Search results for: waste water treatment
14933 Application of Dissolved Air Flotation for Removal of Oil from Wastewater
Authors: Talat Ghomashchi, Zahra Akbari, Shirin Malekpour, Marjan Alimirzaee
Abstract:Mixing the waste water of industries with natural water has caused environmental pollution. So researcher try to obtain methods and optimum conditions for waste water treatment. One of important stage in waste water treatment is dissolved air flotation. DAF is used for the removal of suspended solids and oils from waste water. In this paper, the effect of several parameters on flotation efficiency with Cationic polyacrylamide as flocculant, was examined, namely, (a) concentration of cationic flocculants, (b) pH (c) fast mixing time, (d) fast mixing speed,(e) slow mixing time,(f) retention time and temperature. After design of experiment, in each trial turbidity of waste water was measured by spectrophotometer. Results show that contribution of pH and concentration of flocculant on flotation efficiency are 75% and 9% respectively. Cationic polyacrylamide led to a significant increase in the settling speed and effect of temperature is negligible. In the optimum condition, the outcome of the DAF unit is increased and amount of suspended solid and oil in waste water is decreased effectively.
Keywords: dissolved air flotation, oil industry, waste water, treatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 446
14932 Study on the Treatment of Waste Water Containing Nitrogen Heterocyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Phenol-Induced Microbial Communities
Authors: Zhichao Li
Abstract:This project has treated the waste-water that contains the nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, by using the phenol-induced microbial communities. The treatment of nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is a difficult problem for coking waste-water treatment. Pyridine, quinoline and indole are three kinds of most common nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in the f, and treating these refractory organics biologically has always been a research focus. The phenol-degrading bacteria can be used in the enhanced biological treatment effectively, and has a good treatment effect. Therefore, using the phenol-induced microbial communities to treat the coking waste-water can remove multiple pollutants concurrently, and improve the treating efficiency of coking waste-water. Experiments have proved that the phenol-induced microbial communities can degrade the nitrogen heterocyclic ring aromatic hydrocarbon efficiently.
Keywords: phenol, nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol-degrading bacteria, microbial communities, biological treatment technologyProcedia PDF Downloads 115
14931 Constructed Wetlands: A Sustainable Approach for Waste Water Treatment
Authors: S. Sehar, S. Khan, N. Ali, S. Ahmed
Abstract:In the last decade, the hunt for cost-effective, eco-friendly and energy sustainable technologies for waste water treatment are gaining much attention due to emerging water crisis and rapidly depleting existing water reservoirs all over the world. In this scenario, constructed wetland being a “green technology” could be a reliable mean for waste water treatment especially in small communities due to cost-effectiveness, ease in management, less energy consumption and sludge production. Therefore, a low cost, lab-scale sub-surface flow hybrid constructed wetland (SS-HCW) was established for domestic waste water treatment.It was observed that not only the presence but also choice of suitable vegetation along with hydraulic retention time (HRT) are key intervening ingredients which directly influence pollutant removals in constructed wetlands. Another important aspect of vegetation is that it may facilitate microbial attachment in rhizosphere, thus promote biofilm formation via microbial interactions. The major factors that influence initial aggregation and subsequent biofilm formation i.e. divalent cations (Ca2+) and extra cellular DNA (eDNA) were also studied in detail. The presence of Ca2+ in constructed wetland demonstrate superior performances in terms of effluent quality, i.e BOD5, COD, TDS, TSS, and PO4- than in absence of Ca2+. Finally, light and scanning electron microscopies coupled with EDS were carried out to get more insights into the mechanics of biofilm formation with or without Ca addition. Therefore, the same strategy can be implemented in other waste water treatment technologies.
Keywords: hybrid constructed wetland, biofilm formation, waste water treatment, waste waterProcedia PDF Downloads 320
14930 Innovative Method for Treating Oil-Produced Water with Low Operating Cost
Authors: Maha Salman, Gada Al-Nuwaibit, Ahmed Al-Haji, Saleh Al-Haddad, Abbas Al-Mesri, Mansour Al-Rugeeb
Abstract:The high salinity of oil-produced water and its complicated chemical composition, makes designing a suitable treatment system for oil-produced water is extremely difficult and costly. On the current study, a new innovative method was proposed to treat the complicated oil-produced water through a simple mixing with brine stream produced from waste water treatment plant. The proposal will investigate the scaling potential of oil-produce water, seawater and the selected brine water (BW) produced from Sulaibiya waste water treatment and reclamation plant (SWWTRP) before and after the mixing with oil-produced water, and will calculate the scaling potential of all expected precipitated salts using different conversion and different % of mixing to optimize the % of mixing between the oil-produced water and the selected stream. The result shows a great, feasible and economic solution to treat oil produced with a very low capital cost.
