Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: polyurethane

38 The Effect of Ethylene Glycol to Soy Polyurethane Foam Classifications

Authors: Flora Elvistia Firdaus

Abstract:

Soy polyol obtained from hydroxylation of soy epoxide with ethylene glycol were prepared as pre-polyurethane. The two step process method were applied in the polyurethane synthesis. The blending of soy polyol with synthetic polyol then simultaneously carried out to TDI (2,4): MDI (4,4-) (80:20), blowing agent, and surfactant. Ethylene glycol were not taking part in the polyurethane synthesis. The inclusion of ethylene glycol were used as a control. Characterization of polyurethane foam through impact resillience, indentation deflection, and density can visualize the polyurethane classifications.

Keywords: Ethylene glycol, polyurethane foam, soy polyol, synthetic polyol

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37 Silicone on Blending Vegetal Petrochemical Based Polyurethane

Authors: Flora E. Firdaus

Abstract:

Polyurethane foam (PUF) is formed by a chemical reaction of polyol and isocyanate. The aim is to understand the impact of Silicone on synthesizing polyurethane in differentiate volume of molding. The method used was one step process, which is simultaneously caried out a blending polyol (petroleum polyol and soybean polyol), a TDI (2,4):MDI (4,4-) (80:20), a distilled water, and a silicone. The properties of the material were measured via a number of parameters, which are polymer density, compressive strength, and cellular structures. It is found that density of polyurethane using silicone with volume of molding either 250 ml or 500 ml is lower than without using silicone.

Keywords: soybean, petro, silicone, polyurethane

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36 Chain Extender on Property Relationships of Polyurethane Derived from Soybean Oil

Authors: Flora Elvistia Firdaus

Abstract:

Polyurethane foams (PUF) has been prepared from vegetable; soybean based polyols. They were characterized into flexible and semi rigid polyurethane foam. This work is directed to production of flexible polyurethane foams by a process involving the reaction of mixture of 2,4- and 2,6-Toluene di Isocyanate isomers, with portion of to blends of soy polyols with petroleum polyol in the presence of other ingredients such as blowing agents, silicone surfactants and accelerating agents. Additon of chain extender improves the property then further decreases the properties on further addition of the same. The objective of this work was to study the effect of chain extender and role of phosphoric acid catalyst to the final properties and correlate the morphology image with mechanical properties of these foams.

Keywords: polyurethane, soy polyol, chain extender

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35 Property of Polyurethane: from Soy-derived Phosphate Ester

Authors: Flora Elvistia Firdaus

Abstract:

Polyurethane foams (PUF) were formed by a chemical reaction of polyol and isocyanate. The polyol was manufactured by ring-opening hydrolysis of epoxidized soybean oil in the presence of phosphoric acid under varying experimental conditions. Other factors in the foam formulation such as water content and surfactant were kept constant. The effect of the amount of solvents, phosphoric acid, and their derivates in the foam formulation on the properties of polyurethane foams were studied. The properties of the material were measured via a number of parameters, which are water content of prepared polyol, polymer density and cellular structures.

Keywords: soy, polyurethane, phosporic acid

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34 Poly(Lactic Acid) Based Flexible Films

Authors: Fathilah binti Ali, Jamarosliza Jamaluddin, Arun Kumar Upadhyay

Abstract:

Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer which has good mechanical properties, however, its brittleness limits its usage especially in packaging materials. Therefore, in this work, PLA based polyurethane films were prepared by synthesizing with different types of isocyanates; methylene diisocyanate (MDI) and hexamethylene diisocyanates (HDI). For this purpose, PLA based polyurethane must have good strength and flexibility. Therefore, polycaprolactone which has better flexibility were prepared with PLA. An effective way to endow polylactic acid with toughness is through chain-extension reaction of the polylactic acid pre-polymer with polycaprolactone used as chain extender. Polyurethane prepared from MDI showed brittle behaviour, while, polyurethane prepared from HDI showed flexibility at same concentrations.

Keywords: Biodegradable polymer, flexible, poly(lactic acid), polyurethane.

