane, A. H. Hakami, I. M. Alkhyat, A. A. Sahly, I. M. Attafi


According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Pesticides Use Database, pesticide use in agriculture in Saudi Arabia has more than doubled from 4539 tons in 2009 to 10496 tons in 2019. Among pesticides, pyrethroids is commonly used in Saudi Arabia. Pesticides may increase susceptibility to a variety of diseases, particularly among pesticide workers, due to their extensive use, indiscriminate use, and long-term exposure. Therefore, analyzing blood chemo-profiles and evaluating the detected substances as biomarkers for pyrethroid pesticide exposure may assist to identify and predicting adverse effects of exposure, which may be used for both preventative and risk assessment purposes. The purpose of this study was to (a) analyze chemo-profiling by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, (b) identify the most commonly detected chemicals in a time-exposure-dependent manner using a Venn diagram, and (c) identify their associated disease among pesticide workers using analyzer tools on the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) website, (250 healthy male volunteers (20-60 years old) who deal with pesticides in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia (exposure intervals: 1-2, 4-6, 6-8, more than 8 years) were included in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic information, the duration of pesticide exposure, and the existence of chronic conditions. Blood samples were collected for biochemistry analysis and extracted by solid-phase extraction for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Biochemistry analysis reveals no significant changes in response to the exposure period; however, an inverse association between the albumin level and the exposure interval was observed. The blood chemo-profiling was differentially expressed in an exposure time-dependent manner. This analysis identified the common chemical set associated with each group and their associated significant occupational diseases. While some of these chemicals are associated with a variety of diseases, the distinguishing feature of these chemically associated disorders is their applicability for prevention measures. The most interesting finding was the identification of several chemicals; erucic acid, pelargonic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, dibutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dodecanol, myristic Acid, pyrene, and 8,11,14-eicosatrienoic acid, associated with pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, asthma, silicosis and berylliosis. Chemical-disease association study also found that cancer, digestive system disease, nervous system disease, and metabolic disease were the most often recognized disease categories in the common chemical set. The hierarchical clustering approach was used to compare the expression patterns and exposure intervals of the chemicals found commonly. More study is needed to validate these chemicals as early markers of pyrethroid insecticide-related occupational disease, which might assist evaluate and reducing risk. The current study contributes valuable data and recommendations to public health.

Keywords: occupational, toxicology, chemo-profiling, pesticide, pyrethroid, GC-MS

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44 Selenium Content in Agricultural Soils and Wheat from the Balkan Peninsula

Authors: S. Krustev, V. Angelova, P. Zaprjanova


Selenium (Se) is an essential micro-nutrient for human and animals but it is highly toxic. Its organic compounds play an important role in biochemistry and nutrition of the cells. Concentration levels of this element in the different regions of the world vary considerably. This study aimed to compare the availability and levels of the Se in some rural areas of the Balkan Peninsula and relationship with the concentrations of other trace elements. For this purpose soil samples and wheat grains from different regions of Bulgaria, Serbia, Nord Macedonia, Romania, and Greece situated far from large industrial centers have been analyzed. The main methods for their determination were the atomic spectral techniques – atomic absorption and plasma atomic emission. As a result of this study, data on microelements levels from the main grain-producing regions of the Balkan Peninsula were determined and systematized. The presented results confirm the low levels of Se in this region: 0.222– 0.962 in soils and 0.001 - 0.005 in wheat grains and require measures to offset the effect of this deficiency.

Keywords: agricultural soils, balkan peninsula, rural areas, selenium

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43 Fungal Cellulase/Xylanase Complex and Their Industrial Applications

Authors: L. Kutateldze, T. Urushadze, R. Khvedelidze, N. Zakariashvili, I. Khokhashvili, T. Sadunishvili


