Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: wax molding

55 A Molding Surface Auto-Inspection System

Authors: Ssu-Han Chen, Der-Baau Perng

Abstract:

Molding process in IC manufacturing secures chips against the harms done by hot, moisture or other external forces. While a chip was being molded,defects like cracks, dilapidation, or voids may be embedding on the molding surface. The molding surfaces the study poises to treat and the ones on the market, though, differ in the surface where texture similar to defects is everywhere. Manual inspection usually passes over low-contrast cracks or voids; hence an automatic optical inspection system for molding surface is necessary. The proposed system is consisted of a CCD, a coaxial light, a back light as well as a motion control unit. Based on the property of statistical textures of the molding surface, a series of digital image processing and classification procedure is carried out. After training of the parameter associated with above algorithm, result of the experiment suggests that the accuracy rate is up to 93.75%, contributing to the inspection quality of IC molding surface.

Keywords: Molding surface, machine vision, statistical texture, discrete Fourier transformation.

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54 Optimization of the Transfer Molding Process by Implementation of Online Monitoring Techniques for Electronic Packages

Authors: Burcu Kaya, Jan-Martin Kaiser, Karl-Friedrich Becker, Tanja Braun, Klaus-Dieter Lang

Abstract:

Quality of the molded packages is strongly influenced by the process parameters of the transfer molding. To achieve a better package quality and a stable transfer molding process, it is necessary to understand the influence of the process parameters on the package quality. This work aims to comprehend the relationship between the process parameters, and to identify the optimum process parameters for the transfer molding process in order to achieve less voids and wire sweep. To achieve this, a DoE is executed for process optimization and a regression analysis is carried out. A systematic approach is represented to generate models which enable an estimation of the number of voids and wire sweep. Validation experiments are conducted to verify the model and the results are presented.

Keywords: Epoxy molding compounds, optimization, regression analysis, transfer molding process, voids, wire sweep.

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53 Molding Properties of Cobalt-Chrome-Based Feedstocks Used in Low-Pressure Powder Injection Molding

Authors: Ehsan Gholami, Vincent Demers

Abstract:

Low-pressure powder injection molding is an emerging technology for cost-effectively producing complex shape metallic parts with the proper dimensional tolerances, either in high or in low production volumes. In this study, the molding properties of cobalt-chrome-based feedstocks were evaluated for use in a low-pressure powder injection molding process. The rheological properties of feedstock formulations were obtained by mixing metallic powder with a proprietary wax-based binder system. Rheological parameters such as reference viscosity, shear rate sensitivity index, and activation energy for viscous flow, were extracted from the viscosity profiles and introduced into the Weir model to calculate the moldability index. Feedstocks were experimentally injected into a spiral mold cavity to validate the injection performance calculated with the model.

Keywords: Binder, feedstock, moldability, powder injection molding, viscosity.

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52 Inverse Dynamics of the Mould Base of Blow Molding Machines

Authors: Vigen Arakelian

Abstract:

This paper deals with the study of devices for displacement of the mould base of blow-molding machines. The displacement of the mould in the studied case is carried out by a linear actuator, which ensures the descent of the mould base and by extension springs, which return the letter in the initial position. The aim of this paper is to study the inverse dynamics of the device for displacement of the mould base of blow-molding machines and to determine its optimum parameters for higher rate of production. In the other words, it is necessary to solve the inverse dynamic problem to find the equation of motion linking applied forces with displacements. This makes it possible to determine the stiffness coefficient of the spring to turn the mold base back to the initial position for a given time. The obtained results are illustrated by a numerical example. It is shown that applying a spring with stiffness returns the mould base of the blow molding machine into the initial position in 0.1 sec.

Keywords: Design, blow-molding machines, dynamics.

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51 Effects of Mold Surface Roughness on Compressible Flow of Micro-Injection Molding

Authors: Nguyen Q. M. P., Chen X., Lam Y. C., Yue C. Y.