Keywords: brine water, oil-produced water, scaling potential, Sulaibiyah waste water and reclaminatin plantProcedia PDF Downloads 370
14929 Waste Water Treatment and Emerging Waste Water Contaminants in Developing Countries
Authors: Opata Obinna Johnpaul
Abstract:Wastewater is one of the day-to–day concerns of humans and the environment, in general, due to its importance to the environment. This is because of the presence of various contaminants that are involved in waste water. Wastewater treatment can be defined as the proportion of wastewater that is treated, in order to reduce pollutants before being discharged to the environment, by the level of treatment. This work discusses wastewater treatment, its contaminants, as well as the technologies, involved.The major focus is to analyze Okomu Oil Palm Company Plc, their effluent treatment facility. Okomu Oil Palm Company is based in Nigeria, which is one of the developing countries of the world. Okomu Oil Palm Company uses aquatic treatment technology for their effluent treatment and applies the physio-chemical level of advanced chemical treatment of wastewater treatment process. This work will discuss the outcome of the laboratory sample taken on the 30th January, 2015 and analyzed between 30th January- 4th February 2015.
Keywords: wastewater treatment, contaminants, physio-chemical process, Okomu oil palmProcedia PDF Downloads 280
14928 Waste Recovery: A Sustainable Way for Application of Solid Waste from WTP's in Building Materials
Authors: Flavio Araujo, Livia Dias, Fabiolla Lima, Paulo Scalize, Antonio Albuquerque
Abstract:Water treatment residues (WTR) are solid waste produced during drinking water treatment and have recently been seen as a reusable material. The aim of this research was show how to use the residue generated in a Water Treatment Plant, located in Goiania, Brazil, following the considerations of the law of solid waste to obtain normative parameters and consider sustainable alternatives for reincorporation of the residues in the productive chain for manufacturing various materials construction. In order to reduce the environmental liabilities generated by sanitation companies and discontinue unsustainable forms of disposal. The analyzes performed: Granulometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction demonstrated the potential application of residues to replace the soil and sand, because it has characteristics compatible with small aggregate and can be used as feedstock for the manufacture of materials as ceramic and soil-cement bricks, mortars, interlocking floors and concrete artifacts.
Keywords: residue, sustainable, water treatment plants, WTR, WTPProcedia PDF Downloads 415
14927 Green Technology for the Treatment of Industrial Effluent Contaminated with Dyes
Authors: Afzaal Gulzar, Shafaq Mubarak, M. Zia-Ur-Rehman
Abstract:Industrial waste waters put environmental constrains to the water quality of aqueous reserves. Number of techniques has been used to treat them before disposal to water bodies. In this work a novel green approach is study by using poultry waste eggshells as a low cost efficient adsorbent for the dyes present in industrial effluent of textile and paper industries. The developed technique not only used to treat contaminated waters but also resulted in the utilization of poultry eggshell waste which in turn assists in solid waste management. Batch sorption studies like contact time, adsorbent dose, dye concentration, temp and pH has been conducted to find the optimum adsorption parameters.
Keywords: green technology, solid waste management, industrial effluent, eggshell waste utilization, waste water treatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 399
14926 Finite Dynamic Programming to Decision Making in the Use of Industrial Residual Water Treatment Plants
Authors: Oscar Vega Camacho, Andrea Vargas, Ellery Ariza
Abstract:This paper presents the application of finite dynamic programming, specifically the "Markov Chain" model, as part of the decision making process of a company in the cosmetics sector located in the vicinity of Bogota DC. The objective of this process was to decide whether the company should completely reconstruct its waste water treatment plant or instead optimize the plant through the addition of equipment. The goal of both of these options was to make the required improvements in order to comply with parameters established by national legislation regarding the treatment of waste before it is released into the environment. This technique will allow the company to select the best option and implement a solution for the processing of waste to minimize environmental damage and the acquisition and implementation costs.