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33 An Optimization of the New Die Design of Sheet Hydroforming by Taguchi Method

Authors: M. Hosseinzadeh, S. A. Zamani, A. Taheri

Abstract:

During the last few years, several sheet hydroforming processes have been introduced. Despite the advantages of these methods, they have some limitations. Of the processes, the two main ones are the standard hydroforming and hydromechanical deep drawing. A new sheet hydroforming die set was proposed that has the advantages of both processes and eliminates their limitations. In this method, a polyurethane plate was used as a part of the die-set to control the blank holder force. This paper outlines the Taguchi optimization methodology, which is applied to optimize the effective parameters in forming cylindrical cups by the new die set of sheet hydroforming process. The process parameters evaluated in this research are polyurethane hardness, polyurethane thickness, forming pressure path and polyurethane hole diameter. The design of experiments based upon L9 orthogonal arrays by Taguchi was used and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyze the effect of these parameters on the forming pressure. The analysis of the results showed that the optimal combination for low forming pressure is harder polyurethane, bigger diameter of polyurethane hole and thinner polyurethane. Finally, the confirmation test was derived based on the optimal combination of parameters and it was shown that the Taguchi method is suitable to examine the optimization process.

Keywords: Sheet Hydroforming, Optimization, Taguchi Method

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32 Synthesis of New Bio-Based Solid Polymer Electrolyte Polyurethane-LiClO4 via Prepolymerization Method: Effect of NCO/OH Ratio on Their Chemical, Thermal Properties and Ionic Conductivity

Authors: C. S. Wong, K. H. Badri, N. Ataollahi, K. P. Law, M. S. Su’ait, N. I. Hassan

Abstract:

Novel bio-based polymer electrolyte was synthesized with LiClO4 as the main source of charge carrier. Initially, polyurethane-LiClO4 polymer electrolytes were synthesized via prepolymerization method with different NCO/OH ratios and labelled them as PU1, PU2, PU3 and PU4. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicates the co-ordination between Li+ ion and polyurethane in PU1. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis indicates PU1 has the highest glass transition temperature (Tg) corresponds to the most abundant urethane group which is the hard segment in PU1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows the good miscibility between lithium salt and the polymer. The study found that PU1 possessed the greatest ionic conductivity and the lowest activation energy, Ea. All the polyurethanes exhibited linear Arrhenius variations indicating ion transport via simple lithium ion hopping in polyurethane. This research proves the NCO content in polyurethane plays an important role in affecting the ionic conductivity of this polymer electrolyte.

Keywords: Ionic conductivity, Palm kernel oil-based monoester polyol, polyurethane, solid polymer electrolyte.

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31 Relationship of Reaction Temperature on Phosphate Oligomers Reactivity to Properties of Soy-Polyurethane

Authors: Flora Elvistia Firdaus

Abstract:

Polyurethane foam (PUF) were prepared by reacting polyols synthesized from soy-oil into mixture of 2,4- Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) with 4,4--Methylene Diamine Isocyanate (MDI) with ratio of 70:30. The polyols obtained via esterification reaction were categorize into different temperature of reaction and by used of varied concentration of phosphoric acid catalyst. The purpose of catalysts is to shifting selectivity to a desired and value added of product. The effect of stoichiometric balance (molar ratio of epoxide/ethylene glycol) to the concentration of the catalyst on the final properties was evaluated.

Keywords: temperature, phosphate, soy polyurethane

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30 Synthesis and Properties of Biobased Polyurethane/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites

Authors: Teuku Rihayat, Suryani

Abstract:

Polyurethanes (PURs) are very versatile polymeric materials with a wide range of physical and chemical properties. PURs have desirable properties such as high abrasion resistance, tear strength, shock absorption, flexibility and elasticity. Although they have relatively poor thermal stability, this can be improved by using treated clay. Polyurethane/clay nanocomposites have been synthesized from renewable sources. A polyol for the production of polyurethane by reaction with an isocyanate was obtained by the synthesis of palm oil-based oleic acid with glycerol. Dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) was used as catalyst and emulsifier. The unmodified clay (kunipia-F) was treated with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB-mont) and octadodecylamine (ODAmont). The d-spacing in CTAB-mont and ODA-mont were 1.571 nm and 1.798 nm respectively and larger than that of the pure-mont (1.142 nm). The organoclay was completely intercalated in the polyurethane, as confirmed by a wide angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD) pattern. The results showed that adding clay demonstrated better thermal stability in comparison with the virgin polyurethane. Onset degradation of pure PU is at 200oC, and is lower than that of the CTAB-mont PU and ODA-mont PU which takes place at about 318oC and 330oC, respectively. The mechanical properties (including the dynamic mechanical properties) of pure polyurethane (PU) and PU/clay nanocomposites, were measured. The modified organoclay had a remarkably beneficial effect on the strength and elongation at break of the nanocomposites, which both increased with increasing clay content with the increase of the tensile strength of more than 214% and 267% by the addition of only 5 wt% of the montmorillonite CTAB-mont PU and ODA-mont PU, respectively.