Abstract:

Polymer melt compressibility and mold surface roughness, which are generally ignored during the filling stage of the conventional injection molding, may become increasingly significant in micro injection molding where the parts become smaller. By employing the 2.5D generalized Hele-Shaw model, we presented here the effects of polymer compressibility and mold surface roughness on mold-filling in a micro-thickness cavity. To elucidate the effects of surface roughness, numerical investigations were conducted using a cavity flat plate which has two halves with different surface roughness. This allows the comparison of flow field on two different halves under identical processing conditions but with different roughness. Results show that polymer compressibility and mold surface roughness have effects on mold filling in micro injection molding. There is in shrinkage reduction as the density is increased due to polymer melt compressibility during the filling stage.

Keywords: Compressible flow, Micro-injection molding, Polymer, Surface roughness

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50 Online Monitoring Rheological Property of Polymer Melt during Injection Molding

Authors: Chung-Chih Lin, Chien-Liang Wu

Abstract:

The detection of the polymer melt state during manufacture process is regarded as an efficient way to control the molded part quality in advance. Online monitoring rheological property of polymer melt during processing procedure provides an approach to understand the melt state immediately. Rheological property reflects the polymer melt state at different processing parameters and is very important in injection molding process especially. An approach that demonstrates how to calculate rheological property of polymer melt through in-process measurement, using injection molding as an example, is proposed in this study. The system consists of two sensors and a data acquisition module can process the measured data, which are used for the calculation of rheological properties of polymer melt. The rheological properties of polymer melt discussed in this study include shear rate and viscosity which are investigated with respect to injection speed and melt temperature. The results show that the effect of injection speed on the rheological properties is apparent, especially for high melt temperature and should be considered for precision molding process.

Keywords: Injection molding, melt viscosity, shear rate, monitoring.

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49 Optimization for the Hydraulic Clamping System of an Internal Circulation Two-Platen Injection Molding Machine

Authors: Jian Wang, Lu Yang, Jiong Peng

Abstract:

Internal circulation two-platen clamping system for injection molding machine (IMM) has many potential advantages on energy-saving. In order to estimate its properties, experiments were carried out in this paper. Displacement and pressure of the components were measured. In comparison, the model of hydraulic clamping system was established by using AMESim. The related parameters as well as the energy consumption could be calculated. According to the analysis, the hydraulic system was optimized in order to reduce the energy consumption.

Keywords: AMESim, energy-saving, injection molding machine, internal circulation.

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48 Simulation of the Reactive Rotational Molding Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: A. Hamidi, S. Khelladi, L. Illoul, A. Tcharkhtchi

Abstract:

Reactive rotational molding (RRM) is a process to manufacture hollow plastic parts with reactive material has several advantages compared to conventional roto molding of thermoplastic powders: process cycle time is shorter; raw material is less expensive because polymerization occurs during processing and high-performance polymers may be used such as thermosets, thermoplastics or blends. However, several phenomena occur during this process which makes the optimization of the process quite complex. In this study, we have used a mixture of isocyanate and polyol as a reactive system. The chemical transformation of this system to polyurethane has been studied by thermal analysis and rheology tests. Thanks to these results of the curing process and rheological measurements, the kinetic and rheokinetik of polyurethane was identified. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, a Lagrangian meshless method, was chosen to simulate reactive fluid flow in 2 and 3D configurations of the polyurethane during the process taking into account the chemical, and chemiorehological results obtained experimentally in this study.

Keywords: Reactive rotational molding, free surface flows, simulation, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, surface tension.

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47 The Defects Reduction in Injection Molding by Fuzzy Logic based Machine Selection System

Authors: S. Suwannasri, R. Sirovetnukul

Abstract:

The effective machine-job assignment of injection molding machines is very important for industry because it is not only directly affects the quality of the product but also the performance and lifetime of the machine as well. The phase of machine selection was mostly done by professionals or experienced planners, so the possibility of matching a job with an inappropriate machine might occur when it was conducted by an inexperienced person. It could lead to an uneconomical plan and defects. This research aimed to develop a machine selection system for plastic injection machines as a tool to help in decision making of the user. This proposed system could be used both in normal times and in times of emergency. Fuzzy logic principle is applied to deal with uncertainty and mechanical factors in the selection of both quantity and quality criteria. The six criteria were obtained from a plastic manufacturer's case study to construct a system based on fuzzy logic theory using MATLAB. The results showed that the system was able to reduce the defects of Short Shot and Sink Mark to 24.0% and 8.0% and the total defects was reduced around 8.7% per month.