Keywords: decision making, markov chain, optimization, waste waterProcedia PDF Downloads 329
14925 Preparation of Water Hyacinth and Oil Palm Fiber for Plastic Waste Composite
Authors: Pattamaphorn Phuangngamphan, Rewadee Anuwattana, Narumon Soparatana, Nestchanok Yongpraderm, Atiporn Jinpayoon, Supinya Sutthima, Saroj Klangkongsub, Worapong Pattayawan
Abstract:This research aims to utilize the agricultural waste and plastic waste in Thailand in a study of the optimum conditions for preparing composite materials from water hyacinth and oil palm fiber and plastic waste in landfills. The water hyacinth and oil palm fiber were prepared by alkaline treatment with NaOH (5, 15 wt%) at 25-60 °C for 1 h. The treated fiber (5 and 10 phr) was applied to plastic waste composite. The composite was prepared by using a screw extrusion process from 185 °C to 200 °C with a screw speed of 60 rpm. The result confirmed that alkaline treatment can remove lignin, hemicellulose and other impurities on the fiber surface and also increase the cellulose content. The optimum condition of composite material is 10 phr of fiber coupling with 3 wt% PE-g-MA as compatibilizer. The composite of plastic waste and oil palm fiber has good adhesion between fiber and plastic matrix. The PE-g-MA has improved fiber-plastic interaction. The results suggested that the composite material from plastic waste and agricultural waste has the potential to be used as value-added products.
Keywords: agricultural waste, waste utilization, biomaterials, cellulose fiber, composite materialProcedia PDF Downloads 132
14924 Technology Identification, Evaluation and Selection Methodology for Industrial Process Water and Waste Water Treatment Plant of 3x150 MWe Tufanbeyli Lignite-Fired Power Plant
Authors: Cigdem Safak Saglam
Abstract:Most thermal power plants use steam as working fluid in their power cycle. Therefore, in addition to fuel, water is the other main input for thermal plants. Water and steam must be highly pure in order to protect the systems from corrosion, scaling and biofouling. Pure process water is produced in water treatment plants having many several treatment methods. Treatment plant design is selected depending on raw water source and required water quality. Although working principle of fossil-fuel fired thermal power plants are same, there is no standard design and equipment arrangement valid for all thermal power plant utility systems. Besides that, there are many other technology evaluation and selection criteria for designing the most optimal water systems meeting the requirements such as local conditions, environmental restrictions, electricity and other consumables availability and transport, process water sources and scarcity, land use constraints etc. Aim of this study is explaining the adopted methodology for technology selection for process water preparation and industrial waste water treatment plant in a thermal power plant project located in Tufanbeyli, Adana Province in Turkey. Thermal power plant is fired with indigenous lignite coal extracted from adjacent lignite reserves. This paper addresses all above-mentioned factors affecting the thermal power plant water treatment facilities (demineralization + waste water treatment) design and describes the ultimate design of Tufanbeyli Thermal Power Plant Water Treatment Plant.
Keywords: thermal power plant, lignite coal, pretreatment, demineralization, electrodialysis, recycling, ash dampeningProcedia PDF Downloads 328
14923 Environmental Engineering Case Study of Waste Water Treatement
Authors: Harold Jideofor
Abstract:Wastewater treatment consists of applying known technology to improve or upgrade the quality of a wastewater. Usually wastewater treatment will involve collecting the wastewater in a central, segregated location (the Wastewater Treatment Plant) and subjecting the wastewater to various treatment processes. Most often, since large volumes of wastewater are involved, treatment processes are carried out on continuously flowing wastewaters (continuous flow or "open" systems) rather than as "batch" or a series of periodic treatment processes in which treatment is carried out on parcels or "batches" of wastewaters. While most wastewater treatment processes are continuous flow, certain operations, such as vacuum filtration, involving storage of sludge, the addition of chemicals, filtration and removal or disposal of the treated sludge, are routinely handled as periodic batch operations.
Keywords: wastewater treatment, environmental engineering, waste waterProcedia PDF Downloads 356
14922 Treatment of Rice Industry Waste Water by Flotation-Flocculation Method
Authors: J. K. Kapoor, Shagufta Jabin, H. S. Bhatia
Abstract:Polyamine flocculants were synthesized by poly-condensation of diphenylamine and epichlorohydrin using 1, 2-diaminoethane as modifying agent. The polyelectrolytes were prepared by taking epichlohydrin-diphenylamine in a molar ratio of 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, and 2.5:1. The flocculation performance of these polyelectrolytes was evaluated with rice industry waste water. The polyelectrolytes have been used in conjunction with alum for coagulation- flocculation process. Prior to the coagulation- flocculation process, air flotation technique was used with the aim to remove oil and grease content from waste water. Significant improvement was observed in the removal of oil and grease content after the air flotation technique. It has been able to remove 91.7% oil and grease from rice industry waste water. After coagulation-flocculation method, it has been observed that polyelectrolyte with epichlohydrin-diphenylamine molar ratio of 1.5:1 showed best results for the removal of pollutants from rice industry waste water. The highest efficiency of turbidity and TSS removal with polyelectrolyte has been found to be 97.5% and 98.2%, respectively. Results of these evaluations also reveal 86.8% removal of COD and 87.5% removal of BOD from rice industry waste water. Thus, we demonstrate optimization of coagulation–flocculation technique which is appropriate for waste water treatment.
