Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32727
A New Controlling Parameter in Design of Above Knee Prosthesis

Authors: M. Tahani, G. Karimi


In this paper after reviewing some previous studies, in order to optimize the above knee prosthesis, beside the inertial properties a new controlling parameter is informed. This controlling parameter makes the prosthesis able to act as a multi behavior system when the amputee is opposing to different environments. This active prosthesis with the new controlling parameter can simplify the control of prosthesis and reduce the rate of energy consumption in comparison to recently presented similar prosthesis ÔÇťAgonistantagonist active knee prosthesis". In this paper three models are generated, a passive, an active, and an optimized active prosthesis. Second order Taylor series is the numerical method in solution of the models equations and the optimization procedure is genetic algorithm. Modeling the prosthesis which comprises this new controlling parameter (SEP) during the swing phase represents acceptable results in comparison to natural behavior of shank. Reported results in this paper represent 3.3 degrees as the maximum deviation of models shank angle from the natural pattern. The natural gait pattern belongs to walking at the speed of 81 m/min.

Keywords: Above knee prosthesis, active controlling parameter, ballistic motion, swing phase.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1819


[1] H. Herr, G. P. Whiteley, and D. Childress, "Chapter5: Cyborg Technology, Biomimetic Orthotic and Prosthetic Technology," ISBN 0-8194-4872-9, SPIE, 2003.
[2] G. Karimi, and O. Jahanian, "Designing a prosthetic rotational kneed leg with passive dynamic consideration," BS Thesis, IAUM, 2006.
[3] J. Nishii, and M. Nakamura, "A determinant of the leg swing trajectory during walking," Proceedings of the Symposium on Biological and Physiological Engineering, vol. 19, 2004, pp 81-82.
[4] S. Mochon, and T. A. McMahon,"Ballistic walking," J.Biomech, vol. 13, Pergamon Press Ltd., pp. 49-57, 1980.
[5] R. W. Selles, J. B. J. Bussmann, R. C. Wagenaar, and H. J. Stam,"Comparing predictive validity of four ballistic swing phase models of human walking," J. Biomech, vol. 34, pp. 1171-1177, 2001.
[6] R. W. Selles, J. B. J. Bussmann, R. C. Wagenaar, and H. J. Stam, "Effects of prosthetic mass and mass distribution on kinematics and energetics of prosthetic gait: A systematic review," Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. , vol. 80, pp. 1593-9, 1999.
[7] B. Lotfi, O. Jahanian, and G. Karimi, "Statistical modeling of a 2D straight leg passive dynamic walker Machine," Proceedings of the International Conference on Modeling and Simulation, Malaysia, 2006, Paper No. 145.
[8] M. S. Garcia, "Stability, scaling, and chaos in passive dynamic gait models," Ph.D.Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY USA.
[9] A. G. Baines, "Knee design for a bipedal walking robot based on a passive-dynamic Walker," BS Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2005.
[10] H. Collins, "Dynamic Walking Principles Applied to Human Gait," Ph.D.Thesis, University of Michigan, 2008.
[11] S. N. Whittlesey, R. E. A. van Emmerik, and J. Hamill, "The swing phase of human walking is not a passive movement," Motor Control, vol.4, Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., pp. 273-292, 2000.
[12] S. Zahedi, "Lower Limb Prosthetic Research In The Century," ATLAS OF Prosthetics,
[ ]
[13] M. Y. Zarrugh, and C. W. Radcliffe, "Simulation of Swing Phase Dynamics in Above Knee Prostheses," J. Biomech, vol. 9, pp. 283- 292, 1976.
[14] C. S. Tsai, and J. M. Mansour," swing phase simulation and design of above knee prostheses," Biomech. Eng., vol. 108, pp. 65-72, 1986.
[15] S. Blumentritt, H. W. Scherer, J. W. Michael, and T. Schmalz, "Transfemural Amputees walking on a rotary hydraulic prosthetic knee mechanism," J. Prosthet. Orthot., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 61-70, 1998.
[16] J. H. Kim, and J. H. Oh, "Development of an above knee prosthesis using MR damper and leg simulator," Proceedings of the 2001 IEEE International Conference on Robotics 8 Automation, Seoul, Korea. May 21-26, 2001, pp. 3686-3691.
[17] H. Herr, and A. Wilkenfeld, "User-adaptive control of a magnetorheological prosthetic knee," Ind. Robot, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 42-55, 2003.
[18] A. O. Kapti, and M. S. Yucenur, "Design and control of an active artificial knee joint," Mech. Mach. Theory, vol. 41, pp. 1477-1485, 2006.
[19] E. C. M. Villalpando, and H. Herr, "Biomimetic active prosthetic knee with antagonistic actuation," Dynamic Walking 2009, held at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver,
[20] D. Joshi, and S. Anand, "Smart and Adaptive Lower limb Prosthesis," unpublished.
[21] E. C. M. Villalpando, and H. Herr, "Agonist-antagonist active knee prosthesis: A preliminary study in level-ground walking," J. Rehabil. Res. Dev., vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 361-374, 2009.
[22] D. A. Winter,"Biomechanics and motor control of human movement," Fourth edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN: 978-0- 470-39818-0, 2009.
[23] M. R. Yeadon, and M. Morlock, "The appropriate use of regression equations for the estimation of segmental inertia parameters," J. Biomech., vol. 22, pp. 683-689, 1989.
[24] F. C. Anderson, and M. G. Pandy, "Dynamic optimization of human walking," Biomech. Eng., vol. 123, pp. 381-390, 2001.
[25] J. R. Gage, P. A. Deluca, and T. S. Renshaw, "Gait Analysis: Principles and Applications," J. Bone Joint Surg., vol. 77, pp. 1607-1623, 1995.
[26] J. M. Baydal, R. Barbera, J. M. B. Lois, A. Page, and J. Prat, "Application of genetic algorithms as optimization methodology in the design of orthosis," Institute of Biomechanics of Valencia (IBV), 2001.
[27] A. Chipperfield, P. Fleming, H. Pohlheim, and C. Fonseca, "Genetic algorithm toolbox user-s guide," Department of automatic control and systems engineering, University of Sheffield.