Keywords: Injection molding machine, machine selection, fuzzy logic, defects in injection molding, matlab.

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46 Six Sigma-Based Optimization of Shrinkage Accuracy in Injection Molding Processes

Authors: Sky Chou, Joseph C. Chen

Abstract:

This paper focuses on using six sigma methodologies to reach the desired shrinkage of a manufactured high-density polyurethane (HDPE) part produced by the injection molding machine. It presents a case study where the correct shrinkage is required to reduce or eliminate defects and to improve the process capability index Cp and Cpk for an injection molding process. To improve this process and keep the product within specifications, the six sigma methodology, design, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) approach, was implemented in this study. The six sigma approach was paired with the Taguchi methodology to identify the optimized processing parameters that keep the shrinkage rate within the specifications by our customer. An L9 orthogonal array was applied in the Taguchi experimental design, with four controllable factors and one non-controllable/noise factor. The four controllable factors identified consist of the cooling time, melt temperature, holding time, and metering stroke. The noise factor is the difference between material brand 1 and material brand 2. After the confirmation run was completed, measurements verify that the new parameter settings are optimal. With the new settings, the process capability index has improved dramatically. The purpose of this study is to show that the six sigma and Taguchi methodology can be efficiently used to determine important factors that will improve the process capability index of the injection molding process.

Keywords: Injection molding, shrinkage, six sigma, Taguchi parameter design.

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45 Injection Molding of Inconel718 Parts for Aerospace Application Using Novel Binder System Based On Palm Oil Derivatives

Authors: R. Ibrahim, M. Azmirruddin, M. Jabir, N. Johari, M. Muhamad, A. R. A. Talib

Abstract:

Inconel718 has been widely used as a super alloy in aerospace application due to the high strength at elevated temperatures, satisfactory oxidation resistance and heat corrosion resistance. In this study, the Inconel718 has been fabricated using high technology of Metal Injection Molding (MIM) process due to the cost effective technique for producing small, complex and precision parts in high volume compared with conventional method through machining. Through MIM, the binder system is one of the most important criteria in order to successfully fabricate the Inconel718. Even though, the binder system is a temporary, but failure in the selection and removal of the binder system will affect on the final properties of the sintered parts. Therefore, the binder system based on palm oil derivative which is palm stearin has been formulated and developed to replace the conventional binder system. The rheological studies of the mixture between the powder and binders system have been determined properly in order to be successful during injection into injection molding machine. After molding, the binder holds the particles in place. The binder system has to be removed completely through debinding step. During debinding step, solvent debinding and thermal pyrolysis has been used to remove completely of the binder system. The debound part is then sintered to give the required physical and mechanical properties. The results show that the properties of the final sintered parts fulfill the Standard Metal Powder Industries Federation (MPIF) 35 for MIM parts.

Keywords: Binder system, rheological study, metal injection molding, debinding and sintered parts.

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44 Silicone on Blending Vegetal Petrochemical Based Polyurethane

Authors: Flora E. Firdaus

Abstract:

Polyurethane foam (PUF) is formed by a chemical reaction of polyol and isocyanate. The aim is to understand the impact of Silicone on synthesizing polyurethane in differentiate volume of molding. The method used was one step process, which is simultaneously caried out a blending polyol (petroleum polyol and soybean polyol), a TDI (2,4):MDI (4,4-) (80:20), a distilled water, and a silicone. The properties of the material were measured via a number of parameters, which are polymer density, compressive strength, and cellular structures. It is found that density of polyurethane using silicone with volume of molding either 250 ml or 500 ml is lower than without using silicone.

