Search results for: physicochemical parameter
1226 Quality Parameters of Offset Printing Wastewater
Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Aksentijević M. Snežana
Samples of tap and wastewater were collected in three offset printing facilities in Novi Sad, Serbia. Ten physicochemical parameters were analyzed within all collected samples: pH, conductivity, m - alkalinity, p - alkalinity, acidity, carbonate concentration, hydrogen carbonate concentration, active oxygen content, chloride concentration and total alkali content. All measurements were conducted using the standard analytical and instrumental methods. Comparing the obtained results for tap water and wastewater, a clear quality difference was noticeable, since all physicochemical parameters were significantly higher within wastewater samples. The study also involves the application of simple linear regression analysis on the obtained dataset. By using software package ORIGIN 5 the pH value was mutually correlated with other physicochemical parameters. Based on the obtained values of Pearson coefficient of determination a strong positive correlation between chloride concentration and pH (r = -0.943), as well as between acidity and pH (r = -0.855) was determined. In addition, statistically significant difference was obtained only between acidity and chloride concentration with pH values, since the values of parameter F (247.634 and 182.536) were higher than Fcritical (5.59). In this way, results of statistical analysis highlighted the most influential parameter of water contamination in offset printing, in the form of acidity and chloride concentration. The results showed that variable dependence could be represented by the general regression model: y = a0 + a1x+ k, which further resulted with matching graphic regressions.
Keywords: Pollution, printing industry, simple linear regression analysis, wastewater.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1539
1225 Prediction of Protein Subchloroplast Locations using Random Forests
Authors: Chun-Wei Tung, Chyn Liaw, Shinn-Jang Ho, Shinn-Ying Ho
Abstract:Protein subchloroplast locations are correlated with its functions. In contrast to the large amount of available protein sequences, the information of their locations and functions is less known. The experiment works for identification of protein locations and functions are costly and time consuming. The accurate prediction of protein subchloroplast locations can accelerate the study of functions of proteins in chloroplast. This study proposes a Random Forest based method, ChloroRF, to predict protein subchloroplast locations using interpretable physicochemical properties. In addition to high prediction accuracy, the ChloroRF is able to select important physicochemical properties. The important physicochemical properties are also analyzed to provide insights into the underlying mechanism.
Keywords: Chloroplast, Physicochemical properties, Proteinlocations, Random Forests.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1535
1224 Analysis of Physicochemical Properties on Prediction of R5, X4 and R5X4 HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage
Authors: Kai-Ti Hsu, Hui-Ling Huang, Chun-Wei Tung, Yi-Hsiung Chen, Shinn-Ying Ho
Abstract:Bioinformatics methods for predicting the T cell coreceptor usage from the array of membrane protein of HIV-1 are investigated. In this study, we aim to propose an effective prediction method for dealing with the three-class classification problem of CXCR4 (X4), CCR5 (R5) and CCR5/CXCR4 (R5X4). We made efforts in investigating the coreceptor prediction problem as follows: 1) proposing a feature set of informative physicochemical properties which is cooperated with SVM to achieve high prediction test accuracy of 81.48%, compared with the existing method with accuracy of 70.00%; 2) establishing a large up-to-date data set by increasing the size from 159 to 1225 sequences to verify the proposed prediction method where the mean test accuracy is 88.59%, and 3) analyzing the set of 14 informative physicochemical properties to further understand the characteristics of HIV-1coreceptors.
Keywords: Coreceptor, genetic algorithm, HIV-1, SVM, physicochemical properties, prediction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2265
1223 Efficient Tuning Parameter Selection by Cross-Validated Score in High Dimensional Models
Authors: Yoonsuh Jung
Abstract:As DNA microarray data contain relatively small sample size compared to the number of genes, high dimensional models are often employed. In high dimensional models, the selection of tuning parameter (or, penalty parameter) is often one of the crucial parts of the modeling. Cross-validation is one of the most common methods for the tuning parameter selection, which selects a parameter value with the smallest cross-validated score. However, selecting a single value as an ‘optimal’ value for the parameter can be very unstable due to the sampling variation since the sample sizes of microarray data are often small. Our approach is to choose multiple candidates of tuning parameter first, then average the candidates with different weights depending on their performance. The additional step of estimating the weights and averaging the candidates rarely increase the computational cost, while it can considerably improve the traditional cross-validation. We show that the selected value from the suggested methods often lead to stable parameter selection as well as improved detection of significant genetic variables compared to the tradition cross-validation via real data and simulated data sets.