Keywords: Polyurethane, Clay nanocomposites, Biobase

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29 Production of Polyurethane Foams from Bark Wastes

Authors: Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, Liliana Rodrigues, Idalina Domingos, José Ferreira, Luís Teixeira de Lemos, Bruno Esteves

Abstract:

Currently, the polyurethanes industry is dependent on fossil resources to obtain their basic raw materials (polyols and isocyanate), as these are obtained from petroleum products. The aim of this work was to use biopolyols from liquefied Pseudotsuga (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) barks for the production of polyurethane foams and optimize the process. Liquefaction was done with glycerol catalyzed by KOH. Foams were produced following different formulations and using biopolyols from both barks. Subsequently, the foams were characterized according to their mechanical properties and the reaction of the foam formation was monitored by FTIR-ATR. The results show that it is possible to produce polyurethane foams using bio-based polyols and the liquefaction conditions are very important because they influence the characteristics of biopolyols and, consequently the characteristics of the foams. However, the process has to be further optimized so that it can obtain better quality foams.

Keywords: Bio-based polyol, mechanical tests, polyurethane foam, Pseudotsuga bark, renewable resources, Turkey oak bark.

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28 Polyurethane Nanofibers Obtained By Electrospinning Process

Authors: H. Karakaş, A.S. Saraç, T. Polat, E.G. Budak, S. Bayram, N. Dağ, S. Jahangiri

Abstract:

Electrospinning is a broadly used technology to obtain polymeric nanofibers ranging from several micrometers down to several hundred nanometers for a wide range of applications. It offers unique capabilities to produce nanofibers with controllable porous structure. With smaller pores and higher surface area than regular fibers, electrospun fibers have been successfully applied in various fields, such as, nanocatalysis, tissue engineering scaffolds, protective clothing, filtration, biomedical, pharmaceutical, optical electronics, healthcare, biotechnology, defense and security, and environmental engineering. In this study, polyurethane nanofibers were obtained under different electrospinning parameters. Fiber morphology and diameter distribution were investigated in order to understand them as a function of process parameters.

Keywords: Electrospinning, polyurethane, nanofibers.

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27 Nano Composite of Clay and Modified Ketonic Resin as Fire Retardant Polyol for Polyurethane

Authors: D. Önen, N. Kızılcan, B. Yıldız, A. Akar

Abstract:

In situ modified cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resins were prepared by addition of alendronic acid during resin preparation. Clay nanocomposites in ketonic resins were achieved by adding clay into the flask at the beginning of the resin preparation. The prepared resins were used for the synthesis of fire resistant polyurethanes foam. Both phosphorous containing modifier compound alendronic acid and nanoclay increases fire resistance of the cyclohexanone-formaldehyde resin thus polyurethane produced from these resins. The effect of the concentrations of alendronic acid and clay on the fire resistance and physical properties of polyurethanes was studied.

Keywords: Alendronic acid, clay, ketonic resin, polyurethane.

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26 Environmental Friendly Polyurethane Coatings Based On Hyperbranched Resin

Authors: Ashraf M. Elsaid, Magd M. Badr, Mohamed S. Selim

Abstract:

Water borne polyurethane (PU) based on newly prepared hyperbranched poly (amine-ester) (HBPAE) was applied and evaluated as organic coating material. HBPAE was prepared through one-pot synthesis between trimethylol propane as a core and AB2 branched monomer which was obtained via Michal addition of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and diethanol amine (DEA). PU was prepared from HBPAE using different ratios of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) to form cured coating film. The prepared HBPAE was characterized using; GPC, FT-IR and 1H-NMR. The mechanical properties (impact, hardness, adhesion, and flexibility), thermal properties (DSC and TGA) and chemical resistance of the applied film were estimated. The results indicated 50% of TDI is the selected ratio. This formulation represents a promising candidate to be used as coating material.

