Search results for: servo motion control.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4278

Search results for: servo motion control.

4278 Characterization of Extreme Low-Resolution Digital Encoder for Control System with Sinusoidal Reference Signal

Authors: Zhenyu Zhang, Qingbin Gao

Abstract:

Low-resolution digital encoder (LRDE) is commonly adopted as a position sensor in low-cost and resource-constraint applications. Traditionally, a digital encoder is modeled as a quantizer without considering the initial position of the LRDE. However, it cannot be applied to extreme LRDE for which stroke of angular motion is only a few times of resolution of the encoder. Besides, the actual angular motion is substantially distorted by this extreme LRDE so that the encoder reading does not faithfully represent the actual angular motion. This paper presents a modeling method for extreme LRDE by taking into account the initial position of the LRDE. For a control system with sinusoidal reference signal and extreme LRDE, this paper analyzes the characteristics of angular motion. Specifically, two descriptors of sinusoidal angular motion are studied, which essentially sheds light on the actual angular motion from extreme LRDE.

Keywords: Low resolution digital encoder, resource-constraint control system, sinusoidal reference signal, servo motion control.

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4277 A Novel Adaptive Voltage Control Strategy for Boost Converter via Inverse LQ Servo-Control

Authors: Sorawit Stapornchaisit, Sidshchadhaa Aumted, Hiroshi Takami

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive voltage control strategy for boost converter via Inverse LQ Servo-Control. Our presented strategy is based on an analytical formula of Inverse Linear Quadratic (ILQ) design method, which is not necessary to solve Riccati’s equation directly. The optimal and adaptive controller of the voltage control system is designed. The stability and the robust control are analyzed. Whereas, we can get the analytical solution for the optimal and robust voltage control is achieved through the natural angular velocity within a single parameter and we can change the responses easily via the ILQ control theory. Our method provides effective results as the stable responses and the response times are not drifted even if the condition is changed widely.

Keywords: Boost converter, optimal voltage control, inverse LQ design method, type-1 servo-system, adaptive control.

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4276 Gain Tuning Fuzzy Controller for an Optical Disk Drive

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Ming-Tien Su

Abstract:

Since the driving speed and control accuracy of commercial optical disk are increasing significantly, it needs an efficient controller to monitor the track seeking and following operations of the servo system for achieving the desired data extracting response. The nonlinear behaviors of the actuator and servo system of the optical disk drive will influence the laser spot positioning. Here, the model-free fuzzy control scheme is employed to design the track seeking servo controller for a d.c. motor driving optical disk drive system. In addition, the sliding model control strategy is introduced into the fuzzy control structure to construct a 1-D adaptive fuzzy rule intelligent controller for simplifying the implementation problem and improving the control performance. The experimental results show that the steady state error of the track seeking by using this fuzzy controller can maintain within the track width (1.6 μm ). It can be used in the track seeking and track following servo control operations.

Keywords: Fuzzy control, gain tuning and optical disk drive.

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4275 Straightness Error Compensation Servo-system for Single-axis Linear Motor Stage

Authors: M. S. Kang, D. H. Kim, J. S. Yoon, B. S. Park, J. K. Lee

Abstract:

Since straightness error of linear motor stage is hardly dependent upon machining accuracy and assembling accuracy, there is limit on maximum realizable accuracy. To cope with this limitation, this paper proposed a servo system to compensate straightness error of a linear motor stage. The servo system is mounted on the slider of the linear motor stage and moves in the direction of the straightness error so as to compensate the error. From position dependency and repeatability of the straightness error of the slider, a feedforward compensation control is applied to the platform servo control. In the consideration of required fine positioning accuracy, a platform driven by an electro-magnetic actuator is suggested and a sliding mode control was applied. The effectiveness of the sliding mode control was verified along with some experimental results.

Keywords: Linear Motor Stage, Straightness Error, Friction, Sliding Mode Control.

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4274 Advanced ILQ Control for Buck-Converter viaTwo-Degrees of Freedom Servo-System

Authors: Sidshchadhaa Aumted, Shuhei Shiina, Hiroshi Takami

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an advanced ILQ control for the buck-converter via two-degrees of freedom servo-system. Our presented strategy is based on Inverse Linear Quadratic (ILQ) servo-system controller without solving Riccati-s equation directly. The optimal controller of the current and voltage control system is designed. The stability and robust control are analyzed. A conscious and persistent effort has been made to improve ILQ control via two-degrees of freedom guarantees the optimal gains on the basis of polynomial pole assignment, which our results of the proposed strategy shows that the advanced ILQ control can be controlled independently the step response and the disturbance response by appending a feed-forward compensator.