Keywords: Cross Validation, Parameter Averaging, Parameter Selection, Regularization Parameter Search.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1452
1222 Progressive Changes in Physicochemical Constituent of Rainwater: A Case Study at Oyoko, a Rural Community in Ghana
Authors: J. O. Yeboah, K Aboraa, K. Kodom
The chemical and physical characteristics of rainwater harvested from a typical rooftop were progressively studied. The samples of rainwater collected were analyzed for pH, major ion concentrations, TDS, turbidity, conductivity. All the Physicochemical constituents fell within the WHO guideline limits at some points as rainfall progresses except the pH. All the components of rainwater quality measured during the study showed higher concentrations during the early stages of rainfall and reduce as time progresses. There was a downward trend in terms of pH as rain progressed, with 18% of the samples recording pH below the WHO limit of 6.5-8.0. It was observed that iron concentration was above the WHO threshold value of 0.3 mg/l on occasions of heavy rains. The results revealed that most of physicochemical characteristics of rainwater samples were generally below the WHO threshold, as such, the rainwater characteristics showed satisfactory conditions in terms of physicochemical constituents.
Keywords: Conductivity, pH, physicochemistry, rainwater quality, TDS.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1211
1221 Sequence-based Prediction of Gamma-turn Types using a Physicochemical Property-based Decision Tree Method
Authors: Chyn Liaw, Chun-Wei Tung, Shinn-Jang Ho, Shinn-Ying Ho
Abstract:The γ-turns play important roles in protein folding and molecular recognition. The prediction and analysis of γ-turn types are important for both protein structure predictions and better understanding the characteristics of different γ-turn types. This study proposed a physicochemical property-based decision tree (PPDT) method to interpretably predict γ-turn types. In addition to the good prediction performance of PPDT, three simple and human interpretable IF-THEN rules are extracted from the decision tree constructed by PPDT. The identified informative physicochemical properties and concise rules provide a simple way for discriminating and understanding γ-turn types.
Keywords: Classification and regression tree (CART), γ-turn, Physicochemical properties, Protein secondary structure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1434
1220 Precision Identification of Nonlinear Damping Parameter for a Miniature Moving-Coil Transducer
Authors: Yu-Ting Tsai, Yu-da Lee, Jin H. Huang
The nonlinear damping behavior is usually ignored in the design of a miniature moving-coil loudspeaker. But when the loudspeaker operated in air, the damping parameter varies with the voice-coil displacement corresponding due to viscous air flow. The present paper presents an identification model as inverse problem to identify the nonlinear damping parameter in the lumped parameter model for the loudspeaker. Theoretical results for the nonlinear damping are verified by using laser displacement measurement scanner. These results indicate that the damping parameter has the greatly different nonlinearity between in air and vacuum. It is believed that the results of the present work can be applied in diagnosis and sound quality improvement of a miniature loudspeaker.