Keywords: Curing, Hyperbranched polymer, Polyurethane, Urethane-acrylates, water borne Coatings.

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25 Papain Immobilized Polyurethane Film as Antimicrobial Food Package

Authors: M. Cynthya, V. Prabhawathi, D. Mukesh

Abstract:

Food contamination occurs during post process handling. This leads to spoilage and growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the food, thereby reducing its shelf life or spreading of food borne diseases. Several methods are tried and one of which is use of antimicrobial packaging. Here, papain, a protease enzyme, is covalently immobilized with the help of glutarldehyde on polyurethane and used as a food wrap to protect food from microbial contamination. Covalent immobilization of papain was achieved at a pH of 7.4; temperature of 4°C; glutaraldehyde concentration of 0.5%; incubation time of 24h; and 50mg of papain. The formation of -C=Nobserved in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum confirmed the immobilization of the enzyme on the polymer. Immobilized enzyme retained higher activity than the native free enzyme. The modified polyurethane showed better reduction of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm than bare polymer film (eight folds reduction in live colonies, two times reduction in protein and 6 times reduction in carbohydrates). The efficacy of this was studied by wrapping it over S. aureus contaminated cottage cheese (paneer) and cheese and stored at a temperature of 4°C for 7days. The modified film reduced the bacterial contamination by eight folds when compared to the bare film. FTIR also indicated reduction in lipids, sugars and proteins in the biofilm.

Keywords: Cheese, Papain, polyurethane, Staphylococcus aureus.

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24 Simulation of the Reactive Rotational Molding Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Authors: A. Hamidi, S. Khelladi, L. Illoul, A. Tcharkhtchi

Abstract:

Reactive rotational molding (RRM) is a process to manufacture hollow plastic parts with reactive material has several advantages compared to conventional roto molding of thermoplastic powders: process cycle time is shorter; raw material is less expensive because polymerization occurs during processing and high-performance polymers may be used such as thermosets, thermoplastics or blends. However, several phenomena occur during this process which makes the optimization of the process quite complex. In this study, we have used a mixture of isocyanate and polyol as a reactive system. The chemical transformation of this system to polyurethane has been studied by thermal analysis and rheology tests. Thanks to these results of the curing process and rheological measurements, the kinetic and rheokinetik of polyurethane was identified. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, a Lagrangian meshless method, was chosen to simulate reactive fluid flow in 2 and 3D configurations of the polyurethane during the process taking into account the chemical, and chemiorehological results obtained experimentally in this study.

Keywords: Reactive rotational molding, free surface flows, simulation, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, surface tension.

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23 A Simulation Study of E-Glass Reinforced Polyurethane Footbed and Investigation of Parameters Effecting Elastic Behaviour of Footbed Material

Authors: Berkay Ergene, Çağın Bolat

Abstract:

In this study, we mainly focused on a simulation study regarding composite footbed in order to contribute to shoe industry. As a footbed, e-glass fiber reinforced polyurethane was determined since polyurethane based materials are already used for footbed in shoe manufacturing frequently. Flat, elliptical and rectangular grooved shoe soles were modeled and analyzed separately as TPU, 10% glass fiber reinforced, 30% glass fiber reinforced and 50% glass fiber reinforced materials according to their properties under three point bending and compression situations to determine the relationship between model, material type and mechanical behaviours of composite model. ANSYS 14.0 APDL mechanical structural module is utilized in all simulations and analyzed stress and strain distributions for different footbed models and materials. Furthermore, materials constants like young modulus, shear modulus, Poisson ratio and density of the composites were calculated theoretically by using composite mixture rule and interpreted for mechanical aspects.

Keywords: Composite, elastic behaviour, footbed, simulation.

