Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1483

Search results for: processing

1483 A Trends Analysis of Image Processing in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Jae-Neung Lee, Keun-Chang Kwak

Abstract:

This paper describes an analysis of domestic and international trends of image processing for data in UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) and also explains about UAV and Quadcopter. Overseas examples of image processing using UAV include image processing for totaling the total numberof vehicles, edge/target detection, detection and evasion algorithm, image processing using SIFT(scale invariant features transform) matching, and application of median filter and thresholding. In Korea, many studies are underway including visualization of new urban buildings.

Keywords: Image Processing, UAV, Quadcopter, Target detection.

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1482 A Review in Advanced Digital Signal Processing Systems

Authors: Roza Dastres, Mohsen Soori

Abstract:

Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is the use of digital processing systems by computers in order to perform a variety of signal processing operations. It is the mathematical manipulation of a digital signal's numerical values in order to increase quality as well as effects of signals. DSP can include linear or nonlinear operators in order to process and analyze the input signals. The nonlinear DSP processing is closely related to nonlinear system detection and can be implemented in time, frequency and space-time domains. Applications of the DSP can be presented as control systems, digital image processing, biomedical engineering, speech recognition systems, industrial engineering, health care systems, radar signal processing and telecommunication systems. In this study, advanced methods and different applications of DSP are reviewed in order to move forward the interesting research filed.

Keywords: Digital signal processing, advanced telecommunication, nonlinear signal processing, speech recognition systems.

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1481 Pulsed Multi-Layered Image Filtering: A VLSI Implementation

Authors: Christian Mayr, Holger Eisenreich, Stephan Henker, René Schüffny

Abstract:

Image convolution similar to the receptive fields found in mammalian visual pathways has long been used in conventional image processing in the form of Gabor masks. However, no VLSI implementation of parallel, multi-layered pulsed processing has been brought forward which would emulate this property. We present a technical realization of such a pulsed image processing scheme. The discussed IC also serves as a general testbed for VLSI-based pulsed information processing, which is of interest especially with regard to the robustness of representing an analog signal in the phase or duration of a pulsed, quasi-digital signal, as well as the possibility of direct digital manipulation of such an analog signal. The network connectivity and processing properties are reconfigurable so as to allow adaptation to various processing tasks.

Keywords: Neural image processing, pulse computation application, pulsed Gabor convolution, VLSI pulse routing.

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1480 Data Preprocessing for Supervised Leaning

Authors: S. B. Kotsiantis, D. Kanellopoulos, P. E. Pintelas

Abstract:

Many factors affect the success of Machine Learning (ML) on a given task. The representation and quality of the instance data is first and foremost. If there is much irrelevant and redundant information present or noisy and unreliable data, then knowledge discovery during the training phase is more difficult. It is well known that data preparation and filtering steps take considerable amount of processing time in ML problems. Data pre-processing includes data cleaning, normalization, transformation, feature extraction and selection, etc. The product of data pre-processing is the final training set. It would be nice if a single sequence of data pre-processing algorithms had the best performance for each data set but this is not happened. Thus, we present the most well know algorithms for each step of data pre-processing so that one achieves the best performance for their data set.

Keywords: Data mining, feature selection, data cleaning.

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1479 A Reconfigurable Processing Element Implementation for Matrix Inversion Using Cholesky Decomposition

Authors: Aki Happonen, Adrian Burian, Erwin Hemming

Abstract:

Fixed-point simulation results are used for the performance measure of inverting matrices using a reconfigurable processing element. Matrices are inverted using the Cholesky decomposition algorithm. The reconfigurable processing element is capable of all required mathematical operations. The fixed-point word length analysis is based on simulations of different condition numbers and different matrix sizes.

Keywords: Cholesky Decomposition, Fixed-point, Matrixinversion, Reconfigurable processing.