Keywords: coagulation, flocculation, air flotation technique, polyelectrolyte, turbidityProcedia PDF Downloads 409
14921 Removal of Nitrate and Phosphates from Waste Water Using Activated Bio-Carbon Produced from Agricultural Waste
Authors: Kgomotso Matobole, Natania De Wet, Tefo Mbambo, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng
Abstract:Nitrogen and phosphorus are nutrients which are required in the ecosystem, however, at high levels, these nutrients contribute to the process of eutrophication in the receiving water bodies, which threatens aquatic organisms. Hence it is vital that they are removed before the water is discharged. This phenomenon increases the cost related to wastewater treatment. This raises the need for the development of processes that are cheaper. Activated biocarbon was used in batch and filtration system to remove nitrates and phosphates. The batch system has higher nutrients removal capabilities than the filtration system. For phosphate removal, 93 % removal is achieved at the adsorbent of 300 g while for nitrates, 84 % removal is achieved when 200 g of activated carbon is loaded.
Keywords: waste water treatment, phosphates, nitrates, activated carbon, agricultural wasteProcedia PDF Downloads 306
14920 Ceramic Membrane Filtration Technologies for Oilfield Produced Water Treatment
Authors: Mehrdad Ebrahimi, Oliver Schmitz, Axel Schmidt, Peter Czermak
Abstract:“Produced water” (PW) is any fossil water that is brought to the surface along with crude oil or natural gas. By far, PW is the largest waste stream by volume associated with oil and gas production operations. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging PW on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concerns. Therefore, there is a need for new technologies for PW treatment due to increase focus on water conservation and environmental regulation. The use of membrane processes for treatment of PW has several advantages over many of the traditional separation techniques. In oilfield produced water treatment with ceramic membranes, process efficiency is characterized by the specific permeate flux and by the oil separation performance. Apart from the membrane properties, the permeate flux during filtration of oily wastewaters is known to be strongly dependent on the constituents of the feed solution, as well as on process conditions, e.g. trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and cross-flow velocity (CFV). The research project presented in these report describes the application of different ceramic membrane filtration technologies for the efficient treatment of oil-field produced water and different model oily solutions.
Keywords: ceramic membrane, membrane fouling, oil rejection, produced water treatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 119
14919 Treatment of Grey Water from Different Restaurants in FUTA Using Fungi
Authors: F. A. Ogundolie, F. Okogue, D. V. Adegunloye
Abstract:Greywater samples were obtained from three restaurants in the Federal University of Technology; Akure coded SSR, MGR and GGR. Fungi isolates obtained include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Aspergillus flavus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Of these fungi isolates obtained, R. stolonifer, A. niger and A. flavus showed significant degradation ability on grey water and was used for this research. A simple bioreactor was constructed using biodegradation process in purification of waste water samples. Waste water undergoes primary treatment; secondary treatment involves the introduction of the isolated organisms into the waste water sample and the tertiary treatment which involved the use of filter candle and the sand bed filtration process to achieve the end product without the use of chemicals. A. niger brought about significant reduction in both the bacterial load and the fungi load of the greywater samples of the three respective restaurants with a reduction of (1.29 × 108 to 1.57 × 102 cfu/ml; 1.04 × 108 to 1.12 × 102 cfu/ml and 1.72 × 108 to 1.60 × 102 cfu/ml) for bacterial load in SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Reduction of 2.01 × 104 to 1.2 × 101; 1.72 × 104 to 1.1 × 101, and 2.50 × 104 to 1.5 × 101 in fungi load from SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Result of degradation of these selected waste water by the fungi showed that A. niger was probably more potent in the degradation of organic matter and hence, A. niger could be used in the treatment of wastewater.