Keywords: Miniature loudspeaker, non-linear damping, system identification, Lumped parameter model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1871
1219 Physicochemical Parameters of Tap Water in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: An Empirical Assessment
Authors: Ahmed A. Hassan, Bassam Tawabini
In this study, the physicochemical parameters of Dhahran tap water were assessed to determine its suitability for drinking purposes. A total of 45 water samples were collected from different locations. The results indicate temperature ranges of 19.76 to 22.86 °C, pH (6.5 to 8.23), dissolved oxygen (4.21 to 8.32 mg/L), conductivity (232 to 2586 uS/cm), turbidity (0.17 to 0.37 Nephelometric Turbidity unit (NTU)), total dissolved solids (93 to 1671 mg/L), total alkalinity (4.11 to 24.04 mg/L), calcium (0.02 to 164 mg/L), magnesium (0 .6 to 77.9 mg/L), chloride (32.7 to 568.7 mg/L), nitrate (0.02 to 3 mg/L), fluoride (0.001 to 0.591 mg/L), sodium (18.4 to 232 mg/L), potassium (0.5 to 26.4 mg/L), and sulphate (2.39 to 258 mg/L). The results were compared with the drinking water standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The study determined that though the levels of most of the physicochemical parameters comply with the standards, however, slight deviations exist. This is evident in the values of the physical parameters (conductivity and total dissolved solids), and the chemical parameters (sulphate, chloride, and sodium) recorded at a few sample sites.
Keywords: Physicochemical parameters, tap water, water quality, Dhahran.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 157
1218 Application of a New Efficient Normal Parameter Reduction Algorithm of Soft Sets in Online Shopping
Authors: Xiuqin Ma, Hongwu Qin
A new efficient normal parameter reduction algorithm of soft set in decision making was proposed. However, up to the present, few documents have focused on real-life applications of this algorithm. Accordingly, we apply a New Efficient Normal Parameter Reduction algorithm into real-life datasets of online shopping, such as Blackberry Mobile Phone Dataset. Experimental results show that this algorithm is not only suitable but feasible for dealing with the online shopping.
Keywords: Normal parameter reduction, Online shopping, Parameter reduction, Soft sets.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1728
1217 Variable Regularization Parameter Normalized Least Mean Square Adaptive Filter
Authors: Young-Seok Choi
Abstract:We present a normalized LMS (NLMS) algorithm with robust regularization. Unlike conventional NLMS with the fixed regularization parameter, the proposed approach dynamically updates the regularization parameter. By exploiting a gradient descent direction, we derive a computationally efficient and robust update scheme for the regularization parameter. In simulation, we demonstrate the proposed algorithm outperforms conventional NLMS algorithms in terms of convergence rate and misadjustment error.
Keywords: Regularization, normalized LMS, system identification, robustness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1240
1216 Coverage Probability of Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean and Variance with Restricted Parameter Space
Authors: Sa-aat Niwitpong
Recent articles have addressed the problem to construct the confidence intervals for the mean of a normal distribution where the parameter space is restricted, see for example Wang [Confidence intervals for the mean of a normal distribution with restricted parameter space. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, Vol. 78, No. 9, 2008, 829–841.], we derived, in this paper, analytic expressions of the coverage probability and the expected length of confidence interval for the normal mean when the whole parameter space is bounded. We also construct the confidence interval for the normal variance with restricted parameter for the first time and its coverage probability and expected length are also mathematically derived. As a result, one can use these criteria to assess the confidence interval for the normal mean and variance when the parameter space is restricted without the back up from simulation experiments.
Keywords: Confidence interval, coverage probability, expected length, restricted parameter space.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1461
1215 Application of He’s Parameter-Expansion Method to a Coupled Van Der Pol oscillators with Two Kinds of Time-delay Coupling
Authors: Mohammad Taghi Darvishi, Samad Kheybari
In this paper, the dynamics of a system of two van der Pol oscillators with delayed position and velocity is studied. We provide an approximate solution for this system using parameterexpansion method. Also, we obtain approximate values for frequencies of the system. The parameter-expansion method is more efficient than the perturbation method for this system because the method is independent of perturbation parameter assumption.
Keywords: Parameter-expansion method, coupled van der pol oscillator, time-delay system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1264
1214 Robust Stabilization of Rotational Motion of Underwater Robots against Parameter Uncertainties
Authors: Riku Hayashida, Tomoaki Hashimoto
Abstract:This paper provides a robust stabilization method for rotational motion of underwater robots against parameter uncertainties. Underwater robots are expected to be used for various work assignments. The large variety of applications of underwater robots motivates researchers to develop control systems and technologies for underwater robots. Several control methods have been proposed so far for the stabilization of nominal system model of underwater robots with no parameter uncertainty. Parameter uncertainties are considered to be obstacles in implementation of the such nominal control methods for underwater robots. The objective of this study is to establish a robust stabilization method for rotational motion of underwater robots against parameter uncertainties. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.