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1478 Optimal Manufacturing Scheduling for Dependent Details Processing

Authors: Ivan C. Mustakerov, Daniela I. Borissova

Abstract:

The increasing competitiveness in manufacturing industry is forcing manufacturers to seek effective processing schedules. The paper presents an optimization manufacture scheduling approach for dependent details processing with given processing sequences and times on multiple machines. By defining decision variables as start and end moments of details processing it is possible to use straightforward variables restrictions to satisfy different technological requirements and to formulate easy to understand and solve optimization tasks for multiple numbers of details and machines. A case study example is solved for seven base moldings for CNC metalworking machines processed on five different machines with given processing order among details and machines and known processing time-s duration. As a result of linear optimization task solution the optimal manufacturing schedule minimizing the overall processing time is obtained. The manufacturing schedule defines the moments of moldings delivery thus minimizing storage costs and provides mounting due-time satisfaction. The proposed optimization approach is based on real manufacturing plant problem. Different processing schedules variants for different technological restrictions were defined and implemented in the practice of Bulgarian company RAIS Ltd. The proposed approach could be generalized for other job shop scheduling problems for different applications.

Keywords: Optimal manufacturing scheduling, linear programming, metalworking machines production, dependant details processing.

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1477 A New Model for Question Answering Systems

Authors: Mohammad Reza Kangavari, Samira Ghandchi, Manak Golpour

Abstract:

Most of the Question Answering systems composed of three main modules: question processing, document processing and answer processing. Question processing module plays an important role in QA systems. If this module doesn't work properly, it will make problems for other sections. Moreover answer processing module is an emerging topic in Question Answering, where these systems are often required to rank and validate candidate answers. These techniques aiming at finding short and precise answers are often based on the semantic classification. This paper discussed about a new model for question answering which improved two main modules, question processing and answer processing. There are two important components which are the bases of the question processing. First component is question classification that specifies types of question and answer. Second one is reformulation which converts the user's question into an understandable question by QA system in a specific domain. Answer processing module, consists of candidate answer filtering, candidate answer ordering components and also it has a validation section for interacting with user. This module makes it more suitable to find exact answer. In this paper we have described question and answer processing modules with modeling, implementing and evaluating the system. System implemented in two versions. Results show that 'Version No.1' gave correct answer to 70% of questions (30 correct answers to 50 asked questions) and 'version No.2' gave correct answers to 94% of questions (47 correct answers to 50 asked questions).

Keywords: Answer Processing, Classification, QuestionAnswering and Query Reformulation.

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1476 Role of Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval; Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Khaled M. Alhawiti

Abstract:

This paper aims to analyze the role of natural language processing (NLP). The paper will discuss the role in the context of automated data retrieval, automated question answer, and text structuring. NLP techniques are gaining wider acceptance in real life applications and industrial concerns. There are various complexities involved in processing the text of natural language that could satisfy the need of decision makers. This paper begins with the description of the qualities of NLP practices. The paper then focuses on the challenges in natural language processing. The paper also discusses major techniques of NLP. The last section describes opportunities and challenges for future research.

Keywords: Data Retrieval, Information retrieval, Natural Language Processing, Text Structuring.

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1475 Electronic System Design for Respiratory Signal Processing

Authors: C. Matiz C., N. Olarte L., A. Rubiano F.

Abstract:

This paper presents the design related to the electronic system design of the respiratory signal, including phases for processing, followed by the transmission and reception of this signal and finally display. The processing of this signal is added to the ECG and temperature sign, put up last year. Under this scheme is proposed that in future also be conditioned blood pressure signal under the same final printed circuit and worked.

Keywords: Conditioning, Respiratory Signal, Storage, Teleconsultation.

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1474 Rural Women’s Skill Acquisition in the Processing of Locust Bean in Ipokia Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: A. A. Adekunle, A. M. Omoare, W. O. Oyediran

Abstract:

This study was carried out to assess rural women’s skill acquisition in the processing of locust bean in Ipokia Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 90 women locust bean processors for this study. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The result showed that the mean age of respondents was 40.72 years. Most (70.00%) of the respondents were married. The mean processing experience was 8.63 years. 93.30% of the respondents relied on information from fellow locust beans processors and friends. All (100%) the respondents did not acquire improved processing skill through trainings and workshops. It can be concluded that the rural women’s skill acquisition on modernized processing techniques was generally low. It is hereby recommend that the rural women processors should be trained by extension service providers through series of workshops and seminars on improved processing techniques.

Keywords: Locust bean, processing, skill acquisition, rural women.