Keywords: soybean, petro, silicone, polyurethane

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43 Suitable Die Shaping for a Rectangular Shape Bottle by Application of FEM and AI Technique

Authors: N. Ploysook, R. Rugsaj, C. Suvanjumrat

Abstract:

The characteristic requirement for producing rectangular shape bottles was a uniform thickness of the plastic bottle wall. Die shaping was a good technique which controlled the wall thickness of bottles. An advance technology which was the finite element method (FEM) for blowing parison to be a rectangular shape bottle was conducted to reduce waste plastic from a trial and error method of a die shaping and parison control method. The artificial intelligent (AI) comprised of artificial neural network and genetic algorithm was selected to optimize the die gap shape from the FEM results. The application of AI technique could optimize the suitable die gap shape for the parison blow molding which did not depend on the parison control method to produce rectangular bottles with the uniform wall. Particularly, this application can be used with cheap blow molding machines without a parison controller therefore it will reduce cost of production in the bottle blow molding process.

Keywords: AI, bottle, die shaping, FEM.

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42 Optimization of Two Quality Characteristics in Injection Molding Processes via Taguchi Methodology

Authors: Joseph C. Chen, Venkata Karthik Jakka

Abstract:

The main objective of this research is to optimize tensile strength and dimensional accuracy in injection molding processes using Taguchi Parameter Design. An L16 orthogonal array (OA) is used in Taguchi experimental design with five control factors at four levels each and with non-controllable factor vibration. A total of 32 experiments were designed to obtain the optimal parameter setting for the process. The optimal parameters identified for the shrinkage are shot volume, 1.7 cubic inch (A4); mold term temperature, 130 ºF (B1); hold pressure, 3200 Psi (C4); injection speed, 0.61 inch3/sec (D2); and hold time of 14 seconds (E2). The optimal parameters identified for the tensile strength are shot volume, 1.7 cubic inch (A4); mold temperature, 160 ºF (B4); hold pressure, 3100 Psi (C3); injection speed, 0.69 inch3/sec (D4); and hold time of 14 seconds (E2). The Taguchi-based optimization framework was systematically and successfully implemented to obtain an adjusted optimal setting in this research. The mean shrinkage of the confirmation runs is 0.0031%, and the tensile strength value was found to be 3148.1 psi. Both outcomes are far better results from the baseline, and defects have been further reduced in injection molding processes.

Keywords: Injection molding processes, Taguchi Parameter Design, tensile strength, shrinkage test, high-density polyethylene, HDPE.

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41 Multi-Scale Damage and Mechanical Behavior of Sheet Molding Compound Composites Subjected to Fatigue, Dynamic, and Post-Fatigue Dynamic Loadings

Authors: M. Shirinbayan, J. Fitoussi, N. Abbasnezhad, A. Lucas, A. Tcharkhtchi

Abstract:

Sheet Molding Compounds (SMCs) with special microstructures are very attractive to use in automobile structures especially when they are accidentally subjected to collision type accidents because of their high energy absorption capacity. These are materials designated as standard SMC, Advanced Sheet Molding Compounds (A-SMC), Low-Density SMC (LD-SMC) and etc. In this study, testing methods have been performed to compare the mechanical responses and damage phenomena of SMC, LD-SMC, and A-SMC under quasi-static and high strain rate tensile tests. The paper also aims at investigating the effect of an initial pre-damage induced by fatigue on the tensile dynamic behavior of A-SMC. In the case of SMCs and A-SMCs, whatever the fibers orientation and applied strain rate are, the first observed phenomenon of damage corresponds to decohesion of the fiber-matrix interface which is followed by coalescence and multiplication of these micro-cracks and their propagations. For LD-SMCs, damage mechanisms depend on the presence of Hollow Glass Microspheres (HGM) and fibers orientation.

Keywords: SMC, LD-SMC, A-SMC, HGM, damage.

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40 Developing an Online Library for Faster Retrieval of Mold Base and Standard Parts of Injection Molding

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Ricky N. Joevan

Abstract:

This paper focuses on developing a system to transfer mold base plates and standard parts faster during the stage of injection mold design. This system not only provides a way to compare the file version, but also it utilizes Siemens NX 10 to isolate the updated information into a single executable file (.dll), and then, the file can be transferred without the need of transferring the whole file. By this way, the system can help the user to download only necessary mold base plates and standard parts, and those parts downloaded are only the updated portions.

Keywords: CAD, injection molding, mold base, data retrieval.