Keywords: Aspergillus niger, greywater, bacterial, fungi, microbial load, bioreactor, biodegradation, purification, organic matter and filtrationProcedia PDF Downloads 249
14918 Investigation of Utilization Possibility of Fluid Gas Desulfurization Waste for Industrial Waste Water Treatment
Authors: S. Kızıltas Demir, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin
Abstract:Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGD) is a waste material arouse from coal power plants. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a biomaterial with porous structure. In this study, FGD gypsum which retrieved from coal power plant in Turkey was characterized and HAP particles which can be used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment application were synthesized from the FGD gypsum. The raw materials are characterized by using X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques and produced HAP are characterized by using XRD. As a result, HAP particles were synthesized at the molar ratio of 5:10, 5:15, 5:20, 5:24, at room temperature, in alkaline medium (pH=11) and in 1 hour-reaction time. Among these conditions, 5:20 had the best result.
Keywords: FGD wastes, HAP, phosphogypsum, waste waterProcedia PDF Downloads 284
14917 Treatment Performance of Waste Stabilization Ponds: A Look at Physic-Chemical Parameters in Ghana
Authors: Emmanuel Adu-Ofori, Richard Amfo-Otu, Isaac O. A. Hodgson
Abstract:The study was conducted to determine the treatment performance of waste stabilization ponds in Akosombo. A total of 15 samples were taken for four consecutive months from the inlet, facultative pond and outlet of maturation pond. The samples were preserved and transported to Water Research Institute for laboratory analysis. The wastewater quality parameters analysed to assess the treatment performance were total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia and phosphate. The results of the laboratory analysis showed that the ponds achieved TSS, BOD and COD removals of about 30, 82 and 75 per cent respectively. Statistically, the BOD (t = 10.27, p = 6.68 x 10-6) and COD (t = 4.23, p = 0.0029) of the raw sewage were significantly different from the total effluent at 95% confidence interval. The ammonia and phosphate removal was as high as 92% and 84% respectively. The quality parameters analysed for the final effluent from the Waste Stabilisation Pond was within the EPA guideline values. The general treatment performances were very good with respect to the parameters studied and does not pose threat to the receiving water body. A further study to examine the bacteriological treatment performance was recommended.
Keywords: waste stabilization pond, wast water, treatment performance, nutrient, GhanaProcedia PDF Downloads 256
14916 Study of Treatment Plant of The City Chlef Study of Environmental Impact
Authors: Houmame Benbouali, Aboubakr Gribi
Abstract:The risks, in general, exist in any project, one can hardly carry out a project without taking risks. The hydraulic works are rather complex projects in their design, realization and exploitation and are often subjected at the multiple risks being able to influence with their good performance and can have a negative impact on their environment. The present study was carried out to quote the impacts caused by purification plant STEP Chlef on the environment, it aims has studied the environmental impacts during construction and when designing this STEP, it is divided into two parts: The first part results from a research task bibliographer which contain three chapters (- cleansing of water-worn- general information on water worn-proceed of purification of waste water). The second part is an experimental part which is divided into four chapters (detailed state initial description of the station of purification-evaluation of the impacts of the project analyzes measurements and recommendations).
Keywords: treatment plant, waste water, waste water treatment, ChlefProcedia PDF Downloads 282
14915 Review on Optimization of Drinking Water Treatment Process
Authors: M. Farhaoui, M. Derraz
Abstract:In the drinking water treatment processes, the optimization of the treatment is an issue of particular concern. In general, the process consists of many units as settling, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. The optimization of the process consists of some measures to decrease the managing and monitoring expenses and improve the quality of the produced water. The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with methods and practices that enable to attain the most effective use of the facility and, in consequence, optimize the of the cubic meter price of the treated water. This paper proposes a review on optimization of drinking water treatment process by analyzing all of the water treatment units and gives some solutions in order to maximize the water treatment performances without compromising the water quality standards. Some solutions and methods are performed in the water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).
Keywords: coagulation process, optimization, turbidity removal, water treatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 350
14914 Landfill Leachate and Settled Domestic Wastewater Co-Treatment Using Activated Carbon in Sequencing Batch Reactors
Authors: Amin Mojiri, Hamidi Abdul Aziz
Abstract:Leachate is created while water penetrates through the waste in a landfill, carrying some forms of pollutants. In literature, for treatment of wastewater and leachate, different ways of biological treatment were used. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is a kind of biological treatment. This study investigated the co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic waste water by SBR and powdered activated carbon augmented (PAC) SBR process. The response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design (CCD) were employed. The independent variables were aeration rate (L/min), contact time (h), and the ratio of leachate to wastewater mixture (%; v/v)). To perform an adequate analysis of the aerobic process, three dependent parameters, i.e. COD, color, and ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N or NH4-N) were measured as responses. The findings of the study indicated that the PAC-SBR showed a higher performance in elimination of certain pollutants, in comparison with SBR. With the optimal conditions of aeration rate (0.6 L/min), leachate to waste water ratio (20%), and contact time (10.8 h) for the PAC-SBR, the removal efficiencies for color, NH3-N, and COD were 72.8%, 98.5%, and 65.2%, respectively.