Keywords: Optimal voltage control, inverse LQ design method, second order polynomial, two-degrees of freedom.

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4273 A Servo Control System Using the Loop Shaping Design Procedure

Authors: Naohiro Ban, Hiromitsu Ogawa, Manato Ono, Yoshihisa Ishida

Abstract:

This paper describes an expanded system for a servo system design by using the Loop Shaping Design Procedure (LSDP). LSDP is one of the H∞ design procedure. By conducting Loop Shaping with a compensator and robust stabilization to satisfy the index function, we get the feedback controller that makes the control system stable. In this paper, we propose an expanded system for a servo system design and apply to the DC motor. The proposed method performs well in the DC motor positioning control. It has no steady-state error in the disturbance response and it has robust stability.

Keywords: Loop Shaping Design Procedure (LSDP), servosystem, DC motor.

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4272 A Model-Reference Sliding Mode for Dual-Stage Actuator Servo Control in HDD

Authors: S. Sonkham, U. Pinsopon, W. Chatlatanagulchai

Abstract:

This paper presents a method of sliding mode control (SMC) designing and developing for the servo system in a dual-stage actuator (DSA) hard disk drive. Mathematical modeling of hard disk drive actuators is obtained, extracted from measuring frequency response of the voice-coil motor (VCM) and PZT micro-actuator separately. Matlab software tools are used for mathematical model estimation and also for controller design and simulation. A model-reference approach for tracking requirement is selected as a proposed technique. The simulation results show that performance of a model-reference SMC controller design in DSA servo control can be satisfied in the tracking error, as well as keeping the positioning of the head within the boundary of +/-5% of track width under the presence of internal and external disturbance. The overall results of model-reference SMC design in DSA are met per requirement specifications and significant reduction in %off track is found when compared to the single-state actuator (SSA).

Keywords: Hard Disk Drive, Dual-Stage Actuator, Track Following, HDD Servo Control, Sliding Mode Control, Model-Reference, Tracking Control.

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4271 Tele-Operated Anthropomorphic Arm and Hand Design

Authors: Namal A. Senanayake, Khoo B. How, Quah W. Wai

Abstract:

In this project, a tele-operated anthropomorphic robotic arm and hand is designed and built as a versatile robotic arm system. The robot has the ability to manipulate objects such as pick and place operations. It is also able to function by itself, in standalone mode. Firstly, the robotic arm is built in order to interface with a personal computer via a serial servo controller circuit board. The circuit board enables user to completely control the robotic arm and moreover, enables feedbacks from user. The control circuit board uses a powerful integrated microcontroller, a PIC (Programmable Interface Controller). The PIC is firstly programmed using BASIC (Beginner-s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) and it is used as the 'brain' of the robot. In addition a user friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed as the serial servo interface software using Microsoft-s Visual Basic 6. The second part of the project is to use speech recognition control on the robotic arm. A speech recognition circuit board is constructed with onboard components such as PIC and other integrated circuits. It replaces the computers- Graphical User Interface. The robotic arm is able to receive instructions as spoken commands through a microphone and perform operations with respect to the commands such as picking and placing operations.

Keywords: Tele-operated Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm and Hand, Robot Motion System, Serial Servo Controller, Speech Recognition Controller.

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4270 Tracking Performance Evaluation of Robust Back-Stepping Control Design for a Nonlinear Electrohydraulic Servo System

Authors: M. Ahmadnezhad, M. Soltanpour

Abstract:

Electrohydraulic servo system have been used in industry in a wide number of applications. Its dynamics are highly nonlinear and also have large extent of model uncertainties and external disturbances. In this paper, a robust back-stepping control (RBSC) scheme is proposed to overcome the problem of disturbances and system uncertainties effectively and to improve the tracking performance of EHS systems. In order to implement the proposed control scheme, the system uncertainties in EHS systems are considered as total leakage coefficient and effective oil volume. In addition, in order to obtain the virtual controls for stabilizing system, the update rule for the system uncertainty term is induced by the Lyapunov control function (LCF). To verify the performance and robustness of the proposed control system, computer simulation of the proposed control system using Matlab/Simulink Software is executed. From the computer simulation, it was found that the RBSC system produces the desired tracking performance and has robustness to the disturbances and system uncertainties of EHS systems.