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22 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Turning Hydrophilic Surface to Hydrophobic

Authors: C.W. Kan

Abstract:

This paper investigates the use of atmospheric pressure plasma for improving the surface hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane (TMS). The atmospheric pressure plasma treatment with TMS is a single-step process to enhance the hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather. The hydrophobicity of the treated surface was examined by contact angle measurement. The physical and chemical surface changes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The purpose of this paper is to provide learning materials for understanding how to use atmospheric pressure plasma in the textile finishing process to transform a hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic.

Keywords: Learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, surface.

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21 Functionalized PU Foam for Water Filtration

Authors: Nidal H. Abu-Zahra, Subhashini Gunashekar

Abstract:

Polyurethane foam is functionalized with Sulfonic acid groups to remove lead ions (Pb2+) from drinking water through a cation exchange process. The synthesis is based on addition polymerization of the -NCO groups of an isocyanate with the –OH groups of a polyol to form the urethane. Toluene-diisocyanateis reacted with Polypropylene glycol to form a linear pre-polymer, which is further polymerized using a chain extender, N, N-bis(2-hydorxyethyl)-2-aminoethane-sulfonic acid (BES). BES acts as a functional group site to exchange Pb2+ ions. A set of experiments was designed to study the effect of various processing parameters on the performance of the synthesized foam. The maximum Pb2+ ion exchange capacity of the foam was found to be 47ppb/g from a 100ppb Pb2+ solution over a period of 60 minutes. A multistage batch filtration process increased the lead removal to 50-54ppb/3g of foam over a period of 90 minutes.

Keywords: Adsorption, Functionalized, Ion exchange, Polyurethane, Sulfonic.

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20 Impact of Machining Parameters on the Surface Roughness of Machined PU Block

Authors: Louis Denis Kevin Catherine, Raja Aziz Raja Ma’arof, Azrina Arshad, Sangeeth Suresh

Abstract:

Machining parameters are very important in determining the surface quality of any material. In the past decade, some new engineering materials were developed for the manufacturing industry which created a need to conduct an investigation on the impact of the said parameters on their surface roughness. Polyurethane (PU) block is widely used in the automotive industry to manufacture parts such as checking fixtures that are used to verify the dimensional accuracy of automotive parts. In this paper, the design of experiment (DOE) was used to investigate on the effect of the milling parameters on the PU block. Furthermore, an analysis of the machined surface chemical composition was done using scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the surface roughness of the PU block is severely affected when PU undergoes a flood machining process instead of a dry condition. In addition the stepover and the silicon content were found to be the most significant parameters that influence the surface quality of the PU block.

Keywords: Polyurethane (PU), design of experiment (DOE), scanning electron microscope (SEM), surface roughness.

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19 Application of Modified Maxwell-Stefan Equation for Separation of Aqueous Phenol by Pervaporation

Authors: Ujjal K Ghosh, Ling Teen

Abstract:

Pervaporation has the potential to be an alternative to the other traditional separation processes such as distillation, adsorption, reverse osmosis and extraction. This study investigates the separation of phenol from water using a polyurethane membrane by pervaporation by applying the modified Maxwell-Stephen model. The modified Maxwell-Stefan model takes into account the non-ideal multi-component solubility effect, nonideal diffusivity of all permeating components, concentration dependent density of the membrane and diffusion coupling to predict various fluxes. Four cases has been developed to investigate the process parameters effects on the flux and weight fraction of phenol in the permeate values namely feed concentration, membrane thickness, operating temperature and operating downstream pressure. The model could describe semi-quantitatively the performance of the pervaporation membrane for the given system as a very good agreement between the observed and theoretical fluxes was observed.