Keywords: co-treatment, landfill Leachate, wastewater, sequencing batch reactor, activate carbonProcedia PDF Downloads 399
14913 Waste Water Treatment by Moringa oleifera Seed Powder in Historical Jalmahal Lake Located in Semi-Arid Monsoon Zone of India
Authors: Pomila Sharma
Abstract:The rapid urbanization in India was not accompanied by the establishment of waste water treatment facility at similar and same pace. The inland fresh water ecosystem is increasingly subjected to great stress from various human activities. Jalmahal Lake is located in Jaipur city of Rajasthan state; the lake was constructed about 400 years ago and surrounded by hills. The lake was approximately 139 hectare in full spread and has catchment area of 23.5 sq. kilometer. Out of the total catchment area approximate 40% falls inside dense urban area of Jaipur city. During the showers, the treated and untreated waste waters and runoff waters get mixed and enter the lake through the various influx channels, and the lake water quality gets affected by the inflow of waste water. The main objective of this work was to use the Moringa oleifera seeds as a natural adsorbent for the treatment of wastewater in lake. Moringa oleifera is a tropical, multipurpose tree whose seeds contain high-quality edible oil 40% by weight and water soluble, non-toxic protein that act as an effective coagulant for the removal of organic matter in water and waste water treatment. Laboratory Jar test procedure had been used for coagulation studies; an experiment runs using lake water. Water extracts/powder of Moringa seed applied to treat polluted water of lake. In present study various doses of Moringa oleifera seed coagulant viz. 100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 400 mg/L were taken and checked for the efficiency dose on treated and untreated polluted water. Turbidity and color removal is one of the important steps in a waste water treatment processes. The results indicate significant reduction in turbidity and color. Standard plate count was significantly reduced fecal coliform levels too. All parameters were reduced with the increased dose of Moringa oleifera. It was clear from the study Moringa oleifera seed was shown to be a potential bio-coagulant, for treatment of sewage laden polluted water in the lake.
Keywords: coagulant, Moringa oleifera, plate count, turbidity, wastewaterProcedia PDF Downloads 316
14912 Use of Residues from Water Treatment and Porcelain Coatings Industry for Producing Eco-Bricks
Authors: Flavio Araujo, Fabiolla Lima, Julio Lima, Paulo Scalize, Antonio Albuquerque, Heitor Reis
Abstract:One of the great environmental problems in the management of water treatment (WTP) is on the disposal of waste generated during the treatment process. The same occurs with the waste generated during rectification of porcelain tiles. Despite environmental laws in Brazil the residues does not have an ecologically balanced destination. Thus, with the purpose to identify an environmentally sustainable disposal, residues were used to replace part of the soil, for production soil-cement bricks. It was used the residues from WTP and coatings industry Cecrisa (Brazil). Consequently, a greater amount of fine aggregate in the two samples of residues was found. The residue affects the quality of bricks produced, compared to the sample without residues. However, the results of compression and water absorption tests were obtained values that meet the standards, respectively 2.0 MPa and 20% absorption.
Keywords: water treatment residue, porcelain tile residue, WTP, brickProcedia PDF Downloads 396
14911 Dehydration of Residues from WTP for Application in Building Materials and Reuse of Water from the Waste Treatment: A Feasible Solution to Complete Treatment Systems
Authors: Marco Correa, Flavio Araujo, Paulo Scalize, Antonio Albuquerque
Abstract:The increasing reduction of the volumes of surface water sources which supply most municipalities, as well as the continued rise of demand for treated water, combined with the disposal of effluents from washing of decanters and filters of the water treatment plants, generates a continuous search for correct environmentally solutions to these problems. The effluents generated by the water treatment industry need to be suitably processed for return to the environment or re-use. This article shows an alternative for the dehydration of sludge from the water treatment plants (WTP) and eventual disposal of sludge drained. Using the simple design methodology, we present a case study for a drainage in tanks geotextile, full-scale, which involve five sludge drainage tanks from WTP of the Rio Verde City. Aiming to the reutilization the water drained from the sludge and enabling its reuse both at the beginning of the treatment process at the WTP and in less noble services as for watering the gardens of the local town hall. The sludge will be used to production of building materials.