Microbial cellulase/xylanase have shown their potential application in various industries including pulp and paper, textile, laundry, biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, and agriculture. Extremophilic micromycetes and their enzymes that are resistant to critical values of temperature and pH, and retaining enzyme activity for a long time are of great industrial interest. Among strains of microscopic fungi from the collection of S. Durmishidze Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, strains isolated from different ecological niches of Southern Caucasus-active producers of cellulase/xylanase have been selected by means of screening under deep cultivation conditions. Extremophilic micromycetes and their enzymes that are resistant to critical values of temperature and pH, and retaining enzyme activity for a long time are of great industrial interest. Among strains of microscopic fungi from the collection of S. Durmishidze Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, strains isolated from different ecological niches of Southern Caucasus-active producers of cellulase/xylanase have been selected by means of screening under deep cultivation conditions. Representatives of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Trichoderma are outstanding by relatively high activities of these enzymes. Among the producers were revealed thermophilic strains, representatives of the genus Aspergillus-Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus wentii, also strains of Sporotrichum pulverulentum and Chaetomium thermophile. As a result of optimization of cultivation media and conditions, activities of enzymes produced by the strains have been increased by 4 -189 %. Two strains, active producers of cellulase/xylanase – Penicillium canescence E2 (mesophile) and Aspergillus versicolor Z17 (thermophile) were chosen for further studies. Cellulase/xylanase enzyme preparations from two different genera of microscopic fungi Penicillium canescence E2 and Aspergillus versicolor Z 17 were obtained with activities 220 U/g /1200 U/g and 125 U/g /940 U/g, correspondingly. Main technical characteristics were as follows: the highest enzyme activities were obtained for mesophilic strain Penicillium canescence E2 at 45-500C, while almost the same enzyme activities were fixed for the thermophilic strain Aspergillus versicolor Z 17 at temperature 60-65°C, exceeding the temperature optimum of the mesophile by 150C. Optimum pH of action of the studied cellulase/xylanases from mesophileic and thermophilic strains were similar and equaled to 4.5-5.0 It has been shown that cellulase/xylanase technical preparations from selected strains of Penicillium canescence E2 and Aspergillus versicolor Z17 hydrolyzed cellulose of untreated wheat straw to reducible sugars by 46-52%, and to glucose by 22-27%. However the thermophilic enzyme preparations from the thermophilic A.versicolor strains conducted the process at 600C higher by 100C as compared to mesophlic analogue. Rate of hydrolyses of the pretreated substrate by the same enzyme preparations to reducible sugars and glucose conducted at optimum for their action 60 and 500C was 52-61% and 29-33%, correspondingly. Thus, maximum yield of glucose and reducible sugars form untreated and pretreated wheat straw was achieved at higher temperature (600C) by enzyme preparations from thermophilic strain, which gives advantage for their industrial application.

Keywords: cellulase/xylanase, cellulose hydrolysis, microscopic fungi, thermophilic strain

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42 Evaluating Antifungal Potential of Respiratory Inhibitors against Phyto-Pathogenic Fungi

Authors: Sehrish Iftikhar, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Kiran Nawaz, Waheed Anwar


Discovery and development of new compounds require intense studies in chemistry, biochemistry. Numerous experiments under laboratory-, greenhouse- and field conditions can be performed to select suitable candidates and to understand their full potential. Novel fungicides are fundamental to combat plant diseases. Fusarium solani is important plant pathogen. New broad spectrum foliar fungicides against complex II were designed in this study. Complex II, namely succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), or succinate quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is a multi-subunit enzyme at the crossroads of TCA and ETC at the inner mitochondrial membrane. The need for new and innovative fungicides is driven by resistance management, regulatory hurdles and increasing customer expectations amongst others. Fungicidal activity was assessed for the effect on mycelial growth and spore germination of the fungi using fungicide amended media assay. In mycelial growth assay compounds C10 and C6 were highly active against all the isolates. The compounds C1 and C10 were found most potent in spore germination test. It fully proved that the SDHIs designed in this paper displayed as good inhibitory effects against Fusarium solani.