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39 Advanced Micromanufacturing for Ultra Precision Part by Soft Lithography and Nano Powder Injection Molding

Authors: Andy Tirta, Yus Prasetyo, Eung-Ryul. Baek, Chul-Jin. Choi , Hye-Moon. Lee

Abstract:

Recently, the advanced technologies that offer high precision product, relative easy, economical process and also rapid production are needed to realize the high demand of ultra precision micro part. In our research, micromanufacturing based on soft lithography and nanopowder injection molding was investigated. The silicone metal pattern with ultra thick and high aspect ratio succeeds to fabricate Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro mold. The process followed by nanopowder injection molding (PIM) by a simple vacuum hot press. The 17-4ph nanopowder with diameter of 100 nm, succeed to be injected and it forms green sample microbearing with thickness, microchannel and aspect ratio is 700μm, 60μm and 12, respectively. Sintering process was done in 1200 C for 2 hours and heating rate 0.83oC/min. Since low powder load (45% PL) was applied to achieve green sample fabrication, ~15% shrinkage happen in the 86% relative density. Several improvements should be done to produce high accuracy and full density sintered part.

Keywords: Micromanufacturing, Nano PIM, PDMS micro mould.

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38 Rapid Data Acquisition System for Complex Algorithm Testing in Plastic Molding Industry

Authors: A. Tellaeche, R. Arana

Abstract:

Injection molding is a very complicated process to monitor and control. With its high complexity and many process parameters, the optimization of these systems is a very challenging problem. To meet the requirements and costs demanded by the market, there has been an intense development and research with the aim to maintain the process under control. This paper outlines the latest advances in necessary algorithms for plastic injection process and monitoring, and also a flexible data acquisition system that allows rapid implementation of complex algorithms to assess their correct performance and can be integrated in the quality control process. This is the main topic of this paper. Finally, to demonstrate the performance achieved by this combination, a real case of use is presented.

Keywords: Plastic injection, machine learning, rapid complex algorithm prototyping.

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37 A Pull-out Fiber/Matrix Interface Characterization of Vegetal Fibers Reinforced Thermoplastic Polymer Composites: The Influence of the Processing Temperature

Authors: Duy Cuong Nguyen, Ali Makke, Guillaume Montay

Abstract:

This work presents an improved single fiber pull-out test for fiber/matrix interface characterization. This test has been used to study the Inter-Facial Shear Strength ‘IFSS’ of hemp fibers reinforced polypropylene (PP). For this aim, the fiber diameter has been carefully measured using a tomography inspired method. The fiber section contour can then be approximated by a circle or a polygon. The results show that the IFSS is overestimated if the circular approximation is used. The Influence of the molding temperature on the IFSS has also been studied. We find that a molding temperature of 183◦C leads to better interfacial properties. Above or below this temperature the interface strength is reduced.

Keywords: Interface, pull-out, processing, temperature, hemp, polypropylene, composite.

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36 The Analysis of Defects Prediction in Injection Molding

Authors: Mehdi Moayyedian, Kazem Abhary, Romeo Marian

Abstract:

This paper presents an evaluation of a plastic defect in injection molding before it occurs in the process; it is known as the short shot defect. The evaluation of different parameters which affect the possibility of short shot defect is the aim of this paper. The analysis of short shot possibility is conducted via SolidWorks Plastics and Taguchi method to determine the most significant parameters. Finite Element Method (FEM) is employed to analyze two circular flat polypropylene plates of 1 mm thickness. Filling time, part cooling time, pressure holding time, melt temperature and gate type are chosen as process and geometric parameters, respectively. A methodology is presented herein to predict the possibility of the short-shot occurrence. The analysis determined melt temperature is the most influential parameter affecting the possibility of short shot defect with a contribution of 74.25%, and filling time with a contribution of 22%, followed by gate type with a contribution of 3.69%. It was also determined the optimum level of each parameter leading to a reduction in the possibility of short shot are gate type at level 1, filling time at level 3 and melt temperature at level 3. Finally, the most significant parameters affecting the possibility of short shot were determined to be melt temperature, filling time, and gate type.

