Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: flowability

10 Influence of the Moisture Content on the Flowability of Fine-Grained Iron Ore Concentrate

Authors: C. Lanzerstorfer, M. Hinterberger

Abstract:

The iron content of the ore used is crucial for the productivity and coke consumption rate in blast furnace pig iron production. Therefore, most iron ore deposits are processed in beneficiation plants to increase the iron content and remove impurities. In several comminution stages, the particle size of the ore is reduced to ensure that the iron oxides are physically liberated from the gangue. Subsequently, physical separation processes are applied to concentrate the iron ore. The fine-grained ore concentrates produced need to be transported, stored, and processed. For smooth operation of these processes, the flow properties of the material are crucial. The flowability of powders depends on several properties of the material: grain size, grain size distribution, grain shape, and moisture content of the material. The flowability of powders can be measured using ring shear testers. In this study, the influence of the moisture content on the flowability for the Krivoy Rog magnetite iron ore concentrate was investigated. Dry iron ore concentrate was mixed with varying amounts of water to produce samples with a moisture content in the range of 0.2 to 12.2%. The flowability of the samples was investigated using a Schulze ring shear tester. At all measured values of the normal stress (1.0 kPa – 20 kPa), the flowability decreased significantly from dry ore to a moisture content of approximately 3-5%. At higher moisture contents, the flowability was nearly constant, while at the maximum moisture content the flowability improved for high values of the normal stress only. The results also showed an improving flowability with increasing consolidation stress for all moisture content levels investigated. The wall friction angle of the dust with carbon steel (S235JR), and an ultra-high molecule low-pressure polyethylene (Robalon) was also investigated. The wall friction angle increased significantly from dry ore to a moisture content of approximately 3%. For higher moisture content levels, the wall friction angles were nearly constant. Generally, the wall friction angle was approximately 4° lower at the higher wall normal stress.

Keywords: Iron ore concentrate, flowability, moisture content, wall friction angle.

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9 Flowability and Strength Development Characteristics of Bottom Ash Based Geopolymer

Authors: Si-Hwan Kim, Gum-Sung Ryu, Kyung-Taek Koh, Jang-Hwa Lee

Abstract:

Despite of the preponderant role played by cement among the construction materials, it is today considered as a material destructing the environment due to the large quantities of carbon dioxide exhausted during its manufacture. Besides, global warming is now recognized worldwide as the new threat to the humankind against which advanced countries are investigating measures to reduce the current amount of exhausted gases to the half by 2050. Accordingly, efforts to reduce green gases are exerted in all industrial fields. Especially, the cement industry strives to reduce the consumption of cement through the development of alkali-activated geopolymer mortars using industrial byproducts like bottom ash. This study intends to gather basic data on the flowability and strength development characteristics of alkali-activated geopolymer mortar by examining its FT-IT features with respect to the effects and strength of the alkali-activator in order to develop bottom ash-based alkali-activated geopolymer mortar. The results show that the 35:65 mass ratio of sodium hydroxide to sodium silicate is appropriate and that a molarity of 9M for sodium hydroxide is advantageous. The ratio of the alkali-activators to bottom ash is seen to have poor effect on the strength. Moreover, the FT-IR analysis reveals that larger improvement of the strength shifts the peak from 1060 cm–1 (T-O, T=Si or Al) toward shorter wavenumber.

Keywords: Bottom Ash, Geopolymer mortar, Flowability, Strength Properties.