Keywords: Wilt, Fusarium, SDH, antifungal

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41 Haematological and Internal Organs Characteristics of Rabbit Bucks Feed Boiled Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) Seed Meal

Authors: N. S. Okoro


An experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance, blood parameters and reproductive characteristics of 8-week old male weaner rabbits fed 2% boiled pigeon pea seed meal. The study lasted for 16 weeks. Results showed that hematological parameters of the two groups of rabbit bucks were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by the treatment, meaning that the PPSM was adequate for maintaining the blood parameters at the normal levels. The 20% boiled PPSM significantly affected (P < 0.05) serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (67.72±2.5 I.U/I) more than the ALT (57.50±2.02 I.U/I) of the control, which is an indication of liver problem. The globulin level (3.00 ± 0.23g/dl) of the 20% boiled PPSM group was significantly higher than that of the control (2.60±0.06 g/dl), indicating that the test diet did not alter protein metabolism in the rabbits. Boiled pigeon pea seed meal supported organ weight and testicular development in rabbit bucks, suggesting that boiling reduced the level of the anti-nutritional factors in pigeon pea seed meal. Thus, 20% boiled pigeon pea can be included in diets of rabbits without adverse effect on blood parameters and internal organs characteristics.

Keywords: hematology, internal organs, Pigeon pea, rabbits, serum biochemistry

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40 Confinement and Storage of Cyanate in the Nano Scale via Nanolayered Structures

Authors: Osama Saber


Cyanate is one such anion which is produced during protein poisoning in the body and has been studied extensively in the field of biochemistry because of its toxicity. The present work aims at confinement and storage of cyanate in the nano scale. It was achieved through the intercalation of cyanate anions into nanolayerd structures of Ni-Al LDH. In addition, the effect of aging time on the intercalation of cyanate was clarified using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the effect of cations on the affinity towards the intercalation of cyanate anions inside LDH structure was studied by replacement of tetra-valent cations Ti4+ instead of the tri-vallent cations Al3+ during the preparation of LDH structure. X-ray diffraction patterns of the Ni-Ti LDH showed that the interlayer spacing was 0.73 nm. This spacing was smaller than that of Ni-Al LDH suggesting that the interlayered anions into Ni-Ti LDH are different from those into Ni-Al LDH. Thermal analyses (TG, DTG, and DTA) and Infra-red spectra revealed the presence of only cyanate anions into Ni-Ti LDH while, in the case of Ni-Al LDH, both cyanate and carbonate anions were observed. SEM images showed plate-like morphology for both Ni-Ti and Ni-Al LDHs although the shapes of their plates are not similar. Our results suggested that the LDH structures containing titanium cations have higher affinity for cyanate anions than those containing aluminum cations. Therefore, this choice for cyanate in the interlayered spacing widens the applicability to study the effect of the confinement on the toxicity of cyanate by bio researchers.

Keywords: nanolayered structures, Ni-Al LDH, Ni-Ti LDH, intercalation of cyanate anions, urea hydrolysis

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39 Haematological and Internal Organs Characteristics of Rabbit Bucks Fed Boiled Pigeon Pea (Cajanus Cajan) Seed Meal

Authors: Nnennaya Samuel Okoro


An experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance, blood parameters and reproductive characteristics of 8-week old male weaner rabbits fed 20% boiled pigeon pea seed meal (PPSM). The study lasted for 16 weeks. Results showed that haematological parameters of the two groups of rabbit bucks were not significantly affected (P>0.05) by the treatment, meaning that the PPSM was adequate for maintaining the blood parameters at the normal levels. The 20% boiled PPSM significantly affected (P<0.05) serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) (67.72±2.5 I.U/I) more than the ALT (57.50±2.02 I.U/I) of the control, which is an indication of liver problem. The globulin level (3.00 ± 0.23 g/d) of the 20% boiled PPSM group was significantly higher than that of the control (2.60±0.06 g/dl), indicating that the test diet did not alter protein metabolism in the rabbits. Boiled pigeon pea seed meal supported organ weight and testicular development in rabbit bucks, suggesting that boiling reduced the level of the anti-nutritional factors in pigeon pea seed meal. Thus, 20% boiled pigeon pea can be included in diets of rabbits without adverse effect on blood parameters and internal organs characteristics.