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1473 2D Image Processing for DSO Astrophotography

Authors: R. Suszynski, K. Wawryn, R. Wirski

Abstract:

The new concept of two–dimensional (2D) image processing implementation for auto-guiding system is shown in this paper. It is dedicated to astrophotography and operates with astronomy CCD guide cameras or with self-guided dual-detector CCD cameras and ST4 compatible equatorial mounts. This idea was verified by MATLAB model, which was used to test all procedures and data conversions. Next the circuit prototype was implemented at Altera MAX II CPLD device and tested for real astronomical object images. The digital processing speed of CPLD prototype board was sufficient for correct equatorial mount guiding in real-time system.

Keywords: DSO astrophotography, image processing, twodimensionalconvolution method, two-dimensional filtering.

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1472 Multifunctional Cell Processing with Plasmonic Nanobubbles

Authors: Ekaterina Y. Lukianova-Hleb, Dmitri O. Lapotko

Abstract:

Cell processing techniques for gene and cell therapies use several separate procedures for gene transfer and cell separation or elimination, because no current technology can offer simultaneous multi-functional processing of specific cell sub-sets in heterogeneous cell systems. Using our novel on-demand nonstationary intracellular events instead of permanent materials, plasmonic nanobubbles, generated with a short laser pulse only in target cells, we achieved simultaneous multifunctional cell-specific processing with the rate up to 50 million cells per minute.

Keywords: Delivery, cell separation, graft, laser, plasmonic nanobubble, cell therapy, gold nanoparticle.

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1471 A Method for Quality Inspection of Motors by Detecting Abnormal Sound

Authors: Tadatsugu Kitamoto

Abstract:

Recently, a quality of motors is inspected by human ears. In this paper, I propose two systems using a method of speech recognition for automation of the inspection. The first system is based on a method of linear processing which uses K-means and Nearest Neighbor method, and the second is based on a method of non-linear processing which uses neural networks. I used motor sounds in these systems, and I successfully recognize 86.67% of motor sounds in the linear processing system and 97.78% in the non-linear processing system.

Keywords: Acoustical diagnosis, Neural networks, K-means, Short-time Fourier transformation

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1470 Array Signal Processing: DOA Estimation for Missing Sensors

Authors: Lalita Gupta, R. P. Singh

Abstract:

Array signal processing involves signal enumeration and source localization. Array signal processing is centered on the ability to fuse temporal and spatial information captured via sampling signals emitted from a number of sources at the sensors of an array in order to carry out a specific estimation task: source characteristics (mainly localization of the sources) and/or array characteristics (mainly array geometry) estimation. Array signal processing is a part of signal processing that uses sensors organized in patterns or arrays, to detect signals and to determine information about them. Beamforming is a general signal processing technique used to control the directionality of the reception or transmission of a signal. Using Beamforming we can direct the majority of signal energy we receive from a group of array. Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) is a highly popular eigenstructure-based estimation method of direction of arrival (DOA) with high resolution. This Paper enumerates the effect of missing sensors in DOA estimation. The accuracy of the MUSIC-based DOA estimation is degraded significantly both by the effects of the missing sensors among the receiving array elements and the unequal channel gain and phase errors of the receiver.

Keywords: Array Signal Processing, Beamforming, ULA, Direction of Arrival, MUSIC

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1469 Exploring the Sources of Innovation in Food Processing SMEs of Kerala

Authors: Bhumika Gupta, Jeayaram Subramanian, Hardik Vachhrajani, Avinash Shivdas

Abstract:

Indian food processing industry is one of the largest in the world in terms of production, consumption, exports and growth opportunities. SMEs play a crucial role within this. Large manufacturing firms largely dominate innovation studies in India. Innovation sources used by SMEs are often different from that of large firms. This paper focuses on exploring various sources of innovation adopted by food processing SMEs in Kerala, South India. Outcome suggests that SMEs use various sources like suppliers, competitors, employees, government/research institutions and customers to get new ideas.

Keywords: Food processing, innovation, SMEs, sources of innovation.

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1468 Ontologies for Complex Event Processing

Authors: Irina Astrova, Arne Koschel, Jan Lukanowski, Jose Luis Munoz Martinez, Valerij Procenko, Marc Schaaf

Abstract:

In this paper, five ontologies are described, which include the event concepts. The paper provides an overview and comparison of existing event models. The main criteria for comparison are that there should be possibilities to model events with stretch in the time and location and participation of objects; however, there are other factors that should be taken into account as well. The paper also shows an example of using ontologies in complex event processing.