Keywords: Electro hydraulic servo system, back-stepping control, robust back-stepping control, Lyapunov redesign

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4269 Tracking Performance Evaluation of Robust Back-Stepping Control Design for a Nonlinear Electrohydraulic Servo System

Authors: M. Ahmadnezhad, M. Soltanpour

Abstract:

Electrohydraulic servo system have been used in industry in a wide number of applications. Its dynamics are highly nonlinear and also have large extent of model uncertainties and external disturbances. In this paper, a robust back-stepping control (RBSC) scheme is proposed to overcome the problem of disturbances and system uncertainties effectively and to improve the tracking performance of EHS systems. In order to implement the proposed control scheme, the system uncertainties in EHS systems are considered as total leakage coefficient and effective oil volume. In addition, in order to obtain the virtual controls for stabilizing system, the update rule for the system uncertainty term is induced by the Lyapunov control function (LCF). To verify the performance and robustness of the proposed control system, computer simulation of the proposed control system using Matlab/Simulink Software is executed. From the computer simulation, it was found that the RBSC system produces the desired tracking performance and has robustness to the disturbances and system uncertainties of EHS systems.

Keywords: Electro hydraulic servo system, back-stepping control, robust back-stepping control, Lyapunov redesign.

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4268 Design of a Sliding Controller for Optical Disk Drives

Authors: Yu-Sheng Lu, Chung-Hsin Cheng, Shuen-Shing Jan

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and implementation of a sliding-mod controller for tracking servo of optical disk drives. The tracking servo is majorly subject to two disturbance sources: radial run-out and shock. The lateral run-out disturbance is mostly repeatable, and a model of such disturbance is incorporated into the controller design to effectively compensate for it. Meanwhile, as a shock disturbance is usually non-repeatable and unpredictable, the sliding-mode controller is employed for its robustness to abrupt perturbations. As a result, a sliding-mode controller design based on the internal model principle is tailored for tracking servo of optical disk drives in order to deal with these two major disturbances. Experimental comparative studies are conducted to investigate the effectiveness of the specially designed controller.

Keywords: Mechatronics, optical disk drive, sliding-mode control, servo systems.

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4267 ISME: Integrated Style Motion Editor for 3D Humanoid Character

Authors: Ismahafezi Ismail, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar

Abstract:

The motion of a realistic 3D humanoid character is very important especially for the industries developing computer animations and games. However, this type of motion is seen with a very complex dimensional data as well as body position, orientation, and joint rotation. Integrated Style Motion Editor (ISME), on the other hand, is a method used to alter the 3D humanoid motion capture data utilised in computer animation and games development. Therefore, this study was carried out with the purpose of demonstrating a method that is able to manipulate and deform different motion styles by integrating Key Pose Deformation Technique and Trajectory Control Technique. This motion editing method allows the user to generate new motions from the original motion capture data using a simple interface control. Unlike the previous method, our method produces a realistic humanoid motion style in real time.

Keywords: Computer animation, humanoid motion, motion capture, motion editing.

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4266 Adaptive Integral Backstepping Motion Control for Inverted Pendulum

Authors: Ö. Tolga Altınöz

Abstract:

The adaptive backstepping controller for inverted pendulum is designed by using the general motion control model. Backstepping is a novel nonlinear control technique based on the Lyapunov design approach, used when higher derivatives of parameter estimation appear. For easy parameter adaptation, the mathematical model of the inverted pendulum converted into the motion control model. This conversion is performed by taking functions of unknown parameters and dynamics of the system. By using motion control model equations, inverted pendulum is simulated without any information about not only parameters but also measurable dynamics. Also these results are compare with the adaptive backstepping controller which extended with integral action that given from [1].

Keywords: Adaptive backstepping, inverted pendulum, nonlinear adaptive control.

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4265 Hand Motion and Gesture Control of Laboratory Test Equipment Using the Leap Motion Controller

Authors: Ian A. Grout

Abstract:

In this paper, the design and development of a system to provide hand motion and gesture control of laboratory test equipment is considered and discussed. The Leap Motion controller is used to provide an input to control a laboratory power supply as part of an electronic circuit experiment. By suitable hand motions and gestures, control of the power supply is provided remotely and without the need to physically touch the equipment used. As such, it provides an alternative manner in which to control electronic equipment via a PC and is considered here within the field of human computer interaction (HCI).

Keywords: Control, hand gesture, human computer interaction, test equipment.