Keywords: Robust control, stabilization method, underwater robot, parameter uncertainty.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 377
1213 Numerical Investigation of Unsteady MHD Flow of Second Order Fluid in a Tube of Elliptical Cross-Section on the Porous Boundary
Authors: S. B. Kulkarni, Hasim A. Chikte, V. Murali Mohan
Abstract:Exact solution of an unsteady MHD flow of elasticoviscous fluid through a porous media in a tube of elliptic cross section under the influence of magnetic field and constant pressure gradient has been obtained in this paper. Initially, the flow is generated by a constant pressure gradient. After attaining the steady state, the pressure gradient is suddenly withdrawn and the resulting fluid motion in a tube of elliptical cross section by taking into account of the porosity factor and magnetic parameter of the bounding surface is investigated. The problem is solved in two-stages the first stage is a steady motion in tube under the influence of a constant pressure gradient, the second stage concern with an unsteady motion. The problem is solved employing separation of variables technique. The results are expressed in terms of a non-dimensional porosity parameter, magnetic parameter and elastico-viscosity parameter, which depends on the Non-Newtonian coefficient. The flow parameters are found to be identical with that of Newtonian case as elastic-viscosity parameter, magnetic parameter tends to zero, and porosity tends to infinity. The numerical results were simulated in MATLAB software to analyze the effect of Elastico-viscous parameter, porosity parameter, and magnetic parameter on velocity profile. Boundary conditions were satisfied. It is seen that the effect of elastico-viscosity parameter, porosity parameter and magnetic parameter of the bounding surface has significant effect on the velocity parameter.
Keywords: Elastico-viscous fluid, Porous media, Elliptic cross-section, Magnetic parameter, Numerical Simulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1717
1212 Study of Ether Species Effects on Physicochemical Properties of Palm Oil Ether Monoesters as Novel Biodiesels
Authors: Hejun Guo, Shenghua Liu
Five palm oil ether monoesters utilized as novel biodiesels were synthesized and structurally identified in the paper. The investigation was made on the effect of ether species on physicochemical properties of the palm oil ether monoesters. The results showed that density, kinematic viscosity, smoke point, and solidifying point increase linearly with their –CH2 group number in certain relationships. Cetane number is enhanced whereas heat value decreases linearly with –CH2 group number. In addition, the influencing regularities of the volumetric content of the palm oil ether monoesters on the fuel properties were also studied when the ether monoesters are used as diesel fuel additives.
Keywords: Biodiesel, palm oil ether monoester, ether species, physicochemical property.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1392
1211 Unsteady MHD Flow of an Incompressible Elastico-Viscous Fluid in a Tube of Spherical Cross Section on a Porous Boundary
Authors: Sanjay Baburao Kulkarni
Exact solution of an unsteady MHD flow of elasticoviscous fluid through a porous media in a tube of spherical cross section under the influence of magnetic field and constant pressure gradient has been obtained in this paper. Initially, the flow is generated by a constant pressure gradient. After attaining the steady state, the pressure gradient is suddenly withdrawn and the resulting fluid motion in a tube of spherical cross section by taking into account of the porosity factor and magnetic parameter of the bounding surface is investigated. The problem is solved in two-stages the first stage is a steady motion in tube under the influence of a constant pressure gradient, the second stage concern with an unsteady motion. The problem is solved employing separation of variables technique. The results are expressed in terms of a non-dimensional porosity parameter (K), magnetic parameter (m) and elasticoviscosity parameter (β), which depends on the Non-Newtonian coefficient. The flow parameters are found to be identical with that of Newtonian case as elastic-viscosity parameter and magnetic parameter tends to zero and porosity tends to infinity. It is seen that the effect of elastico-viscosity parameter, porosity parameter and magnetic parameter of the bounding surface has significant effect on the velocity parameter.
