Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31903
Breast Motion and Discomfort of Chinese Women in Three Breast Support Conditions

Authors: X.N. Chen, J.P. Wang, D. Jiang, S.M. Shen, Y.K. Yang


Breast motion and discomfort has been studied in Australia, Britain and the United States, while little information was known about the breast motion conditions of Chinese women. The aim of this paper was to study the breast motion and discomfort of Chinese women in no bra condition, daily bra condition and sports bra condition. Breast motion and discomfort of 8 participants was assessed during walking at 5km h-1 and running at 10km h-1. Statistical methods were used to analyze the difference and relationship between breast displacement, perceived breast motion and breast discomfort. Three indexes were developed to evaluate the functions of bras on reducing objective breast motion, subjective breast motion and breast discomfort. The result showed that breast motion of Chinese women was smaller than previous research, which may be resulted from smaller breast size in Asian women.

Keywords: Breast discomfort, breast motion, breast support conditions, Chinese women.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2283


[1] R.R. Pate, M. Pratt, S.N. Blair, W.L. Haskell, C.A. Macera, C. Bouchard, et al., "Physical activity and public health." The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 273, no.5, 1995, pp. 402-407.
[2] A.E. Bauman, "Updating the evidence that physical activity is good for health - an epidemiological review 2000-2003." Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol.7, Supplement no.1, 2004, pp. 6-19.
[3] F.J. Penedo, and J.R. Dahn, "Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity." Current Opinion in Psychiatry, vol.18, no.2, 2005, pp. 189-193.
[4] D.E.R. Warburton, C.W. Nicol, and S.S.D. Bredin, "Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence." Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 174, no.6, 2006, pp. 801-809.
[5] R. Mittendorf, M.P. Longnecker, P.A. Newcomb, A.T. Dietz, E.R. Greenberg, G.F. Bogdan, R.W. Clapp, and W.C. Willett, "Strenuous physical activity in young adulthood and risk of breast cancer (United States)." Cancer Causes and Control, vol. 6, 1995, pp. 347-353.
[6] I. Thune, T. Brenn, E. Lund, and M.Gaard, "Physical activity and the risk of breast cancer." The New England Journal of Medicine, vol.336, no.18, 1997, pp. 1269-1275.
[7] B. Rockhill, W.C. Willett, D.J. Hunter, J.E. Manson, S.E. Hankinson, and G.A. Colditz, "A prospective study of recreational physical activity and breast cancer risk." Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, 1999, pp. 2290-2296.
[8] J. Verloop, M.A. Rookus, K. Ven der Kooy, and F.E. van Leeuwen, "Physical activity and breast cancer risk in women ages 20-54 years." Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 92, no.2, 2000, pp. 128-135.
[9] I. Lee, "Physical activity and cancer prevention-data from epidemiologic studies." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 35, no.11, 2003, pp. 1823-1827.
[10] D. Lorenzten, and L. Lawson, "Selected sports bras: a biomechanical analysis of breast motion while jogging." Physician Sports Medicine, vol.15, no.3, 1987, pp. 128-30, 132-134, 136, 139.
[11] J. Gillette, "When and where women are injured in sports." Physician Sports Medicine, vol. 3, 1975, pp. 61-70.
[12] B.R. Mason, K.A. Page, and K. Fallon, "An analysis of movement and discomfort of the female breast during exercise and the effects of breast support in three case studies." Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol.2, no.2, 1999, pp. 134-144.
[13] K.A. Page, and J.R. Steele, "Breast motion and sports brassiere design. Implications for future research." Sports Medicine, vol. 27, 1999, pp. 205-211.
[14] C. Haycock, G. Shierman, and J. Gillette, "The female athlete - does her anatomy pose problems?" in Proceedings of American Medical Association 19th Conference on the Medical Aspects of Sports, Monroe, 1978, pp. 1-8
[15] L. Lawson, and D. Lorentzen, "Selected Sports Bras: Comparisons of Comfort and Support." Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, vol. 8, 1990, pp. 55-60.
[16] J.C. Scurr, J.L. White, and W. Hedger, "Breast displacement in three dimensions during the walking and running gait cycles." Journal of Applied Biomechanics, vol. 25, 2009, pp. 322-329.
[17] J. Zhou, W. Yu, and S. Ng, "3D dynamic analysis of breast without and with a sports bra." In Proceedings of the 17th World Congress on Ergonomics, Beijing, 2009, pp.1-13.
[18] J.L. White, J.C. Scurr, and N.A. Smith, "The effect of breast support on kinetics during overground running performance." Ergonomics, vol.52, 2009, pp.492-498.
[19] D.E. McGhee, and J.R. Steele, "Breast elevation and compression decrease exercise-induced breast discomfort." Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol. 42, 2010, pp. 1333-1338.
[20] J.C. Scurr, J.L. White, and W. Hedger, "Supported and unsupported breast displacement in three dimensions across treadmill activity levels." Journal of Sports Sciences, vol.29, no.1, 2011, pp. 55-61.
[21] S. Marsh, E.S.R. Collie-Duguid, T. Li, X. Liu, and H.L. Mcleod, "Ethnic variation in the thymidylate synthase enhancer region polymorphism among Caucasian and Asian populations." Genomics, vol.58, 1999, pp.310-312.
[22] L.K. Bachrach, T. Hastie, M.C. Wang, B. Narasimhan, and R. Marcus, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.84, no.12, 1999, pp. 4702.
[23] G.S. Bhudhikanok, M.C. Wang, K. Eckert, C. Matkin, R. Marcus, and L.K, Bachrach, "Differences in bone mineral in young Asian and Caucasian Americans may reflect differences in bone size."Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, vol.11, no.10, 1996, pp.1545-1556.
[24] P.D. Ross, Y.F. He, A.J. Yate, C. Coupland, P. Ravn, M. McClung, and et al., "Body size accounts for most differences in bone density between Asian and Caucasian women." Calcified Tissue International, vol.59, 1996, pp.339-343.
[25] A.J. Hill, and R. Bhatti, "Body shape perception and dieting in preadolescent British Asian girls: links with eating disorders." International Journal of Eating Disorders, vol.17, no.2, 1995, pp.175-183.
[26] J. Wardle, R. Bindra, B. Fairclough, and A. Westcombe, "Culture and body image: body perception and weight concern in young Asian and Caucasian British women."Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, vol.3, 1993, pp.173-181.
[27] G.E. Akan, and C.M. Grilo, "Sociocultural influences on eating attitudes and behaviors, body image, and psychological functioning: a comparison of African-American, Asian-American, and Caucasian college women." International Journal of Eating Disorders, vol.18, no.2, 1995, pp.181-187.
[28] X.N. Chen, D. Jiang, and J. P. Wang, "Can nipple be used as a good indicator of breast in breast motion research?" unpublished.
[29] J. Zhou, W. Yu, and S. Ng, "Methods of Studying Breast Motion in Sports Bras: a Review." Textile Research Journal, vol.81, no.12, 2011, pp. 1234-1248.
[30] G. Gehlsen, and M. Albohm, "Evaluation of sports bras." Physician Sportsmed, vol. 8, 1980, pp.88-97.
[31] K. Shin, Patternmaking for Underwear Design. Hongkong: Createspace, 2010, pp. 4-5.