Keywords: Ontologies, events, complex event processing (CEP).

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1467 DocPro: A Framework for Processing Semantic and Layout Information in Business Documents

Authors: Ming-Jen Huang, Chun-Fang Huang, Chiching Wei

Abstract:

With the recent advance of the deep neural network, we observe new applications of NLP (natural language processing) and CV (computer vision) powered by deep neural networks for processing business documents. However, creating a real-world document processing system needs to integrate several NLP and CV tasks, rather than treating them separately. There is a need to have a unified approach for processing documents containing textual and graphical elements with rich formats, diverse layout arrangement, and distinct semantics. In this paper, a framework that fulfills this unified approach is presented. The framework includes a representation model definition for holding the information generated by various tasks and specifications defining the coordination between these tasks. The framework is a blueprint for building a system that can process documents with rich formats, styles, and multiple types of elements. The flexible and lightweight design of the framework can help build a system for diverse business scenarios, such as contract monitoring and reviewing.

Keywords: Document processing, framework, formal definition, machine learning.

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1466 Improved Feature Processing for Iris Biometric Authentication System

Authors: Somnath Dey, Debasis Samanta

Abstract:

Iris-based biometric authentication is gaining importance in recent times. Iris biometric processing however, is a complex process and computationally very expensive. In the overall processing of iris biometric in an iris-based biometric authentication system, feature processing is an important task. In feature processing, we extract iris features, which are ultimately used in matching. Since there is a large number of iris features and computational time increases as the number of features increases, it is therefore a challenge to develop an iris processing system with as few as possible number of features and at the same time without compromising the correctness. In this paper, we address this issue and present an approach to feature extraction and feature matching process. We apply Daubechies D4 wavelet with 4 levels to extract features from iris images. These features are encoded with 2 bits by quantizing into 4 quantization levels. With our proposed approach it is possible to represent an iris template with only 304 bits, whereas existing approaches require as many as 1024 bits. In addition, we assign different weights to different iris region to compare two iris templates which significantly increases the accuracy. Further, we match the iris template based on a weighted similarity measure. Experimental results on several iris databases substantiate the efficacy of our approach.

Keywords: Iris recognition, biometric, feature processing, patternrecognition, pattern matching.

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1465 Goal Based Episodic Processing in Implicit Learning

Authors: Peter A. Bibby

Abstract:

Research has suggested that implicit learning tasks may rely on episodic processing to generate above chance performance on the standard classification tasks. The current research examines the invariant features task (McGeorge and Burton, 1990) and argues that such episodic processing is indeed important. The results of the experiment suggest that both rejection and similarity strategies are used by participants in this task to simultaneously reject unfamiliar items and to accept (falsely) familiar items. Primarily these decisions are based on the presence of low or high frequency goal based features of the stimuli presented in the incidental learning phase. It is proposed that a goal based analysis of the incidental learning task provides a simple step in understanding which features of the episodic processing are most important for explaining the match between incidental, implicit learning and test performance.

Keywords: Episodic processing, incidental learning, implicitlearning, invariant learning.

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1464 Performance Improvement of Moving Object Recognition and Tracking Algorithm using Parallel Processing of SURF and Optical Flow

Authors: Jungho Choi, Youngwan Cho

Abstract:

The paper proposes a way of parallel processing of SURF and Optical Flow for moving object recognition and tracking. The object recognition and tracking is one of the most important task in computer vision, however disadvantage are many operations cause processing speed slower so that it can-t do real-time object recognition and tracking. The proposed method uses a typical way of feature extraction SURF and moving object Optical Flow for reduce disadvantage and real-time moving object recognition and tracking, and parallel processing techniques for speed improvement. First analyse that an image from DB and acquired through the camera using SURF for compared to the same object recognition then set ROI (Region of Interest) for tracking movement of feature points using Optical Flow. Secondly, using Multi-Thread is for improved processing speed and recognition by parallel processing. Finally, performance is evaluated and verified efficiency of algorithm throughout the experiment.

Keywords: moving object recognition, moving object tracking, SURF, Optical Flow, Multi-Thread.