Keywords: haematology, internal organs, pigeon pea, rabbits, serum biochemistry

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38 Specialization in Biomimicry: A Rationale for a Proposed Curriculum for Structural Engineering Students

Authors: Austin Dada, Frederick Rutz, Wil Srubar


This proposed curriculum details the general concept of biomimicry in structural engineering. The interdisciplinary study of biology and structural engineering is also discussed, along with methods for effective research and study of biomimicry-related topics. Also known as synthetic biology, biomimetics, and the study of bioinspired structures, biomimicry in structural engineering is an emerging field with a wide berth of possibilities. The purpose of this proposed curriculum is to determine a suitable curriculum of study in the pursuit of a research topic regarding biomimicry within the field of structural engineering. Four main manifestations of bioinspired structures are covered in this curriculum; the creation of new biomaterials for use in construction, the use or mimicking of biological processes to determine the properties of construction materials, the use or mimicking of biological processes or biomaterials to augment the properties of construction material, and the imitation of biology through the use of conventional construction materials. Microbiology, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, and ecology are among the biology topics that are compared and integrated into the proposed structural engineering curriculum to produce a suitable specialization.

Keywords: bioinspired structures, biomimetics, biomimicry, materials science, structural engineering

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37 Efficacy of a Zeolite as a Detoxifier in Broiler Feed Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1

Authors: R. Stevens, W.L. Bryden


The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of zeolite in preventing the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broilers. A total of 540 one-day-old Ross chicks were randomly divided into nine treatments, with four replicate pens per treatment and 15 chicks per pen. The treatments included 3 Levels of AFB1 (0,1and 2 mg/kg diet) and 3 levels of zeolite (0, 1.5 and 3 %) in a 3 ×3 factorial arrangement. The experimental treatments commenced on d 7 post-hatch. A starter diet was provided from d 1 to 14, a grower diet from d 15 to 28 and a finisher diet from d 29 to d 49. Diets were based on corn and soybeans and formulated to meet the bird's requirements. The evaluated parameters were as follows: Bodyweight, daily gain, feed intake (FI), feed conversion (FC), relative weights of organs (carcass, liver, heart and abdominal fat) and clinical biochemistry parameters: alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Bodyweight, daily gain and FC were significantly (P<0.05) impaired by aflatoxin. Relative weights of the liver and heart were also affected. The addition of zeolite (1.5 and 3 %) to the contaminated diets ameliorated the effects of aflatoxin, especially at the higher level of inclusion. These data demonstrate that this specific sorbent (zeolite) can protect against the toxicity of AFB1in young broiler chicks.

Keywords: aflatoxin, broiler, toxicity, zeolite

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36 Nonclassical Antifolates: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Study of Some New Quinazolin-4-One Analogues as Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors

Authors: Yomna Ibrahim El-Gazzar, Hussien Ibrahim El-Subbagh, Hanan Hanaa Georgey, Ghada S. Hassan Hassan


Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an enzyme that has pivotal importance in biochemistry and medicinal chemistry. It catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate and intimately couples with thymidylate synthase. Thymidylate synthase is a crucial enzyme that catalyzes the reductive methylation of (dUMP) to (dTMP) utilizing N5, N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate as a cofactor. A new series of 2-substituted thio-quinazolin-4-one analogs was designed that possessed electron withdrawing or donating functional groups (Cl or OCH3) at position 6- or 7-, 4-methoxyphenyl function at position 3-.The thiol function is used to connect to either 1,2,4-triazole, or 1,3,4-thiadiazole via a methylene bridge. Most of the functional groups designed to be accommodated on the quinazoline ring such as thioether, alkyl to increase lipid solubility of polar compounds, a character very much needed in the nonclassical DHFR inhibitors. The target compounds were verified with spectral data and elemental analysis. DHFR inhibitions, as well as antitumor activity, were applied on three cell lines (MCF-7, CACO-2, HEPG-2).