Keywords: re-use, residue, sustainable, water treatment plants, sludgeProcedia PDF Downloads 411
14910 Study of Environmental Impact
Authors: Houmame Benbouali
Abstract:The risks, in general, exist in any project; one can hardly carry out a project without taking risks. The hydraulic works are rather complex projects in their design, realization and exploitation, and are often subjected at the multiple risks being able to influence with their good performance, and can have an negative impact on their environment. The present study was carried out to quote the impacts caused by purification plant STEP Chlef on the environment, it aims has studies the environmental impacts during construction and when designing this STEP, it is divided into two parts: The first part results from a research task bibliographer which contain three chapters (-cleansing of water worn-general information on water worn-proceed of purification of waste water). The second part is an experimental part which is divided into four chapters (detailed state initial-description of the station of purification-evaluation of the impacts of the project analyzes measurements and recommendations).
Keywords: treatment plant, waste water, waste water treatment, environmental impactProcedia PDF Downloads 430
14909 Waste from Drinking Water Treatment: The Feasibility for Application in Building Materials
Authors: Marco Correa
Abstract:The increasing reduction of the volumes of surface water sources supplying most municipalities, as well as the rising demand for treated water, combined with the disposal of effluents from washing of decanters and filters of water treatment plants generates a continuous search for correct environmentally solutions to these problems. The effluents generated by the water treatment industry need to be suitably processed for return to the environment or re-use. This article shows alternatives for sludge dehydration from the water treatment plants (WTP) and eventual disposal of sludge drained. Using the simple design methodology, it is presented a case study for drainage in tanks geotextile, full-scale, which involve five sledge drainage tanks from WTP of the city of Rio Verde. Aiming to the reutilization of drained water from the sledge and enabling its reuse both at the beginning of the treatment process at the WTP and in less noble services as for watering the gardens of the local town hall. The sludge will be used to in the production of building materials.
Keywords: dehydration, effluent discharges, re-use, sludge, WTP sludgeProcedia PDF Downloads 235
14908 Treatment of Industrial Effluents by Using Polyethersulfone/Chitosan Membrane Derived from Fishery Waste
Authors: Suneeta Kumari, Abanti Sahoo
Abstract:Industrial effluents treatment is a major problem in the world. All wastewater treatment methods have some problems in the environment. Due to this reason, today many natural biopolymers are being used in the waste water treatment because those are safe for our environment. In this study, synthesis and characterization of polyethersulfone/chitosan membranes (Thin film composite membrane) are carried out. Fish scales are used as raw materials. Different characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) are analysed for the synthesized membrane. The performance of membranes such as flux, rejection, and pore size are also checked. The synthesized membrane is used for the treatment of steel industry waste water where Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, colour, Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Electrical conductivity (EC) and Turbidity aspects are analysed.
Keywords: fish scale, membrane synthesis, treatment of industrial effluents, chitosanProcedia PDF Downloads 256
14907 Assessment of Heavy Metals and Radionuclide Concentrations in Mafikeng Waste Water Treatment Plant
Authors: M. Mathuthu, N. N. Gaxela, R. Y. Olobatoke
Abstract:A study was carried out to assess the heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations of water from the waste water treatment plant in Mafikeng Local Municipality to evaluate treatment efficiency. Ten water samples were collected from various stages of water treatment which included sewage delivered to the plant, the two treatment stages and the effluent and also the community. The samples were analyzed for heavy metal content using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer. Gross α/β activity concentration in water samples was evaluated by Liquid Scintillation Counting whereas the concentration of individual radionuclides was measured by gamma spectroscopy. The results showed marked reduction in the levels of heavy metal concentration from 3 µg/L (As)–670 µg/L (Na) in sewage into the plant to 2 µg/L (As)–170 µg/L (Fe) in the effluent. Beta activity was not detected in water samples except in the in-coming sewage, the concentration of which was within reference limits. However, the gross α activity in all the water samples (7.7-8.02 Bq/L) exceeded the 0.1 Bq/L limit set by World Health Organization (WHO). Gamma spectroscopy analysis revealed very high concentrations of 235U and 226Ra in water samples, with the lowest concentrations (9.35 and 5.44 Bq/L respectively) in the in-coming sewage and highest concentrations (73.8 and 47 Bq/L respectively) in the community water suggesting contamination along water processing line. All the values were considerably higher than the limits of South Africa Target Water Quality Range and WHO. However, the estimated total doses of the two radionuclides for the analyzed water samples (10.62 - 45.40 µSv yr-1) were all well below the reference level of the committed effective dose of 100 µSv yr-1 recommended by WHO.
