Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Carica papaya

10 Use of Carica papaya as a Bio-Sorbent for Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater

Authors: W. E. Igwegbe, B. C. Okoro, J. C. Osuagwu

Abstract:

The study assessed the effectiveness of Pawpaw (Carica papaya) wood in reducing the concentrations of heavy metals in wastewater acting as a bio-sorbent. The following heavy metals were considered; Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper, Iron, Selenium, Nickel and Manganese. The physiochemical properties of Carica papaya stem were studied. The experimental sample was sourced from the trunk of a felled matured pawpaw tree. Wastewater for experimental use was prepared by dissolving soil samples collected from a dump site at Owerri, Imo state of Nigeria in water. The concentration of each metal remaining in solution as residual metal after bio-sorption was determined using Atomic absorption Spectrometer. The effects of pH and initial heavy metal concentration were studied in a batch reactor. The results of Spectrometer test showed that there were different functional groups detected in the Carica papaya stem biomass. There was increase in metal removal as the pH increased for all the metals considered except for Nickel and Manganese. Optimum bio-sorption occurred at pH 5.9 with 5g/100ml solution of bio-sorbent. The results of the study showed that the treated wastewater is fit for irrigation purpose based on Canada wastewater quality guideline for the protection of Agricultural standard. This approach thus provides a cost effective and environmentally friendly option for treating wastewater.

Keywords: Biomass, bio-sorption, Carica papaya, heavy metal, wastewater.

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9 Psyllium (Plantago) Gum as an Effective Edible Coating to Improve Quality and Shelf Life of Fresh-cut Papaya (Carica papaya)

Authors: Basharat Yousuf, Abhaya K. Srivastava

Abstract:

Psyllium gum alone and in combination with sunflower oil was investigated as a possible alternative edible coating for improvement of quality and shelf life of fresh-cut papaya. Different concentrations including 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percent of psyllium gum were used for coating of fresh-cut papaya. In some samples, refined sunflower oil was used as a lipid component to increase the effectiveness of coating in terms of water barrier properties. Soya lecithin was used as an emulsifier in coatings containing oil. Pretreatment with 1% calcium chloride was given to maintain the firmness of fresh-cut papaya cubes. 1% psyllium gum coating was found to yield better results. Further, addition of oil helped to maintain the quality and acted as a barrier to water vapour, therefore, minimizing the weight loss.

Keywords: Coating, fresh-cut, gum, papaya, psylllium.

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8 Physicochemical Analysis of Soxhlet Extracted Oils from Selected Northern Nigerian Seeds

Authors: Abdulhamid Abubakar, Sani Ibrahim, Fakai I. Musa

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential use of the selected seed oils. The oil was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus and the physicochemical characteristics of the oil determined using standard methods. The following results were obtained for the physicochemical parameters analysed: for Egusi seed oil, Oil yield 53.20%, Saponification value 178.03±1.25 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 49.10±0.32 g I2/100g, Acid value 4.30±0.86 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 5.80±0.27 meq/kg were obtained. For Pawpaw seed oil, Oil yield 40.10%, Saponification value 24.13±3.93 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 24.87±0.19 g I2/100g, Acid value 9.46±0.40 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 3.12±1.22 meq/kg were obtained. For Sweet orange seed oil, Oil yield 43.10%, Saponification value 106.30±2.37 mgKOH/g, Iodine value 37.08±0.04 g I2/100g, Acid value 7.59±0.77 mgKOH/g, and Peroxide value 2.21±0.46 meq/kg were obtained. From the obtained values of the determined parameters, the oils can be extracted from the three selected seeds in commercial quantities and that the egusi and sweet orange seed oils may be utilized in the industrial soap production.

Keywords: Carica papaya, Citrus sinensis, iodine value, peroxide value, physicochemical.

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7 Effect of Pectinase on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Juice from Pawpaw (Carica papaya) Fruits

Authors: Idoko J. O., Achusi N.

Abstract:

A procedure for the preparation of clarified Pawpaw Juice was developed. About 750ml Pawpaw pulp was measured into 2 measuring cylinders A & B of capacity 1 litre heated to 400C, cooled to 200C. 30mls pectinase was added into cylinder A, while 30mls distilled water was added into cylinder B. Enzyme treated sample (A) was allowed to digest for 5hours after which it was heated to 900C for 15 minutes to inactivate the enzyme. The heated sample was cooled and with the aid of a mucillin cloth the pulp was filtered to obtain the clarified pawpaw juice. The juice was filled into 100ml plastic bottles, pasteurized at 950C for 45 minutes, cooled and stored at room temperature. The sample treated with 30mls distilled water also underwent the same process. Freshly pasteurized sample was analyzed for specific gravity, titratable acidity, pH, sugars and ascorbic acid. The remaining sample was then stored for 2 weeks and the above analyses repeated. There were differences in the results of the freshly pasteurized samples and stored sample in pH and ascorbic acid levels, also sample treated with pectinase yielded higher volumes of juice than that treated with distilled water.

Keywords: Juice, pawpaw, pectinase.