Keywords: Injection molding, plastic defects, short shot, Taguchi method.

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35 Carbon Nanotubes Based Porous Framework for Filtration Applications Using Industrial Grinding Waste

Authors: V. J. Pillewan, D. N. Raut, K. N. Patil, D. K. Shinde

Abstract:

Forging, milling, turning, grinding and shaping etc. are the various industrial manufacturing processes which generate the metal waste. Grinding is extensively used in the finishing operation. The waste generated contains significant impurities apart from the metal particles. Due to these significant impurities, it becomes difficult to process and gets usually dumped in the landfills which create environmental problems. Therefore, it becomes essential to reuse metal waste to create value added products. Powder injection molding process is used for producing the porous metal matrix framework. This paper discusses the presented design of the porous framework to be used for the liquid filter application. Different parameters are optimized to obtain the better strength framework with variable porosity. Carbon nanotubes are used as reinforcing materials to enhance the strength of the metal matrix framework.

Keywords: Grinding waste, powder injection molding, carbon nanotubes, metal matrix composites.

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34 Novel CFRP Adhesive Joints and Structures for Offshore Application

Authors: M. R. Abusrea, Shiyi Jiang, Dingding Chen, Kazuo Arakawa

Abstract:

Novel wind-lens turbine designs can augment power output. Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is used to form large and complex structures from a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite. Typically, wind-lens turbine structures are fabricated in segments, and then bonded to form the final structure. This paper introduces five new adhesive joints, divided into two groups: one is constructed between dry carbon and CFRP fabrics, and the other is constructed with two dry carbon fibers. All joints and CFRP fabrics were made in our laboratory using VARTM manufacturing techniques. Specimens were prepared for tensile testing to measure joint performance. The results showed that the second group of joints achieved a higher tensile strength than the first group. On the other hand, the tensile fracture behavior of the two groups showed the same pattern of crack originating near the joint ends followed by crack propagation until fracture.

Keywords: Adhesive joints, CFRP, VARTM, resin transfer molding.

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33 Study of Influencing Factors on the Flowability of Jute Nonwoven Reinforced Sheet Molding Compound

Authors: Miriam I. Lautenschläger, Max H. Scheiwe, Kay A. Weidenmann, Frank Henning, Peter Elsner

Abstract:

Due to increasing environmental awareness jute fibers are more often used in fiber reinforced composites. In the Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) process, the mold cavity is filled via material flow allowing more complex component design. But, the difficulty of using jute fibers in this process is the decreased capacity of fiber movement in the mold. A comparative flow study with jute nonwoven reinforced SMC was conducted examining the influence of the fiber volume content, the grammage of the jute nonwoven textile and a mechanical modification of the nonwoven textile on the flowability. The nonwoven textile reinforcement was selected to support homogeneous fiber distribution. Trials were performed using two SMC paste formulations differing only in filler type. Platy-shaped kaolin with a mean particle size of 0.8 μm and ashlar calcium carbonate with a mean particle size of 2.7 μm were selected as fillers. Ensuring comparability of the two SMC paste formulations the filler content was determined to reach equal initial viscosity for both systems. The calcium carbonate filled paste was set as reference. The flow study was conducted using a jute nonwoven textile with 300 g/m² as reference. The manufactured SMC sheets were stacked and centrally placed in a square mold. The mold coverage was varied between 25 and 90% keeping the weight of the stack for comparison constant. Comparing the influence of the two fillers kaolin yielded better results regarding a homogeneous fiber distribution. A mold coverage of about 68% was already sufficient to homogeneously fill the mold cavity whereas for calcium carbonate filled system about 79% mold coverage was necessary. The flow study revealed a strong influence of the fiber volume content on the flowability. A fiber volume content of 12 vol.-% and 25 vol.-% were compared for both SMC formulations. The lower fiber volume content strongly supported fiber transport whereas 25 vol.-% showed insignificant influence. The results indicate a limiting fiber volume content for the flowability. The influence of the nonwoven textile grammage was determined using nonwoven jute material with 500 g/m² and a fiber volume content of 20 vol.-%. The 500 g/m² reinforcement material showed inferior results with regard to fiber movement. A mold coverage of about 90 % was required to prevent the destruction of the nonwoven structure. Below this mold coverage the 500 g/m² nonwoven material was ripped and torn apart. Low mold coverages led to damage of the textile reinforcement. Due to the ripped nonwoven structure the textile was modified with cuts in order to facilitate fiber movement in the mold. Parallel cuts of about 20 mm length and 20 mm distance to each other were applied to the textile and stacked with varying orientations prior to molding. Stacks with unidirectional orientated cuts over stacks with cuts in various directions e.g. (0°, 45°, 90°, -45°) were investigated. The mechanical modification supported tearing of the textile without achieving benefit for the flowability.