Keywords: Elastico-viscous fluid, Porous media, Second order fluids, Spherical cross-section, Magnetic parameter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1517
1210 Magnetohydrodynamics Boundary Layer Flows over a Stretching Surface with Radiation Effect and Embedded in Porous Medium
Authors: Siti Khuzaimah Soid, Zanariah Mohd Yusof, Ahmad Sukri Abd Aziz, Seripah Awang Kechil
Abstract:A steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics flow and heat transfer over a stretching vertical sheet influenced by radiation and porosity is studied. The governing boundary layer equations of partial differential equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. The system is solved numerically by using a finite difference scheme known as the Keller-box method for some values of parameters, namely the radiation parameter N, magnetic parameter M, buoyancy parameter l , Prandtl number Pr and permeability parameter K. The effects of the parameters on the heat transfer characteristics are analyzed and discussed. It is found that both the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number decrease as the magnetic parameter M and permeability parameter K increase. Heat transfer rate at the surface decreases as the radiation parameter increases.
Keywords: Keller-box, MHD boundary layer flow, permeability stretching.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1858
1209 A Parameter-Tuning Framework for Metaheuristics Based on Design of Experiments and Artificial Neural Networks
Authors: Felix Dobslaw
Abstract:In this paper, a framework for the simplification and standardization of metaheuristic related parameter-tuning by applying a four phase methodology, utilizing Design of Experiments and Artificial Neural Networks, is presented. Metaheuristics are multipurpose problem solvers that are utilized on computational optimization problems for which no efficient problem specific algorithm exist. Their successful application to concrete problems requires the finding of a good initial parameter setting, which is a tedious and time consuming task. Recent research reveals the lack of approach when it comes to this so called parameter-tuning process. In the majority of publications, researchers do have a weak motivation for their respective choices, if any. Because initial parameter settings have a significant impact on the solutions quality, this course of action could lead to suboptimal experimental results, and thereby a fraudulent basis for the drawing of conclusions.
Keywords: Parameter-Tuning, Metaheuristics, Design of Experiments, Artificial Neural Networks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1636
1208 Method of Parameter Calibration for Error Term in Stochastic User Equilibrium Traffic Assignment Model
Authors: Xiang Zhang, David Rey, S. Travis Waller
Stochastic User Equilibrium (SUE) model is a widely used traffic assignment model in transportation planning, which is regarded more advanced than Deterministic User Equilibrium (DUE) model. However, a problem exists that the performance of the SUE model depends on its error term parameter. The objective of this paper is to propose a systematic method of determining the appropriate error term parameter value for the SUE model. First, the significance of the parameter is explored through a numerical example. Second, the parameter calibration method is developed based on the Logit-based route choice model. The calibration process is realized through multiple nonlinear regression, using sequential quadratic programming combined with least square method. Finally, case analysis is conducted to demonstrate the application of the calibration process and validate the better performance of the SUE model calibrated by the proposed method compared to the SUE models under other parameter values and the DUE model.
Keywords: Parameter calibration, sequential quadratic programming, Stochastic User Equilibrium, traffic assignment, transportation planning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2013
1207 A Study on Physicochemical Analysis of Road and Railway Track Side Soil Samples of Amritsar (Punjab) and Their Genotoxic Effects
Authors: R. Kaur, Y. B. Pakade, J. K. Katnoria
Considering the serious health hazards of air pollutants from automobiles, the present study was aimed to estimate the genotoxic/tumor inducing potential of three soil samples collected from junctions of Bus stand (BS), Crystal (CT) and Railway station (RS) of Amritsar, Punjab (India) using Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay (AlRCAA) and potato disc tumor assay (PDTA). The genotoxic potential in AlRCAA was 41.27% and 41.26% for BS; 37.89% and 43.38% for RS and 33.76% and 37.83% for CT during in situ and root dip treatments, respectively. The maximum number of tumors were induced in RS sample (64) followed by BS (21) and CT (9) during PDTA. The physicochemical parameters of soil sample were also studied and the concentration of lead was found to be 95.21 mg/Kg in RS, 35.30 mg/Kg in BS and 24.59 mg/Kg in CT samples.