Keywords: nonclassical antifolates, DHFR Inhibitors, antitumor activity, quinazoline ring

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35 Cellular Energy Metabolism Decreases with Age in the Trophocytes and Oenocytes of Honeybees (Apis Mellifera)

Authors: Chin-Yuan Hsu, Yu-Lung Chuang


The expression, concentration, and activity of mitochondrial energy-utilized molecules and cellular energy-regulated molecules decreased with age in the trophocytes and oenocytes of honeybees (Apis mellifera), but those of cellular energy-metabolized molecules is unknown. In this study, the expression, concentration, and activity of cellular energy-metabolized molecules were assayed in the trophocytes and fat cells of young and old worker bees by using the techniques of cell and biochemistry. The results showed that (i) the •-hydroxylacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) activity/citrate synthase (CS) activity ratio, non-esterified fatty acids concentrations, the expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E, and the expression of phosphorylated eIF4E binding protein 1 decreased with age; (ii) fat and glycogen accumulation increased with age; and (iii) the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity/citrate synthase (CS) activity ratio was not correlated with age. These finding indicated that •-oxidation (HOAD/CS) and protein synthsis decreased with age. Glycolysis (PDH/CS) was unchanged with age. The most likely reason is that sugars are the vital food of worker bees. Taken together these data reveal that young workers have higher cellular energy metabolism than old workers and that aging results in a decline in the cellular energy metabolism in worker honeybees.

Keywords: aging, energy, honeybee, metabolism

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34 Effect of Degree of Phosphorylation on Electrospinning and In vitro Cell Behavior of Phosphorylated Polymers as Biomimetic Materials for Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: Pallab Datta, Jyotirmoy Chatterjee, Santanu Dhara


Over the past few years, phosphorous containing polymers have received widespread attention for applications such as high performance optical fibers, flame retardant materials, drug delivery and tissue engineering. Being pentavalent, phosphorous can exist in different chemical environments in these polymers which increase their versatility. In human biochemistry, phosphorous based compounds exert their functions both in soluble and insoluble form occurring as inorganic or as organophosphorous compounds. Specifically in case of biomacromolecules, phosphates are critical for functions of DNA, ATP, phosphoproteins, phospholipids, phosphoglycans and several coenzymes. Inspired by the role of phosphorous in functional biomacromolecules, design and synthesis of biomimetic materials are thus carried out by several authors to study macromolecular function or as substitutes in clinical tissue regeneration conditions. In addition, many regulatory signals of the body are controlled by phoshphorylation of key proteins present either in form of growth factors or matrix-bound scaffold proteins. This inspires works on synthesis of phospho-peptidomimetic amino acids for understanding key signaling pathways and this is extended to obtain molecules with potentially useful biological properties. Apart from above applications, phosphate groups bound to polymer backbones have also been demonstrated to improve function of osteoblast cells and augment performance of bone grafts. Despite the advantages of phosphate grafting, however, there is limited understanding on effect of degree of phosphorylation on macromolecular physicochemical and/or biological properties. Such investigations are necessary to effectively translate knowledge of macromolecular biochemistry into relevant clinical products since they directly influence processability of these polymers into suitable scaffold structures and control subsequent biological response. Amongst various techniques for fabrication of biomimetic scaffolds, nanofibrous scaffolds fabricated by electrospinning technique offer some special advantages in resembling the attributes of natural extracellular matrix. Understanding changes in physico-chemical properties of polymers as function of phosphorylation is therefore going to be crucial in development of nanofiber scaffolds based on phosphorylated polymers. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effect of phosphorous grafting on the electrospinning behavior of polymers with aim to obtain biomaterials for bone regeneration applications. For this purpose, phosphorylated derivatives of two polymers of widely different electrospinning behaviors were selected as starting materials. Poly(vinyl alcohol) is a conveniently electrospinnable polymer at different conditions and concentrations. On the other hand, electrospinning of chitosan backbone based polymers have been viewed as a critical challenge. The phosphorylated derivatives of these polymers were synthesized, characterized and electrospinning behavior of various solutions containing these derivatives was compared with electrospinning of pure poly (vinyl alcohol). In PVA, phosphorylation adversely impacted electrospinnability while in NMPC, higher phosphate content widened concentration range for nanofiber formation. Culture of MG-63 cells on electrospun nanofibers, revealed that degree of phosphate modification of a polymer significantly improves cell adhesion or osteoblast function of cultured cells. It is concluded that improvement of cell response parameters of nanofiber scaffolds can be attained as a function of controlled degree of phosphate grafting in polymeric biomaterials with implications for bone tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: bone regeneration, chitosan, electrospinning, phosphorylation

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