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4264 Calibrations and Effect of Different Operating Conditions on the Performance of a Fluid Power Control System with Servo Solenoid Valve

Authors: Tahany W. Sadak, Fouly, A. Anwer, M. Rizk

Abstract:

The current investigation presents a study on the hydraulic performance of an electro-hydraulic servo solenoid valve controlled linear piston used in hydraulic systems. Advanced methods have been used to measure and record laboratory experiments, to ensure accurate analysis and evaluation. Experiments have been conducted under different values of temperature (28, 40 and 50 °C), supply pressure (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 bar), system stiffness (32 N/mm), and load (0.0 & 5560 N). It is concluded that increasing temperature of hydraulic oil increases the quantity of flow rate, so it achieves an increase of the quantity of flow by 5.75 % up to 48.8 % depending on operating conditions. The values of pressure decay at low temperature are less than the values at high temperature. The frequency increases with the increase of the temperature. When we connect the springs to the system, it decreases system frequency. These results are very useful in the process of packing and manufacturing of fluid products, where the properties are not affected by 50 °C, so energy and time are saved.

Keywords: Electro Hydraulic Servo Valve, fluid power control system, system stiffness, static and dynamic performance.

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4263 Design and Motion Control of a Two-Wheel Inverted Pendulum Robot

Authors: Shiuh-Jer Huang, Su-Shean Chen, Sheam-Chyun Lin

Abstract:

Two-wheel inverted pendulum robot (TWIPR) is designed with two-hub DC motors for human riding and motion control evaluation. In order to measure the tilt angle and angular velocity of the inverted pendulum robot, accelerometer and gyroscope sensors are chosen. The mobile robot’s moving position and velocity were estimated based on DC motor built in hall sensors. The control kernel of this electric mobile robot is designed with embedded Arduino Nano microprocessor. A handle bar was designed to work as steering mechanism. The intelligent model-free fuzzy sliding mode control (FSMC) was employed as the main control algorithm for this mobile robot motion monitoring with different control purpose adjustment. The intelligent controllers were designed for balance control, and moving speed control purposes of this robot under different operation conditions and the control performance were evaluated based on experimental results.

Keywords: Balance control, speed control, intelligent controller and two wheel inverted pendulum.

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4262 Robust Conversion of Chaos into an Arbitrary Periodic Motion

Authors: Abolhassan Razminia, Mohammad-Ali Sadrnia

Abstract:

One of the most attractive and important field of chaos theory is control of chaos. In this paper, we try to present a simple framework for chaotic motion control using the feedback linearization method. Using this approach, we derive a strategy, which can be easily applied to the other chaotic systems. This task presents two novel results: the desired periodic orbit need not be a solution of the original dynamics and the other is the robustness of response against parameter variations. The illustrated simulations show the ability of these. In addition, by a comparison between a conventional state feedback and our proposed method it is demonstrated that the introduced technique is more efficient.

Keywords: chaos, feedback linearization, robust control, periodic motion.

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4261 Stabilization of Rotational Motion of Spacecrafts Using Quantized Two Torque Inputs Based on Random Dither

Authors: Yusuke Kuramitsu, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Hirokazu Tahara

Abstract:

The control problem of underactuated spacecrafts has attracted a considerable amount of interest. The control method for a spacecraft equipped with less than three control torques is useful when one of the three control torques had failed. On the other hand, the quantized control of systems is one of the important research topics in recent years. The random dither quantization method that transforms a given continuous signal to a discrete signal by adding artificial random noise to the continuous signal before quantization has also attracted a considerable amount of interest. The objective of this study is to develop the control method based on random dither quantization method for stabilizing the rotational motion of a rigid spacecraft with two control inputs. In this paper, the effectiveness of random dither quantization control method for the stabilization of rotational motion of spacecrafts with two torque inputs is verified by numerical simulations.

Keywords: Spacecraft control, quantized control, nonlinear control, random dither method.

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4260 Design of a Drift Assist Control System Applied to Remote Control Car

Authors: Sheng-Tse Wu, Wu-Sung Yao

Abstract:

In this paper, a drift assist control system is proposed for remote control (RC) cars to get the perfect drift angle. A steering servo control scheme is given powerfully to assist the drift driving. A gyroscope sensor is included to detect the machine's tail sliding and to achieve a better automatic counter-steering to prevent RC car from spinning. To analysis tire traction and vehicle dynamics is used to obtain the dynamic track of RC cars. It comes with a control gain to adjust counter-steering amount according to the sensor condition. An illustrated example of 1:10 RC drift car is given and the real-time control algorithm is realized by Arduino Uno.

