Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 31533
High Strength, High Toughness Polyhydroxybutyrate-Co-Valerate Based Biocomposites
Abstract:Biocomposites is a field that has gained much scientific attention due to the current substantial consumption of non-renewable resources and the environmentally harmful disposal methods required for traditional polymer composites. Research on natural fiber reinforced polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) has gained considerable momentum over the past decade. There is little work on PHAs reinforced with unidirectional (UD) natural fibers and little work on using epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) as a toughening agent for PHA-based biocomposites. In this work, we prepared polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) biocomposites reinforced with UD 30 wt.% flax fibers and evaluated the use of ENR with 50% epoxidation (ENR50) as a toughening agent for PHBV biocomposites. Quasi-unidirectional flax/PHBV composites were prepared by hand layup, powder impregnation followed by compression molding. Toughening agents – polybutylene adiphate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and ENR50 – were cryogenically ground into powder and mechanically mixed with main matrix PHBV to maintain the powder impregnation process. The tensile, flexural and impact properties of the biocomposites were measured and morphology of the composites examined using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The UD biocomposites showed exceptionally high mechanical properties as compared to the results obtained previously where only short fibers have been used. The improved tensile and flexural properties were attributed to the continuous nature of the fiber reinforcement and the increased proportion of fibers in the loading direction. The improved impact properties were attributed to a larger surface area for fiber-matrix debonding and for subsequent sliding and fiber pull-out mechanisms to act on, allowing more energy to be absorbed. Coating cryogenically ground ENR50 particles with PHBV powder successfully inhibits the self-healing nature of ENR-50, preventing particles from coalescing and overcoming problems in mechanical mixing, compounding and molding. Cryogenic grinding, followed by powder impregnation and subsequent compression molding is an effective route to the production of high-mechanical-property biocomposites based on renewable resources for high-obsolescence applications such as plastic casings for consumer electronics.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1128831Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 876
 La Mantia, F.P. and M. Morreale, "Green composites: A brief review", in Compos. Part A-Appl. Sci. Manuf., 2011. vol. 42: pp. 579-588.
 Vanleeuw, B., et al., "Quasi-unidirectional flax composite reinforcement: Deformability and complex shape forming", in Compos. Sci. Technol., 2015. vol. 110(0): pp. 76-86.
 Michel, A. and S. Billington, "Nonlinear Constitutive Model for Anisotropic Biobased Composite Materials", in J. Eng. Mech., 2014. vol. 140(11).
 Srithep, Y., et al., "Melt compounding of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)/ nanofibrillated cellulose nanocomposites", in Polym. Deg. Stabil., 2013. vol. 98(8): pp. 1439-1449.
 Singh, S., A.K. Mohanty, and M. Misra, "Hybrid bio-composite from talc, wood fiber and bioplastic: Fabrication and characterization", in Compos. Part A-Appl. Sci. Manuf., 2010. vol. 41(2): pp. 304-312.
 Adam, J., B.A. Korneliusz, and M. Agnieszka, "Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis of biocomposites based on PLA and PHBV - A comparative study to PP counterparts", in J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2013. vol. 130(5): pp. 3175-3183.
 Barkoula, N.M., et al., "Biodegradable composites based on flax/polyhydroxybutyrate and its copolymer with hydroxyvalerate", in Ind. Crop. Prod., 2010. vol. 31(1): pp. 34-42.
 Duc, F., et al., "Damping of thermoset and thermoplastic flax fibre composites", in Compos. Part A-Appl. Sci. Manuf., 2014. vol. 64: pp. 115-123.
 Shackleford, J.F., Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers. 2009, Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458: Pearson Education, Inc.
 Nagarajan, V., M. Misra, and A.K. Mohanty, "New engineered biocomposites from poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV)/poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) blends and switchgrass: Fabrication and performance evaluation", in Industrial Crops and Products, 2013. vol. 42(1): pp. 461-468.
 Javadi, A., et al., "Processing and characterization of microcellular PHBV/PBAT blends", in Polym. Eng. Sci., 2010. vol. 50(7): pp. 1440-1448.
 Bledzki, A.K., et al., "Mechanical performance of biocomposites based on PLA and PHBV reinforced with natural fibres - A comparative study to PP", in Compos. Sci. Technol., 2010. vol. 70(12): pp. 1687-1696.
 Parulekar, Y. and A.K. Mohanty, "Biodegradable toughened polymers from renewable resources: blends of polyhydroxybutyrate with epoxidized natural rubber and maleated polybutadiene", in Green Chem., 2006. vol. 8(2): pp. 206-213.
 Rahman, M.A., et al., "Autonomic self-healing in epoxidized natural rubber", in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2013. vol. 5(4): pp. 1494-1502.
 Yu, T. and Y. Li, "Influence of poly(butylenes adipate-co-terephthalate) on the properties of the biodegradable composites based on ramie/poly(lactic acid)", in Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 2014. vol. 58: pp. 24-29.
 Russo, P., et al., "Biodegradable Composites Reinforced with Kenaf Fibers: Thermal, Mechanical, and Morphological Issues", in Adv. Polym. Technol., 2013. vol. 32: pp. E313-E322.
 Persico, P., et al., "Mechanical and Thermal Behaviour of Ecofriendly Composites Reinforced by and Fibers", in International Journal of Polymer Science, 2011. vol. 2011.
 Yee, A.F. and H.-J. Sue, Impact Resistance, in Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology. 2002, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 Balakrishnan, S. and N.R. Neelakantan, "Mechanical properties of blends of polycarbonate with unmodified and maleic anhydride grafted ABS", in Polymer International, 1998. vol. 45(4): pp. 347-352.
 Kannan, T.G., et al., "Effect of reinforcement on the mechanical and thermal properties of flax/polypropylene interwoven fabric composites", in Journal of Industrial Textiles, 2013. vol. 42(4): pp. 417-433.