Keywords: Filler, flowability, jute fiber, nonwoven, sheet molding compound.

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32 High Strength, High Toughness Polyhydroxybutyrate-Co-Valerate Based Biocomposites

Authors: S. Z. A. Zaidi, A. Crosky

Abstract:

Biocomposites is a field that has gained much scientific attention due to the current substantial consumption of non-renewable resources and the environmentally harmful disposal methods required for traditional polymer composites. Research on natural fiber reinforced polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) has gained considerable momentum over the past decade. There is little work on PHAs reinforced with unidirectional (UD) natural fibers and little work on using epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as a toughening agent for PHA-based biocomposites. In this work, we prepared polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) biocomposites reinforced with UD 30 wt.% flax fibers and evaluated the use of ENR with 50% epoxidation (ENR50) as a toughening agent for PHBV biocomposites. Quasi-unidirectional flax/PHBV composites were prepared by hand layup, powder impregnation followed by compression molding.  Toughening agents – polybutylene adiphate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and ENR50 – were cryogenically ground into powder and mechanically mixed with main matrix PHBV to maintain the powder impregnation process. The tensile, flexural and impact properties of the biocomposites were measured and morphology of the composites examined using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The UD biocomposites showed exceptionally high mechanical properties as compared to the results obtained previously where only short fibers have been used. The improved tensile and flexural properties were attributed to the continuous nature of the fiber reinforcement and the increased proportion of fibers in the loading direction. The improved impact properties were attributed to a larger surface area for fiber-matrix debonding and for subsequent sliding and fiber pull-out mechanisms to act on, allowing more energy to be absorbed. Coating cryogenically ground ENR50 particles with PHBV powder successfully inhibits the self-healing nature of ENR-50, preventing particles from coalescing and overcoming problems in mechanical mixing, compounding and molding. Cryogenic grinding, followed by powder impregnation and subsequent compression molding is an effective route to the production of high-mechanical-property biocomposites based on renewable resources for high-obsolescence applications such as plastic casings for consumer electronics.

Keywords: Natural fibers, natural rubber, polyhydroxyalkanoates, unidirectional.

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31 Stiffness Modeling of 3-PRS Mechanism

Authors: Xiaohui Han, Yuhan Wang, Jing Shi

Abstract:

This paper proposed a stiffness analysis method for a 3-PRS mechanism for welding thick aluminum plate using FSW technology. In the molding process, elastic deformation of lead-screws and links are taken into account. This method is based on the virtual work principle. Through a survey of the commonly used stiffness performance indices, the minimum and maximum eigenvalues of the stiffness matrix are used to evaluate the stiffness of the 3-PRS mechanism. Furthermore, A FEA model has been constructed to verify the method. Finally, we redefined the workspace using the stiffness analysis method.

Keywords: 3-PRS, parallel mechanism, stiffness analysis, workspace.

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30 Material Concepts and Processing Methods for Electrical Insulation

Authors: R. Sekula

Abstract:

Epoxy composites are broadly used as an electrical insulation for the high voltage applications since only such materials can fulfill particular mechanical, thermal, and dielectric requirements. However, properties of the final product are strongly dependent on proper manufacturing process with minimized material failures, as too large shrinkage, voids and cracks. Therefore, application of proper materials (epoxy, hardener, and filler) and process parameters (mold temperature, filling time, filling velocity, initial temperature of internal parts, gelation time), as well as design and geometric parameters are essential features for final quality of the produced components. In this paper, an approach for three-dimensional modeling of all molding stages, namely filling, curing and post-curing is presented. The reactive molding simulation tool is based on a commercial CFD package, and include dedicated models describing viscosity and reaction kinetics that have been successfully implemented to simulate the reactive nature of the system with exothermic effect. Also a dedicated simulation procedure for stress and shrinkage calculations, as well as simulation results are presented in the paper. Second part of the paper is dedicated to recent developments on formulations of functional composites for electrical insulation applications, focusing on thermally conductive materials. Concepts based on filler modifications for epoxy electrical composites have been presented, including the results of the obtained properties. Finally, having in mind tough environmental regulations, in addition to current process and design aspects, an approach for product re-design has been presented focusing on replacement of epoxy material with the thermoplastic one. Such “design-for-recycling” method is one of new directions associated with development of new material and processing concepts of electrical products and brings a lot of additional research challenges. For that, one of the successful products has been presented to illustrate the presented methodology.

Keywords: Curing, epoxy insulation, numerical simulations, recycling.

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29 Processing Design of Miniature Casting Incorporating Stereolithography Technologies

Authors: Pei-Hsing Huang, Wei-Ju Huang

Abstract:

Investment casting is commonly used in the production of metallic components with complex shapes, due to its high dimensional precision, good surface finish, and low cost. However, the process is cumbersome, and the period between trial casting and final production can be very long, thereby limiting business opportunities and competitiveness. In this study, we replaced conventional wax injection with stereolithography (SLA) 3D printing to speed up the trial process and reduce costs. We also used silicone molds to further reduce costs to avoid the high costs imposed by photosensitive resin.

Keywords: Investment casting, stereolithography, wax molding, 3D printing.

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28 Study of Biocomposites Based of Poly(Lactic Acid) and Olive Husk Flour

Authors: Samra Isadounene, Amar Boukerrou, Dalila Hammiche

Abstract:

In this work, the composites were prepared with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and olive husk flour (OHF) with different percentages (10, 20 and 30%) using extrusion method followed by injection molding. The morphological, mechanical properties and thermal behavior of composites were investigated. Tensile strength and elongation at break of composites showed a decreasing trend with increasing fiber content. On the other hand, Young modulus and storage modulus were increased. The addition of OHF resulted in a decrease in thermal stability of composites. The presence of OHF led to an increase in percentage of crystallinity (Xc) of PLA matrix.

Keywords: Biopolymers, composites, mechanical properties, poly(lactic acid).

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27 Studying the Effect of Nanoclays on the Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene/Polyamide Nanocomposites

Authors: Benalia Kouini, Aicha Serier

Abstract:

Nanocomposites based on polypropylene/polyamide 66 (PP/PA66) nanoblends containing organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MAH) were prepared by melt compounding method followed by injection molding. Two different types of nanoclays were used in this work. DELLITE LVF is the untreated nanoclay and DELLITE 67G is the treated one. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied using the XR diffraction (XRD). The results indicate that the incorporation of treated nanoclay has a significant effect on the impact strength of PP/PA66 nanocomposites. Furthermore, it was found that XRD results revealed the intercalation, exfoliation of nanaclays of nanocomposites.

Keywords: Nanoclay, nanocomposites, polypropylene, polyamide, melt processing, mechanical properties.

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26 Opto-Mechanical Characterization of Aspheric Lenses from the Hybrid Method

Authors: Aliouane Toufik, Hamdi Amine, Bouzid Djamel

Abstract:

Aspheric optical components are an alternative to the use of conventional lenses in the implementation of imaging systems for the visible range. Spherical lenses are capable of producing aberrations. Therefore, they are not able to focus all the light into a single point. Instead, aspherical lenses correct aberrations and provide better resolution even with compact lenses incorporating a small number of lenses.

Metrology of these components is very difficult especially when the resolution requirements increase and insufficient or complexity of conventional tools requires the development of specific approaches to characterization.

This work is part of the problem existed because the objectives are the study and comparison of different methods used to measure surface rays hybrid aspherical lenses.

Keywords: Aspherical surface, Manufacture of lenses, precision molding, radius of curvature, roughness.

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