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8 Study of Influencing Factors on the Flowability of Jute Nonwoven Reinforced Sheet Molding Compound

Authors: Miriam I. Lautenschläger, Max H. Scheiwe, Kay A. Weidenmann, Frank Henning, Peter Elsner

Abstract:

Due to increasing environmental awareness jute fibers are more often used in fiber reinforced composites. In the Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) process, the mold cavity is filled via material flow allowing more complex component design. But, the difficulty of using jute fibers in this process is the decreased capacity of fiber movement in the mold. A comparative flow study with jute nonwoven reinforced SMC was conducted examining the influence of the fiber volume content, the grammage of the jute nonwoven textile and a mechanical modification of the nonwoven textile on the flowability. The nonwoven textile reinforcement was selected to support homogeneous fiber distribution. Trials were performed using two SMC paste formulations differing only in filler type. Platy-shaped kaolin with a mean particle size of 0.8 μm and ashlar calcium carbonate with a mean particle size of 2.7 μm were selected as fillers. Ensuring comparability of the two SMC paste formulations the filler content was determined to reach equal initial viscosity for both systems. The calcium carbonate filled paste was set as reference. The flow study was conducted using a jute nonwoven textile with 300 g/m² as reference. The manufactured SMC sheets were stacked and centrally placed in a square mold. The mold coverage was varied between 25 and 90% keeping the weight of the stack for comparison constant. Comparing the influence of the two fillers kaolin yielded better results regarding a homogeneous fiber distribution. A mold coverage of about 68% was already sufficient to homogeneously fill the mold cavity whereas for calcium carbonate filled system about 79% mold coverage was necessary. The flow study revealed a strong influence of the fiber volume content on the flowability. A fiber volume content of 12 vol.-% and 25 vol.-% were compared for both SMC formulations. The lower fiber volume content strongly supported fiber transport whereas 25 vol.-% showed insignificant influence. The results indicate a limiting fiber volume content for the flowability. The influence of the nonwoven textile grammage was determined using nonwoven jute material with 500 g/m² and a fiber volume content of 20 vol.-%. The 500 g/m² reinforcement material showed inferior results with regard to fiber movement. A mold coverage of about 90 % was required to prevent the destruction of the nonwoven structure. Below this mold coverage the 500 g/m² nonwoven material was ripped and torn apart. Low mold coverages led to damage of the textile reinforcement. Due to the ripped nonwoven structure the textile was modified with cuts in order to facilitate fiber movement in the mold. Parallel cuts of about 20 mm length and 20 mm distance to each other were applied to the textile and stacked with varying orientations prior to molding. Stacks with unidirectional orientated cuts over stacks with cuts in various directions e.g. (0°, 45°, 90°, -45°) were investigated. The mechanical modification supported tearing of the textile without achieving benefit for the flowability.

Keywords: Filler, flowability, jute fiber, nonwoven, sheet molding compound.

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7 Parametric Analysis on Hydrogen Production using Mixtures of Pure Cellulosic and Calcium Oxide

Authors: N.A. Rashidi, S. Yusup, M.M. Ahmad

Abstract:

As the fossil fuels kept on depleting, intense research in developing hydrogen (H2) as the alternative fuel has been done to cater our tremendous demand for fuel. The potential of H2 as the ultimate clean fuel differs with the fossil fuel that releases significant amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the surrounding and leads to the global warming. The experimental work was carried out to study the production of H2 from palm kernel shell steam gasification at different variables such as heating rate, steam to biomass ratio and adsorbent to biomass ratio. Maximum H2 composition which is 61% (volume basis) was obtained at heating rate of 100oCmin-1, steam/biomass of 2:1 ratio, and adsorbent/biomass of 1:1 ratio. The commercial adsorbent had been modified by utilizing the alcoholwater mixture. Characteristics of both adsorbents were investigated and it is concluded that flowability and floodability of modified CaO is significantly improved.

Keywords: Biomass gasification, Calcium oxide, Carbon dioxide capture, Sorbent flowability

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6 Characteristic on Compressive Strength of Blast Slag and Fly Ash Hybrid Geopolymer Mortar

Authors: G. S. Ryu, K. T. Koh, H. Y. Kim, G. H. An, D. W. Seo

Abstract:

Geopolymer mortar is produced by alkaline activation of pozzolanic materials such as fly ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) and fly ash (FA). Its unique reaction pathway facilitates rapid strength development in comparison with hydration of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Geopolymer can be fabricated using various types and dosages of alkali-activator, which effectively gives a wider control over the performance of the final product. The present study investigates the effect of types of precursors and curing conditions on the fresh state and strength development characteristics of geopolymers, thereby comparatively exploring the effect of precursors from various sources of origin. The obtained result showed that the setting time and strength development of the specimens with the identical mix proportion but different precursors displayed significant variations.