Keywords: Pervaporation, Phenol, Polyurethane, Modified Maxwell-Stefan equation, Solution Diffusion

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18 Anticorrosive Polyurethane Clear Coat with Self-Cleaning Character

Authors: Nihit Madireddi, P. A. Mahanwar

Abstract:

We have aimed to produce a self-cleaning transparent polymer coating with polyurethane (PU) matrix as the latter is highly solvent, chemical and weather resistant having good mechanical properties. Nano-silica modified by 1H, 1H, 2H, 2Hperflurooctyltriethoxysilane was incorporated into the PU matrix for attaining self-cleaning ability through hydrophobicity. The modification was confirmed by particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermo-gravimetric (TGA) studies were carried to ascertain the grafting of silane onto the silica. Several coating formulations were prepared by varying the silica loading content and compared to a commercial equivalent. The effect of dispersion and the morphology of the coated films were assessed by SEM analysis. All coating standardized tests like solvent resistance, adhesion, flexibility, acid, alkali, gloss etc. have been performed as per ASTM standards. Water contact angle studies were conducted to analyze the hydrophobic character of the coating. In addition, the coatings were also subjected to salt spray and accelerated weather testing to analyze the durability of the coating.

Keywords: FAS, nano-silica, PU clear coat, self-cleaning.

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17 Compressive Properties of a Synthetic Bone Substitute for Vertebral Cancellous Bone

Authors: H. N. Mehmanparast, J.M. Mac-Thiong., Y. Petit

Abstract:

Transpedicular screw fixation in spinal fractures, degenerative changes, or deformities is a well-established procedure. However, important rate of fixation failure due to screw bending, loosening, or pullout are still reported particularly in weak bone stock in osteoporosis. To overcome the problem, mechanism of failure has to be fully investigated in vitro. Post-mortem human subjects are less accessible and animal cadavers comprise limitations due to different geometry and mechanical properties. Therefore, the development of a synthetic model mimicking the realistic human vertebra is highly demanded. A bone surrogate, composed of Polyurethane (PU) foam analogous to cancellous bone porous structure, was tested for 3 different densities in this study. The mechanical properties were investigated under uniaxial compression test by minimizing the end artifacts on specimens. The results indicated that PU foam of 0.32 g.cm-3 density has comparable mechanical properties to human cancellous bone in terms of young-s modulus and yield strength. Therefore, the obtained information can be considered as primary step for developing a realistic cancellous bone of human vertebral body. Further evaluations are also recommended for other density groups.

Keywords: Cancellous bone, Pedicle screw, Polyurethane foam, Synthetic bone

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16 Application of Flexi-Wall in Noise Barriers Renewal

Authors: B. Daee, H. M. El Naggar

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental study on structural performance of an innovative noise barrier consisting of poly-block, light polyurethane foam (LPF) and polyurea. This wall system (flexi-wall) is intended to be employed as a vertical extension to existing sound barriers in an accelerated construction method. To aid in the wall design, several mechanical tests were conducted on LPF specimens and two full-scale walls were then fabricated employing the same LPF material. The full-scale walls were subjected to lateral loading in order to establish their lateral resistance. A cyclic fatigue test was also performed on a full-scale flexi-wall in order to evaluate the performance of the wall under a repetitive loading condition. The result of the experiments indicated the suitability of flexi-wall in accelerated construction and confirmed that the structural performance of the wall system under lateral loading is satisfactory for the sound barrier application. The experimental results were discussed and a preliminary design procedure for application of flexi-wall in sound barrier applications was also developed.

Keywords: Noise barrier, Polyurethane Foam, Accelerated construction, Full-scale experiment.

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15 Thermal Securing of Electrical Contacts inside Oil Power Transformers

Authors: Ioan Rusu

Abstract:

In the operation of power transformers of 110 kV/MV from substations, these are traveled by fault current resulting from MV line damage. Defect electrical contacts are heated when they are travelled from fault currents. In the case of high temperatures when 135 °C is reached, the electrical insulating oil in the vicinity of the electrical faults comes into contact with these contacts releases gases, and activates the electrical protection. To avoid auto-flammability of electro-insulating oil, we designed a security system thermal of electrical contact defects by pouring fire-resistant polyurethane foam, mastic or mortar fire inside a cardboard electro-insulating cylinder. From practical experience, in the exploitation of power transformers of 110 kV/MT in oil electro-insulating were recorded some passing disconnecting commanded by the gas protection at internal defects. In normal operation and in the optimal load, nominal currents do not require thermal secure contacts inside electrical transformers, contacts are made at the fabrication according to the projects or to repair by solder. In the case of external short circuits close to the substation, the contacts inside electrical transformers, even if they are well made in sizes of Rcontact = 10‑6 Ω, are subjected to short-circuit currents of the order of 10 kA-20 kA which lead to the dissipation of some significant second-order electric powers, 100 W-400 W, on contact. At some internal or external factors which action on electrical contacts, including electrodynamic efforts at short-circuits, these factors could be degraded over time to values in the range of 10-4 Ω to 10-5 Ω and if the action time of protection is great, on the order of seconds, power dissipation on electrical contacts achieve high values of 1,0 kW to 40,0 kW. This power leads to strong local heating, hundreds of degrees Celsius and can initiate self-ignition and burning oil in the vicinity of electro-insulating contacts with action the gas relay. Degradation of electrical contacts inside power transformers may not be limited for the duration of their operation. In order to avoid oil burn with gas release near electrical contacts, at short-circuit currents 10 kA-20 kA, we have outlined the following solutions: covering electrical contacts in fireproof materials that would avoid direct burn oil at short circuit and transmission of heat from electrical contact along the conductors with heat dissipation gradually over time, in a large volume of cooling. Flame retardant materials are: polyurethane foam, mastic, cement (concrete). In the normal condition of operation of transformer, insulating of conductors coils is with paper and insulating oil. Ignition points of its two components respectively are approximated: 135 °C heat for oil and 200 0C for paper. In the case of a faulty electrical contact, about 10-3 Ω, at short-circuit; the temperature can reach for a short time, a value of 300 °C-400 °C, which ignite the paper and also the oil. By burning oil, there are local gases that disconnect the power transformer. Securing thermal electrical contacts inside the transformer, in cardboard tube with polyurethane foams, mastik or cement, ensures avoiding gas release and also gas protection working.

Keywords: Power transformer, oil insulatation, electric contacts, gases, gas relay.

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14 Optimization of Soy Epoxide Hydroxylation to Properties of Prepolymer Polyurethane

Authors: Flora Elvistia Firdaus

Abstract:

The epoxidation of soybean oil at temperature of 600C was provided the best result in terms of attaching the –OH functionality. Temperatures below and above 600C it is likely the attaching reaction did not proceed sufficiently fast. The considerable yield below 40%, implies the oil is not completely converted, it is not possible by conventional methods, because the epoxide decomposes at the temperature required. The objective of this work was the development of catalyst toward the conversion of epoxide and polyol with reaction temperature at 50,60, and 700C. The effect of different type of catalyst were studied, the effect of alcohols with different molecular configuration was determined which leads to selective addition of alcohols to the epoxide oils.

Keywords: optimization, epoxide, soybean, catalyst

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13 Material Selection for Footwear Insole Using Analytical Hierarchal Process

Authors: Mohammed A. Almomani, Dina W. Al-Qudah

Abstract:

Product performance depends on the type and quality of its building material. Successful product must be made using high quality material, and using the right methods. Many foot problems took place as a result of using poor insole material. Therefore, selecting a proper insole material is crucial to eliminate these problems. In this study, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used to provide a systematic procedure for choosing the best material adequate for this application among three material alternatives (polyurethane, poron, and plastzote). Several comparison criteria are used to build the AHP model including: density, stiffness, durability, energy absorption, and ease of fabrication. Poron was selected as the best choice. Inconsistency testing indicates that the model is reasonable, and the materials alternative ranking is effective.

Keywords: Materials selection, biomedical insole, footwear insole, AHP.

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12 Effect of Plasma Therapy on Epidermal Regeneration

Authors: Magda Bădescu, Daniela Jitaru, C.Grigoraş, L.Bădescu, I. Topala, Manuela Ciocoiu

Abstract:

The purpose of our study was to compare spontaneous re-epithelisation characteristics versus assisted re-epithelisation. In order to assess re-epithelisation of the injured skin, we have imagined and designed a burn wound model on Wistar rat skin. Our aim was to create standardised, easy reproducible and quantifiable skin lesions involving entire epidermis and superficial dermis. We then have applied the above mentioned therapeutic strategies to compare regeneration of epidermis and dermis, local and systemic parameter changes in different conditions. We have enhanced the reepithelisation process under a moist atmosphere of a polyurethane wound dress modified with helium non-thermal plasma, and with the aid of direct cold-plasma treatment respectively. We have followed systemic parameters change: hematologic and biochemical parameters, and local features: oxidative stress markers and histology of skin in the above mentioned conditions. Re-epithelisation is just a part of the skin regeneration process, which recruits cellular components, with the aid of epidermal and dermal interaction via signal molecules.