Keywords: Automobiles, genotoxicity, Physicochemical parameters, pollutants.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2104
1206 An Approximate Solution of the Classical Van der Pol Oscillator Coupled Gyroscopically to a Linear Oscillator Using Parameter-Expansion Method
Authors: Mohammad Taghi Darvishi, Samad Kheybari
In this article, we are dealing with a model consisting of a classical Van der Pol oscillator coupled gyroscopically to a linear oscillator. The major problem is analyzed. The regular dynamics of the system is considered using analytical methods. In this case, we provide an approximate solution for this system using parameter-expansion method. Also, we find approximate values for frequencies of the system. In parameter-expansion method the solution and unknown frequency of oscillation are expanded in a series by a bookkeeping parameter. By imposing the non-secularity condition at each order in the expansion the method provides different approximations to both the solution and the frequency of oscillation. One iteration step provides an approximate solution which is valid for the whole solution domain.
Keywords: Parameter-expansion method, classical Van der Pol oscillator.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1739
1205 Physicochemical Analysis of Soxhlet Extracted Oils from Selected Northern Nigerian Seeds
Authors: Abdulhamid Abubakar, Sani Ibrahim, Fakai I. Musa
The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential use of the selected seed oils. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and the physicochemical characteristics of the oil determined using standard methods. The following results were obtained for the physicochemical parameters analysed: for Egusi seed oil, Oil yield 53.20%, Saponification value 178.03±1.25 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 49.10±0.32 g I2/100g, Acid value 4.30±0.86 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 5.80±0.27 meq/kg were obtained. For Pawpaw seed oil, Oil yield 40.10%, Saponification value 24.13±3.93 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 24.87±0.19 g I2/100g, Acid value 9.46±0.40 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 3.12±1.22 meq/kg were obtained. For Sweet orange seed oil, Oil yield 43.10%, Saponification value 106.30±2.37 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 37.08±0.04 g I2/100g, Acid value 7.59±0.77 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 2.21±0.46 meq/kg were obtained. From the obtained values of the determined parameters, the oils can be extracted from the three selected seeds in commercial quantities and that the egusi and sweet orange seed oils may be utilized in the industrial soap production.
Keywords: Carica papaya, Citrus sinensis, iodine value, peroxide value, physicochemical.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5910
1204 Pollution and Water Quality of the Beshar River
Authors: Fardin Boustani , Mohammah Hosein Hojati
Abstract:The Beshar River is one aquatic ecosystem,which is affected by pollutants. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of human activities on the water quality of the Beshar river. This river is approximately 190 km in length and situated at the geographical positions of 51° 20' to 51° 48' E and 30° 18' to 30° 52' N it is one of the most important aquatic ecosystems of Kohkiloye and Boyerahmad province next to the city of Yasuj in southern Iran. The Beshar river has been contaminated by industrial, agricultural and other activities in this region such as factories, hospitals, agricultural farms, urban surface runoff and effluent of wastewater treatment plants. In order to evaluate the effects of these pollutants on the quality of the Beshar river, five monitoring stations were selected along its course. The first station is located upstream of Yasuj near the Dehnow village; stations 2 to 4 are located east, south and west of city; and the 5th station is located downstream of Yasuj. Several water quality parameters were sampled. These include pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand (BOD), temperature, conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids and discharge or flow measurements. Water samples from the five stations were collected and analysed to determine the following physicochemical parameters: EC, pH, T.D.S, T.H, No2, DO, BOD5, COD during 2008 to 2009. The study shows that the BOD5 value of station 1 is at a minimum (1.5 ppm) and increases downstream from stations 2 to 4 to a maximum (7.2 ppm), and then decreases at station 5. The DO values of station 1 is a maximum (9.55 ppm), decreases downstream to stations 2 - 4 which are at a minimum (3.4 ppm), before increasing at station 5. The amount of BOD and TDS are highest at the 4th station and the amount of DO is lowest at this station, marking the 4th station as more highly polluted than the other stations. The physicochemical parameters improve at the 5th station due to pollutant degradation and dilution. Finally the point and nonpoint pollutant sources of Beshar river were determined and compared to the monitoring results.