Keywords: Drift assist control system, remote control cars, gyroscope, vehicle dynamics.

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4259 Position Control of an AC Servo Motor Using VHDL and FPGA

Authors: Kariyappa B. S., Hariprasad S. A., R. Nagaraj

Abstract:

In this paper, a new method of controlling position of AC Servomotor using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). FPGA controller is used to generate direction and the number of pulses required to rotate for a given angle. Pulses are sent as a square wave, the number of pulses determines the angle of rotation and frequency of square wave determines the speed of rotation. The proposed control scheme has been realized using XILINX FPGA SPARTAN XC3S400 and tested using MUMA012PIS model Alternating Current (AC) servomotor. Experimental results show that the position of the AC Servo motor can be controlled effectively. KeywordsAlternating Current (AC), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Liquid Crystal Display (LCD).

Keywords: Alternating Current (AC), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Liquid Crystal Display (LCD).

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4258 Motion Control of a Ball Throwing Robot with a Flexible Robotic Arm

Authors: Yizhi Gai, Yukinori Kobayashi, Yohei Hoshino, Takanori Emaru

Abstract:

Motion control of flexible arms is more difficult than that of rigid arms, however utilizing its dynamics enables improved performance such as a fast motion in short operation time. This paper investigates a ball throwing robot with one rigid link and one flexible link. This robot throws a ball at a set speed with a proper control torque. A mathematical model of this ball throwing robot is derived through Hamilton’s principle. Several patterns of torque input are designed and tested through the proposed simulation models. The parameters of each torque input pattern is optimized and determined by chaos embedded vector evaluated particle swarm optimization (CEVEPSO). Then, the residual vibration of the manipulator after throwing is suppressed with input shaping technique. Finally, a real experiment is set up for the model checking.

Keywords: Motion control, flexible robotic arm, CEVEPSO, ball throwing robot.

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4257 Motion Protection System Design for a Parallel Motion Platform

Authors: Dongsu Wu, Hongbin Gu

Abstract:

A motion protection system is designed for a parallel motion platform with subsided cabin. Due to its complex structure, parallel mechanism is easy to encounter interference problems including link length limits, joints limits and self-collision. Thus a virtual spring algorithm in operational space is developed for the motion protection system to avoid potential damages caused by interference. Simulation results show that the proposed motion protection system can effectively eliminate interference problems and ensure safety of the whole motion platform.

Keywords: Motion protection, motion platform, parallelmechanism, Stewart platform, collision avoidance.

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4256 Synchronization of a Perturbed Satellite Attitude Motion

Authors: Sadaoui Djaouida

Abstract:

In the paper, the predictive control method is proposed to control the synchronization of two perturbed satellites attitude motion. Based on delayed feedback control of continuous-time systems combines with the prediction-based method of discrete-time systems, this approach only needs a single controller to realize synchronization, which has considerable significance in reducing the cost and complexity for controller implementation.

Keywords: Predictive control, Synchronization, Satellite attitude.

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4255 Motion Control of a 2-link Revolute Manipulator in an Obstacle-Ridden Workspace

Authors: Avinesh Prasad, Bibhya Sharma, Jito Vanualailai

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a solution to the motion control problem of a 2-link revolute manipulator arm. We require the end-effector of the arm to move safely to its designated target in a priori known workspace cluttered with fixed circular obstacles of arbitrary position and sizes. Firstly a unique velocity algorithm is used to move the end-effector to its target. Secondly, for obstacle avoidance a turning angle is designed, which when incorporated into the control laws ensures that the entire robot arm avoids any number of fixed obstacles along its path enroute the target. The control laws proposed in this paper also ensure that the equilibrium point of the system is asymptotically stable. Computer simulations of the proposed technique are presented.

Keywords: 2-link revolute manipulator, motion control, obstacle avoidance, asymptotic stability.

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4254 Development of Autonomous Line-Following Soccer Robots

Authors: A. A. Shafie, M. F. Alias, M. H. Ali

Abstract:

The main objective of this project is to build an autonomous microcontroller-based mobile robot for a local robot soccer competition. The black competition field is equipped with white lines to serve as the guidance path for competing robots. Two prototypes of soccer robot embedded with the Basic Stamp II microcontroller have been developed. Two servo motors are used as the drive train for the first prototype whereas the second prototype uses two DC motors as its drive train. To sense the lines, lightdependent resistors (LDRs) supply the analog inputs for the microcontroller. The performances of both prototypes are evaluated. The DC motor-driven robot has produced better trajectory control over the one using servo motors and has brought the team into the final round.