Keywords: Plasma medicine, re-epithelisation and tissue regeneration

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11 Response of Fully Backed Sandwich Beams to Low Velocity Transverse Impact

Authors: M. Sadighi, H. Pouriayevali, M. Saadati

Abstract:

This paper describes analysis of low velocity transverse impact on fully backed sandwich beams with composite faces from Eglass/epoxy and cores from Polyurethane or PVC. Indentation on sandwich beams has been analyzed with the existing theories and modeled with the FE code ABAQUS, also loadings have been done experimentally to verify theoretical results. Impact on fully backed has been modeled in two cases of impactor energy with SDOF model (single-degree-of-freedom) and indentation stiffness: lower energy for elastic indentation of sandwich beams and higher energy for plastic area in indentation. Impacts have been modeled by ABAQUS. Impact results can describe response of beam in terms of core and faces thicknesses, core material, indentor energy and energy absorbed. The foam core is modeled using the crushable foam material model and response of the foam core is experimentally characterized in uniaxial compression with higher velocity loading to define quasi impact behaviour.

Keywords: Low velocity impact, fully backed, indentation, sandwich beams, foams, finite element.

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10 Energetic and Exergetic Evaluation of Box-Type Solar Cookers Using Different Insulation Materials

Authors: Ademola K. Aremu, Joseph. C. Igbeka

Abstract:

The performance of box-type solar cookers has been reported by several researchers but little attention was paid to the effect of the type of insulation material on the energy and exergy efficiency of these cookers. This research aimed at evaluating the energy and exergy efficiencies of the box-type cookers containing different insulation materials. Energy and exergy efficiencies of five box-type solar cookers insulated with maize cob, air (control), maize husk, coconut coir and polyurethane foam respectively were obtained over a period of three years. The cookers were evaluated using water heating test procedures in determining the energy and exergy analysis. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using ANOVA. The result shows that the average energy input for the five solar cookers were: 245.5, 252.2, 248.7, 241.5 and 245.5J respectively while their respective average energy losses were: 201.2, 212.7, 208.4, 189.1 and 199.8J. The average exergy input for five cookers were: 228.2, 234.4, 231.1, 224.4 and 228.2J respectively while their respective average exergy losses were: 223.4, 230.6, 226.9, 218.9 and 223.0J. The energy and exergy efficiency was highest in the cooker with coconut coir (37.35 and 3.90% respectively) in the first year but was lowest for air (11 and 1.07% respectively) in the third year. Statistical analysis showed significant difference between the energy and exergy efficiencies over the years. These results reiterate the importance of a good insulating material for a box-type solar cooker.

Keywords: Efficiency, energy, exergy, heating, insolation.

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9 Determination of Resistance to Freezing of Bonded Façade Joint

Authors: B. Nečasová, P. Liška, J. Šlanhof

Abstract:

Verification of vented wooden façade system with bonded joints is presented in this paper. The potential of bonded joints is studied and described in more detail. The paper presents the results of an experimental and theoretical research about the effects of freeze cycling on the bonded joint. For the purpose of tests spruce timber profiles were chosen for the load bearing substructure. Planks from wooden plastic composite and Siberian larch are representing facade cladding. Two types of industrial polyurethane adhesives intended for structural bonding were selected. The article is focused on the preparation as well as on the subsequent curing and conditioning of test samples. All test samples were subjected to 15 cycles that represents sudden temperature changes, i.e. immersion in a water bath at (293.15 ± 3) K for 6 hours and subsequent freezing to (253.15 ± 2) K for 18 hours. Furthermore, the retention of bond strength between substructure and cladding wastested and strength in shear was determined under tensile stress.Research data indicate that little, if any, damage to the bond results from freezingcycles. Additionally, the suitability of selected group of adhesives in combination with timber substructure was confirmed.

Keywords: Adhesive system, bonded joints, wooden lightweight façade, timber substructure.

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