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1463 The Design of a Die for the Processing of Aluminum through Equal Channel Angular Pressing

Authors: P. G. F. Siqueira, N. G. S. Almeida, P. M. A. Stemler, P. R. Cetlin, M. T. P. Aguilar

Abstract:

The processing of metals through Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) leads to their remarkable strengthening. The ECAP dies control the amount of strain imposed on the material through its geometry, especially through the angle between the die channels, and thus the microstructural and mechanical properties evolution of the material. The present study describes the design of an ECAP die whose utilization and maintenance are facilitated, and that also controls the eventual undesired flow of the material during processing. The proposed design was validated through numerical simulations procedures using commercial software. The die was manufactured according to the present design and tested. Tests using aluminum alloys also indicated to be suitable for the processing of higher strength alloys.

Keywords: ECAP, mechanical design, numerical methods, SPD.

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1462 An Improved Preprocessing for Biosonar Target Classification

Authors: Turgay Temel, John Hallam

Abstract:

An improved processing description to be employed in biosonar signal processing in a cochlea model is proposed and examined. It is compared to conventional models using a modified discrimination analysis and both are tested. Their performances are evaluated with echo data captured from natural targets (trees).Results indicate that the phase characteristics of low-pass filters employed in the echo processing have a significant effect on class separability for this data.

Keywords: Cochlea model, discriminant analysis, neurospikecoding, classification.

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1461 Specialization-based parallel Processing without Memo-trees

Authors: Hidemi Ogasawara, Kiyoshi Akama, Hiroshi Mabuchi

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework for constructing correct parallel processing programs based on Equivalent Transformation Framework (ETF). ETF regards computation as In the framework, a problem-s domain knowledge and a query are described in definite clauses, and computation is regarded as transformation of the definite clauses. Its meaning is defined by a model of the set of definite clauses, and the transformation rules generated must preserve meaning. We have proposed a parallel processing method based on “specialization", a part of operation in the transformations, which resembles substitution in logic programming. The method requires “Memo-tree", a history of specialization to maintain correctness. In this paper we proposes the new method for the specialization-base parallel processing without Memo-tree.

Keywords: Parallel processing, Program correctness, Equivalent transformation, Specializer generation rule

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1460 Danger Theory and Intelligent Data Processing

Authors: Anjum Iqbal, Mohd Aizaini Maarof

Abstract:

Artificial Immune System (AIS) is relatively naive paradigm for intelligent computations. The inspiration for AIS is derived from natural Immune System (IS). Classically it is believed that IS strives to discriminate between self and non-self. Most of the existing AIS research is based on this approach. Danger Theory (DT) argues this approach and proposes that IS fights against danger producing elements and tolerates others. We, the computational researchers, are not concerned with the arguments among immunologists but try to extract from it novel abstractions for intelligent computation. This paper aims to follow DT inspiration for intelligent data processing. The approach may introduce new avenue in intelligent processing. The data used is system calls data that is potentially significant in intrusion detection applications.

Keywords: artificial immune system, danger theory, intelligent processing, system calls

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1459 Information Retrieval: Improving Question Answering Systems by Query Reformulation and Answer Validation

Authors: Mohammad Reza Kangavari, Samira Ghandchi, Manak Golpour

Abstract:

Question answering (QA) aims at retrieving precise information from a large collection of documents. Most of the Question Answering systems composed of three main modules: question processing, document processing and answer processing. Question processing module plays an important role in QA systems to reformulate questions. Moreover answer processing module is an emerging topic in QA systems, where these systems are often required to rank and validate candidate answers. These techniques aiming at finding short and precise answers are often based on the semantic relations and co-occurrence keywords. This paper discussed about a new model for question answering which improved two main modules, question processing and answer processing which both affect on the evaluation of the system operations. There are two important components which are the bases of the question processing. First component is question classification that specifies types of question and answer. Second one is reformulation which converts the user's question into an understandable question by QA system in a specific domain. The objective of an Answer Validation task is thus to judge the correctness of an answer returned by a QA system, according to the text snippet given to support it. For validating answers we apply candidate answer filtering, candidate answer ranking and also it has a final validation section by user voting. Also this paper described new architecture of question and answer processing modules with modeling, implementing and evaluating the system. The system differs from most question answering systems in its answer validation model. This module makes it more suitable to find exact answer. Results show that, from total 50 asked questions, evaluation of the model, show 92% improving the decision of the system.