Keywords: Soccer robot, Obstacle detection, Differential drive, Line following.

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4253 Motion Detection Techniques Using Optical Flow

Authors: A. A. Shafie, Fadhlan Hafiz, M. H. Ali

Abstract:

Motion detection is very important in image processing. One way of detecting motion is using optical flow. Optical flow cannot be computed locally, since only one independent measurement is available from the image sequence at a point, while the flow velocity has two components. A second constraint is needed. The method used for finding the optical flow in this project is assuming that the apparent velocity of the brightness pattern varies smoothly almost everywhere in the image. This technique is later used in developing software for motion detection which has the capability to carry out four types of motion detection. The motion detection software presented in this project also can highlight motion region, count motion level as well as counting object numbers. Many objects such as vehicles and human from video streams can be recognized by applying optical flow technique.

Keywords: Background modeling, Motion detection, Optical flow, Velocity smoothness constant, motion trajectories.

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4252 Neural Network Controller for Mobile Robot Motion Control

Authors: Jasmin Velagic, Nedim Osmic, Bakir Lacevic

Abstract:

In this paper the neural network-based controller is designed for motion control of a mobile robot. This paper treats the problems of trajectory following and posture stabilization of the mobile robot with nonholonomic constraints. For this purpose the recurrent neural network with one hidden layer is used. It learns relationship between linear velocities and error positions of the mobile robot. This neural network is trained on-line using the backpropagation optimization algorithm with an adaptive learning rate. The optimization algorithm is performed at each sample time to compute the optimal control inputs. The performance of the proposed system is investigated using a kinematic model of the mobile robot.

Keywords: Mobile robot, kinematic model, neural network, motion control, adaptive learning rate.

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4251 Wrap-around View Equipped on Mobile Robot

Authors: Sun Lim, Sewoong Jun, Il-Kyun Jung

Abstract:

This paper presents a wrap-around view system with 4 smart cameras module and remote motion mobile robot control equipped with smart camera module system. The two-level scheme for remote motion control with smart-pad(IPAD) is introduced on this paper. In the low-level, the wrap-around view system is controlled or operated to keep the reference points lying around top view image plane. On the higher level, a robot image based motion controller is utilized to drive the mobile platform to reach the desired position or track the desired motion planning through image feature feedback. The design wrap-around view system equipped on presents such advantages as follows: 1) a satisfactory solution for the FOV and affine problem; 2) free of any complex and constraint with robot pose. The performance of the wrap-around view equipped on mobile robot remote control is proven by experimental results.

Keywords: four smart camera, wrap-around view, remote mobile robot control

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4250 Learning the Dynamics of Articulated Tracked Vehicles

Authors: Mario Gianni, Manuel A. Ruiz Garcia, Fiora Pirri

Abstract:

In this work, we present a Bayesian non-parametric approach to model the motion control of ATVs. The motion control model is based on a Dirichlet Process-Gaussian Process (DP-GP) mixture model. The DP-GP mixture model provides a flexible representation of patterns of control manoeuvres along trajectories of different lengths and discretizations. The model also estimates the number of patterns, sufficient for modeling the dynamics of the ATV.

Keywords: Dirichlet processes, Gaussian processes, robot control learning, tracked vehicles.

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4249 Breast Motion and Discomfort of Chinese Women in Three Breast Support Conditions

Authors: X.N. Chen, J.P. Wang, D. Jiang, S.M. Shen, Y.K. Yang

Abstract:

Breast motion and discomfort has been studied in Australia, Britain and the United States, while little information was known about the breast motion conditions of Chinese women. The aim of this paper was to study the breast motion and discomfort of Chinese women in no bra condition, daily bra condition and sports bra condition. Breast motion and discomfort of 8 participants was assessed during walking at 5km h-1 and running at 10km h-1. Statistical methods were used to analyze the difference and relationship between breast displacement, perceived breast motion and breast discomfort. Three indexes were developed to evaluate the functions of bras on reducing objective breast motion, subjective breast motion and breast discomfort. The result showed that breast motion of Chinese women was smaller than previous research, which may be resulted from smaller breast size in Asian women.

Keywords: Breast discomfort, breast motion, breast support conditions, Chinese women.

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