Keywords: Beshar river, physicochemical parameter, waterpollution, YasujProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1481
1203 Vibration of a Beam on an Elastic Foundation Using the Variational Iteration Method
Authors: Desmond Adair, Kairat Ismailov, Martin Jaeger
Modelling of Timoshenko beams on elastic foundations has been widely used in the analysis of buildings, geotechnical problems, and, railway and aerospace structures. For the elastic foundation, the most widely used models are one-parameter mechanical models or two-parameter models to include continuity and cohesion of typical foundations, with the two-parameter usually considered the better of the two. Knowledge of free vibration characteristics of beams on an elastic foundation is considered necessary for optimal design solutions in many engineering applications, and in this work, the efficient and accurate variational iteration method is developed and used to calculate natural frequencies of a Timoshenko beam on a two-parameter foundation. The variational iteration method is a technique capable of dealing with some linear and non-linear problems in an easy and efficient way. The calculations are compared with those using a finite-element method and other analytical solutions, and it is shown that the results are accurate and are obtained efficiently. It is found that the effect of the presence of the two-parameter foundation is to increase the beam’s natural frequencies and this is thought to be because of the shear-layer stiffness, which has an effect on the elastic stiffness. By setting the two-parameter model’s stiffness parameter to zero, it is possible to obtain a one-parameter foundation model, and so, comparison between the two foundation models is also made.
Keywords: Timoshenko beam, variational iteration method, two-parameter elastic foundation model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 808
1202 Frequency Domain Analysis for Hopf Bifurcation in a Delayed Competitive Web-site Model
Authors: Changjin Xu, Yusen Wu
Abstract:In this paper, applying frequency domain approach, a delayed competitive web-site system is investigated. By choosing the parameter α as a bifurcation parameter, it is found that Hopf bifurcation occurs as the bifurcation parameter α passes a critical values. That is, a family of periodic solutions bifurcate from the equilibrium when the bifurcation parameter exceeds a critical value. Some numerical simulations are included to justify the theoretical analysis results. Finally, main conclusions are given.
Keywords: Web-site system, stability, Nyquist criterion, Hopf bifurcation, frequency domain.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1142
1201 Parameter Tuning of Complex Systems Modeled in Agent Based Modeling and Simulation
Authors: Rabia Korkmaz Tan, Şebnem Bora
The major problem encountered when modeling complex systems with agent-based modeling and simulation techniques is the existence of large parameter spaces. A complex system model cannot be expected to reflect the whole of the real system, but by specifying the most appropriate parameters, the actual system can be represented by the model under certain conditions. When the studies conducted in recent years were reviewed, it has been observed that there are few studies for parameter tuning problem in agent based simulations, and these studies have focused on tuning parameters of a single model. In this study, an approach of parameter tuning is proposed by using metaheuristic algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colonies (ABC), Firefly (FA) algorithms. With this hybrid structured study, the parameter tuning problems of the models in the different fields were solved. The new approach offered was tested in two different models, and its achievements in different problems were compared. The simulations and the results reveal that this proposed study is better than the existing parameter tuning studies.