Keywords: Answer processing, answer validation, classification, question answering, query reformulation.

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1458 A Real-Time Signal Processing Technique for MIDI Generation

Authors: Farshad Arvin, Shyamala Doraisamy

Abstract:

This paper presents a new hardware interface using a microcontroller which processes audio music signals to standard MIDI data. A technique for processing music signals by extracting note parameters from music signals is described. An algorithm to convert the voice samples for real-time processing without complex calculations is proposed. A high frequency microcontroller as the main processor is deployed to execute the outlined algorithm. The MIDI data generated is transmitted using the EIA-232 protocol. The analyses of data generated show the feasibility of using microcontrollers for real-time MIDI generation hardware interface.

Keywords: Signal processing, MIDI, Microcontroller, EIA-232.

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1457 The Effect of Parameters on Productions of NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 Composite Nanofibers by Using Sol-Gel Processing and Electrospinning Technique

Authors: Fatih Sevim, Emel Sevimli, Fatih Demir, Turan Çalban

Abstract:

Nanofibers of PVA /nickel nitrate/silica/alumina izopropoxide/boric acid composite were prepared by using sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. By high temperature calcinations of the above precursor fibers, nanofibers of NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite with diameters about 500 nm could be successfully obtained. The fibers were characterized by XRD and SEM analyses.

Keywords: Nanofibers, ceramics composite, sol-gel processing, electrospinning.

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1456 High Level Synthesis of Canny Edge Detection Algorithm on Zynq Platform

Authors: Hanaa M. Abdelgawad, Mona Safar, Ayman M. Wahba

Abstract:

Real time image and video processing is a demand in many computer vision applications, e.g. video surveillance, traffic management and medical imaging. The processing of those video applications requires high computational power. Thus, the optimal solution is the collaboration of CPU and hardware accelerators. In this paper, a Canny edge detection hardware accelerator is proposed. Edge detection is one of the basic building blocks of video and image processing applications. It is a common block in the pre-processing phase of image and video processing pipeline. Our presented approach targets offloading the Canny edge detection algorithm from processing system (PS) to programmable logic (PL) taking the advantage of High Level Synthesis (HLS) tool flow to accelerate the implementation on Zynq platform. The resulting implementation enables up to a 100x performance improvement through hardware acceleration. The CPU utilization drops down and the frame rate jumps to 60 fps of 1080p full HD input video stream.

Keywords: High Level Synthesis, Canny edge detection, Hardware accelerators, and Computer Vision.

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1455 Signal Driven Sampling and Filtering a Promising Approach for Time Varying Signals Processing

Authors: Saeed Mian Qaisar, Laurent Fesquet, Marc Renaudin

Abstract:

The mobile systems are powered by batteries. Reducing the system power consumption is a key to increase its autonomy. It is known that mostly the systems are dealing with time varying signals. Thus, we aim to achieve power efficiency by smartly adapting the system processing activity in accordance with the input signal local characteristics. It is done by completely rethinking the processing chain, by adopting signal driven sampling and processing. In this context, a signal driven filtering technique, based on the level crossing sampling is devised. It adapts the sampling frequency and the filter order by analysing the input signal local variations. Thus, it correlates the processing activity with the signal variations. It leads towards a drastic computational gain of the proposed technique compared to the classical one.

Keywords: Level Crossing Sampling, Activity Selection, Adaptive Rate Filtering, Computational Complexity.

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1454 Adaptive Kernel Filtering Used in Video Processing

Authors: Rasmus Engholm, Eva B. Vedel Jensen, Henrik Karstoft

Abstract:

In this paper we present a noise reduction filter for video processing. It is based on the recently proposed two dimensional steering kernel, extended to three dimensions and further augmented to suit the spatial-temporal domain of video processing. Two alternative filters are proposed - the time symmetric kernel and the time asymmetric kernel. The first reduces the noise on single sequences, but to handle the problems at scene shift the asymmetric kernel is introduced. The performance of both are tested on simulated data and on a real video sequence together with the existing steering kernel. The proposed kernels improves the Rooted Mean Squared Error (RMSE) compared to the original steering kernel method on video material.

Keywords: Adaptive image filtering, noise reduction, kernel methods, video processing.

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