Keywords: Alkali-activated material, blast furnace slag, fly ash, Flowability, strength development.

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5 Effects of Paste Content on Flow Characteristics of SCC Containing Local Natural Pozzolan

Authors: Muhammad Nouman Haral, Abdulaziz I. Al-Negheimesh, Galal Fares, Mohammad Iqbal Khan, Abdulrahman M. Alhozaimy

Abstract:

Natural pozzolan (NP) is one of the potential prehistoric alternative binders in the construction industry. It has been investigated as cement replacement in ordinary concrete by several researchers for many purposes. Various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) such as fly ash, limestone dust and silica fume are widely used in the production of SCC; however, limited studies to address the effect of NP on the properties of SCC are documented. The current research is composed of different SCC paste and concrete mixtures containing different replacement levels of local NP as an alternative SCM. The effect of volume of paste containing different amounts of local NP related to W/B ratio and cement content on SCC fresh properties was assessed. The variations in the fresh properties of SCC paste and concrete represented by slump flow (flowability) and the flow rate were determined and discussed. The results indicated that the flow properties of SCC paste and concrete mixtures, at their optimized superplasticizer dosages, were affected by the binder content of local NP and the total volume fraction of SCC paste.

Keywords: Binder, fresh properties, natural pozzolan, paste, SCC.

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4 The Influence of Zeolitic Spent Refinery Admixture on the Rheological and Technological Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Ž. Rudžionis, P. Grigaliūnas, D. Vaičiukynienė

Abstract:

By planning this experimental work to investigate the effect of zeolitic waste on rheological and technological properties of self-compacting fiber reinforced concrete, we had an intention to draw attention to the environmental factor. Large amount of zeolitic waste, as secondary raw materials are not in use properly and large amount of it is collected without a clear view of its usage in future. The principal aim of this work is to assure, that zeolitic waste admixture takes positive effect to the self-compacting fiber reinforced concrete mixes stability, flowability and other properties by using the experimental research methods. In addition to that a research on cement and zeolitic waste mortars were implemented to clarify the effect of zeolitic waste on properties of cement paste and stone. Primary studies indicates that zeolitic waste characterizes clear pozzolanic behavior, do not deteriorate and in some cases ensure positive rheological and mechanical characteristics of self-compacting concrete mixes.

Keywords: Self compacting concrete, steel fiber reinforced concrete, zeolitic waste, rheological properties of concrete, slump flow.

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3 Effect of Curing Conditions on Strength of Fly ash-based Self-Compacting Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: Fareed Ahmed Memon, Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin, Samuel Demie, Nasir Shafiq

Abstract:

This paper reports the results of an experimental work conducted to investigate the effect of curing conditions on the compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete prepared by using fly ash as base material and combination of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate as alkaline activator. The experiments were conducted by varying the curing time and curing temperature in the range of 24-96 hours and 60-90°C respectively. The essential workability properties of freshly prepared Self-compacting Geopolymer concrete such as filling ability, passing ability and segregation resistance were evaluated by using Slump flow, V-funnel, L-box and J-ring test methods. The fundamental requirements of high flowability and resistance to segregation as specified by guidelines on Self-compacting Concrete by EFNARC were satisfied. Test results indicate that longer curing time and curing the concrete specimens at higher temperatures result in higher compressive strength. There was increase in compressive strength with the increase in curing time; however increase in compressive strength after 48 hours was not significant. Concrete specimens cured at 70°C produced the highest compressive strength as compared to specimens cured at 60°C, 80°C and 90°C.