Keywords: gross α/β activity, heavy metals, radionuclides, 235U, 226Ra, water sampleProcedia PDF Downloads 363
14906 Estimation and Removal of Chlorophenolic Compounds from Paper Mill Waste Water by Electrochemical Treatment
Authors: R. Sharma, S. Kumar, C. Sharma
Abstract:A number of toxic chlorophenolic compounds are formed during pulp bleaching. The nature and concentration of these chlorophenolic compounds largely depends upon the amount and nature of bleaching chemicals used. These compounds are highly recalcitrant and difficult to remove but are partially removed by the biochemical treatment processes adopted by the paper industry. Identification and estimation of these chlorophenolic compounds has been carried out in the primary and secondary clarified effluents from the paper mill by GCMS. Twenty-six chorophenolic compounds have been identified and estimated in paper mill waste waters. Electrochemical treatment is an efficient method for oxidation of pollutants and has successfully been used to treat textile and oil waste water. Electrochemical treatment using less expensive anode material, stainless steel electrodes has been tried to study their removal. The electrochemical assembly comprised a DC power supply, a magnetic stirrer and stainless steel (316 L) electrode. The optimization of operating conditions has been carried out and treatment has been performed under optimized treatment conditions. Results indicate that 68.7% and 83.8% of cholorphenolic compounds are removed during 2 h of electrochemical treatment from primary and secondary clarified effluent respectively. Further, there is a reduction of 65.1, 60 and 92.6% of COD, AOX and color, respectively for primary clarified and 83.8%, 75.9% and 96.8% of COD, AOX and color, respectively for secondary clarified effluent. EC treatment has also been found to increase significantly the biodegradability index of wastewater because of conversion of non- biodegradable fraction into biodegradable fraction. Thus, electrochemical treatment is an efficient method for the degradation of cholorophenolic compounds, removal of color, AOX and other recalcitrant organic matter present in paper mill waste water.
Keywords: chlorophenolics, effluent, electrochemical treatment, wastewaterProcedia PDF Downloads 316
14905 Production of Clean Reusable Distillery Waste Water Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Waste Orange Peels
Authors: Joseph Govha, Sharon Mudutu
Abstract:The research details the treatment of distillery waste water by making use of activated carbon prepared from orange peels as an adsorbent. Adsorption was carried out at different conditions to determine the optimum conditions that work best for the removal of color in distillery waste water using orange peel activated carbon. Adsorption was carried out at different conditions by varying contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, testing for color intensity and Biological Oxygen Demand. A maximum percentage color removal of 88% was obtained at pH 7 at an adsorbent dosage of 1g/20ml. Maximum adsorption capacity was obtained from the Langmuir isotherm at R2=0.98.
Keywords: distillery, waste water, orange peel, activated carbon, adsorptionProcedia PDF Downloads 220
14904 Influence of the Flow Rate Ratio in a Jet Pump on the Size of Air Bubbles
Authors: L. Grinis, N. Lubashevsky, Y. Ostrovski
Abstract:In waste water treatment processes, aeration introduces air into a liquid. In these systems, air is introduced by different devices submerged in the waste water. Smaller bubbles result in more bubble surface area per unit of volume and higher oxygen transfer efficiency. Jet pumps are devices that use air bubbles and are widely used in waste water treatment processes. The principle of jet pumps is their ability to transfer energy of one fluid, called primary or motive, into a secondary fluid or gas. These pumps have no moving parts and are able to work in remote areas under extreme conditions. The objective of this work is to study experimentally the characteristics of the jet pump and the size of air bubbles in the laboratory water tank. The effect of flow rate ratio on pump performance is investigated in order to have a better understanding about pump behavior under various conditions, in order to determine the efficiency of receiving air bubbles different sizes. The experiments show that we should take care when increasing the flow rate ratio while seeking to decrease bubble size in the outlet flow. This study will help improve and extend the use of the jet pump in many practical applications.
Keywords: jet pump, air bubbles size, retention time, waste waterProcedia PDF Downloads 242