Keywords: Parameter tuning, agent based modeling and simulation, metaheuristic algorithms, complex systems.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 981
1200 Targeting the Pulmonary Delivery via Optimizing Physicochemical Characteristics of Instilled Liquid and Exploring Distribution of Produced Liquids by Bench-Top Models and Scintigraphy of Rabbits- Lungs
Authors: Mohammad Nasri, Hossein Mirshekarpour
Abstract:We aimed to investigate how can target and optimize pulmonary delivery distribution by changing physicochemical characteristics of instilled liquid.Therefore, we created a new liquids group: a. eligible for desired distribution within lung because of assorted physicochemical characteristics b. capable of being augmented with a broad range of chemicals inertly c. no interference on respiratory function d. compatible with airway surface liquid We developed forty types of new liquid,were composed of Carboxymethylcellulose sodium,Glycerin and different types of Polysorbates.Viscosity was measured using a Programmable Rheometer and surface tension by KRUSS Tensiometer.We subsequently examined the liquids and delivery protocols by simple and branched glass capillary tube models of airways.Eventually,we explored pulmonary distribution of liquids being augmented with technetium-99m in mechanically ventilated rabbits.We used a single head large field of view gamma camera.Kinematic viscosity between 0.265Stokes and 0.289Stokes,density between 1g/cm3 and 1.5g/cm3 and surface tension between 25dyn/cm and 35dyn/cm were the most acceptable.
Keywords: Pulmonary delivery, Liquid instillation into airway, Physicochemical characteristics, Optimal distribution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1375
1199 A New Controlling Parameter in Design of Above Knee Prosthesis
Abstract:In this paper after reviewing some previous studies, in order to optimize the above knee prosthesis, beside the inertial properties a new controlling parameter is informed. This controlling parameter makes the prosthesis able to act as a multi behavior system when the amputee is opposing to different environments. This active prosthesis with the new controlling parameter can simplify the control of prosthesis and reduce the rate of energy consumption in comparison to recently presented similar prosthesis “Agonistantagonist active knee prosthesis". In this paper three models are generated, a passive, an active, and an optimized active prosthesis. Second order Taylor series is the numerical method in solution of the models equations and the optimization procedure is genetic algorithm. Modeling the prosthesis which comprises this new controlling parameter (SEP) during the swing phase represents acceptable results in comparison to natural behavior of shank. Reported results in this paper represent 3.3 degrees as the maximum deviation of models shank angle from the natural pattern. The natural gait pattern belongs to walking at the speed of 81 m/min.
Keywords: Above knee prosthesis, active controlling parameter, ballistic motion, swing phase.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1766
1198 Radiation Effect on Unsteady MHD Flow over a Stretching Surface
Authors: Zanariah Mohd Yusof, Siti Khuzaimah Soid, Ahmad Sukri Abd Aziz, Seripah Awang Kechil
Abstract:Unsteady magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a continuously stretching surface in the presence of radiation is examined. By similarity transformation, the governing partial differential equations are transformed to a set of ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions are obtained by employing the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method scheme with shooting technique in Maple software environment. The effects of unsteadiness parameter, radiation parameter, magnetic parameter and Prandtl number on the heat transfer characteristics are obtained and discussed. It is found that the heat transfer rate at the surface increases as the Prandtl number and unsteadiness parameter increase but decreases with magnetic and radiation parameter.
Keywords: Heat transfer, magnetohydrodynamics, radiation, unsteadiness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2426
1197 Frequency-Variation Based Method for Parameter Estimation of Transistor Amplifier
Authors: Akash Rathee, Harish Parthasarathy
Abstract:In this paper, a frequency-variation based method has been proposed for transistor parameter estimation in a commonemitter transistor amplifier circuit. We design an algorithm to estimate the transistor parameters, based on noisy measurements of the output voltage when the input voltage is a sine wave of variable frequency and constant amplitude. The common emitter amplifier circuit has been modelled using the transistor Ebers-Moll equations and the perturbation technique has been used for separating the linear and nonlinear parts of the Ebers-Moll equations. This model of the amplifier has been used to determine the amplitude of the output sinusoid as a function of the frequency and the parameter vector. Then, applying the proposed method to the frequency components, the transistor parameters have been estimated. As compared to the conventional time-domain least squares method, the proposed method requires much less data storage and it results in more accurate parameter estimation, as it exploits the information in the time and frequency domain, simultaneously. The proposed method can be utilized for parameter estimation of an analog device in its operating range of frequencies, as it uses data collected from different frequencies output signals for parameter estimation.
Keywords: Perturbation Technique, Parameter estimation, frequency-variation based method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1633