Keywords: Geopolymer Concrete, Self-compacting Geopolymerconcrete, Compressive strength, Curing time, Curing temperature

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2 Compressive Strength and Workability Characteristics of Low-Calcium Fly ash-based Self-Compacting Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: M. Fareed Ahmed, M. Fadhil Nuruddin, Nasir Shafiq

Abstract:

Due to growing environmental concerns of the cement industry, alternative cement technologies have become an area of increasing interest. It is now believed that new binders are indispensable for enhanced environmental and durability performance. Self-compacting Geopolymer concrete is an innovative method and improved way of concreting operation that does not require vibration for placing it and is produced by complete elimination of ordinary Portland cement. This paper documents the assessment of the compressive strength and workability characteristics of low-calcium fly ash based selfcompacting geopolymer concrete. The essential workability properties of the freshly prepared Self-compacting Geopolymer concrete such as filling ability, passing ability and segregation resistance were evaluated by using Slump flow, V-funnel, L-box and J-ring test methods. The fundamental requirements of high flowability and segregation resistance as specified by guidelines on Self Compacting Concrete by EFNARC were satisfied. In addition, compressive strength was determined and the test results are included here. This paper also reports the effect of extra water, curing time and curing temperature on the compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete. The test results show that extra water in the concrete mix plays a significant role. Also, longer curing time and curing the concrete specimens at higher temperatures will result in higher compressive strength.

Keywords: Fly ash, Geopolymer Concrete, Self-compactingconcrete, Self-compacting Geopolymer concrete

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1 Design Approach to Incorporate Unique Performance Characteristics of Special Concrete

Authors: Devendra Kumar Pandey, Debabrata Chakraborty

Abstract:

The advancement in various concrete ingredients like plasticizers, additives and fibers, etc. has enabled concrete technologists to develop many viable varieties of special concretes in recent decades. Such various varieties of concrete have significant enhancement in green as well as hardened properties of concrete. A prudent selection of appropriate type of concrete can resolve many design and application issues in construction projects. This paper focuses on usage of self-compacting concrete, high early strength concrete, structural lightweight concrete, fiber reinforced concrete, high performance concrete and ultra-high strength concrete in the structures. The modified properties of strength at various ages, flowability, porosity, equilibrium density, flexural strength, elasticity, permeability etc. need to be carefully studied and incorporated into the design of the structures. The paper demonstrates various mixture combinations and the concrete properties that can be leveraged. The selection of such products based on the end use of structures has been proposed in order to efficiently utilize the modified characteristics of these concrete varieties. The study involves mapping the characteristics with benefits and savings for the structure from design perspective. Self-compacting concrete in the structure is characterized by high shuttering loads, better finish, and feasibility of closer reinforcement spacing. The structural design procedures can be modified to specify higher formwork strength, height of vertical members, cover reduction and increased ductility. The transverse reinforcement can be spaced at closer intervals compared to regular structural concrete. It allows structural lightweight concrete structures to be designed for reduced dead load, increased insulation properties. Member dimensions and steel requirement can be reduced proportionate to about 25 to 35 percent reduction in the dead load due to self-weight of concrete. Steel fiber reinforced concrete can be used to design grade slabs without primary reinforcement because of 70 to 100 percent higher tensile strength. The design procedures incorporate reduction in thickness and joint spacing. High performance concrete employs increase in the life of the structures by improvement in paste characteristics and durability by incorporating supplementary cementitious materials. Often, these are also designed for slower heat generation in the initial phase of hydration. The structural designer can incorporate the slow development of strength in the design and specify 56 or 90 days strength requirement. For designing high rise building structures, creep and elasticity properties of such concrete also need to be considered. Lastly, certain structures require a performance under loading conditions much earlier than final maturity of concrete. High early strength concrete has been designed to cater to a variety of usages at various ages as early as 8 to 12 hours. Therefore, an understanding of concrete performance specifications for special concrete is a definite door towards a superior structural design approach.

Keywords: High performance concrete, special concrete, structural design, structural lightweight concrete.

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