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6 Influence of OMF Application Rates on Post Field Soil Fertility Status under Pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) Varieties

Authors: O. O. Olubode, I. O. O. Aiyelaagbe, J. G. Bodunde

Abstract:

Field study was conducted to determine the post field soil fertility status responses of pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) var. homestead selection and sunrise-solo orchards to organo-mineral fertilizer (OMF) rates applied at 10, 20 40 t/ha where both the zero t/ha OMF and NPK 15:15:15 at 50 g/plant/month served as control. The result showed that all pawpaw orchards treated with OMF rates recorded significantly (p≤0.01) higher % P, % K, Na and % organic matter in soil compared to applied NPK which recorded lower Na. However, while orchards plated with sole pawpaw were higher in soil bulk density (SBD), orchards with homestead mixture were lower in SBD and significantly lower % organic matter compared to obtainable under sunrise crop mixture which recorded lower Na and Mg. In conclusion, as a result of loosening effect on soil particles, the homestead pawpaw probably due to more rooting activities as well as the addition of organic fertilizer to soils both had significant influence leading to lower SBD. 

Keywords: Carica papaya (L), growth and yield, organo-mineral fertilizer, soil fertility status.

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5 Biospeckle Supported Fruit Bruise Detection

Authors: Adilson M. Enes, Juliana A. Fracarolli, InĂ¡cio M. Dal Fabbro, Silvestre Rodrigues

Abstract:

This research work proposed a study of fruit bruise detection by means of a biospeckle method, selecting the papaya fruit (Carica papaya) as testing body. Papaya is recognized as a fruit of outstanding nutritional qualities, showing high vitamin A content, calcium, carbohydrates, exhibiting high popularity all over the world, considering consumption and acceptability. The commercialization of papaya faces special problems which are associated to bruise generation during harvesting, packing and transportation. Papaya is classified as climacteric fruit, permitting to be harvested before the maturation is completed. However, by one side bruise generation is partially controlled once the fruit flesh exhibits high mechanical firmness. By the other side, mechanical loads can set a future bruise at that maturation stage, when it can not be detected yet by conventional methods. Mechanical damages of fruit skin leave an entrance door to microorganisms and pathogens, which will cause severe losses of quality attributes. Traditional techniques of fruit quality inspection include total soluble solids determination, mechanical firmness tests, visual inspections, which would hardly meet required conditions for a fully automated process. However, the pertinent literature reveals a new method named biospeckle which is based on the laser reflectance and interference phenomenon. The laser biospeckle or dynamic speckle is quantified by means of the Moment of Inertia, named after its mechanical counterpart due to similarity between the defining formulae. Biospeckle techniques are able to quantify biological activities of living tissues, which has been applied to seed viability analysis, vegetable senescence and similar topics. Since the biospeckle techniques can monitor tissue physiology, it could also detect changes in the fruit caused by mechanical damages. The proposed technique holds non invasive character, being able to generate numerical results consistent with an adequate automation. The experimental tests associated to this research work included the selection of papaya fruit at different maturation stages which were submitted to artificial mechanical bruising tests. Damages were visually compared with the frequency maps yielded by the biospeckle technique. Results were considered in close agreement.

Keywords: Biospeckle, papaya, mechanical damages, vegetable bruising.

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4 Synthesis of Monoacylglycerol from Glycerolysis of Crude Glycerol with Coconut Oil Catalyzed by Carica papaya Lipase

Authors: P. Pinyaphong, P. Sriburi, S. Phutrakul

Abstract:

This paper studied the synthesis of monoacylglycerol (monolaurin) by glycerolysis of coconut oil and crude glycerol, catalyzed by Carica papaya lipase. Coconut oil obtained from cold pressed extraction method and crude glycerol obtained from the biodiesel plant in Department of Chemistry, Uttaradit Rajabhat University, Thailand which used oils were used as raw materials for biodiesel production through transesterification process catalyzed by sodium hydroxide. The influences of the following variables were studied: (i) type of organic solvent, (ii) molar ratio of substrate, (iii) reaction temperature, (iv) reaction time, (v) lipase dosage, and (vi) initial water activity of enzyme. High yields in monoacylglycerol (58.35%) were obtained with molar ratio of glycerol to oil at 8:1 in ethanol, temperature was controlled at 45oC for 36 hours, the amount of enzyme used was 20 wt% of oil and initial water activity of enzyme at 0.53.

Keywords: Monoacylglycerol, crude glycerol, coconut oil, Carica papaya lipase.

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3 Drying of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Using a Microwave-vacuum Dryer

Authors: Kraipat Cheenkachorn, Piyawat Jintanatham, Sarun Rattanaprapa

Abstract:

In present work, drying characteristics of fresh papaya (Carica papaya L.) was studied to understand the dehydration process and its behavior. Drying experiments were carried out by a laboratory scaled microwave-vacuum oven. The parameters affecting drying characteristics including operating modes (continuous, pulsed), microwave power (400 and 800 W), and vacuum pressure (20, 30, and 40 cmHg) were investigated. For pulsed mode, two levels of power-off time (60 and 120 s) were used while the power-on time was fixed at 60 s and the vacuum pressure was fixed at 40 cmHg. For both operating modes, the effects of drying conditions on drying time, drying rate, and effective diffusivity were investigated. The results showed high microwave power, high vacuum, and pulsed mode of 60 s-on/60 s-off favored drying rate as shown by the shorten drying time and increased effective diffusivity. The drying characteristics were then described by Page-s model, which showed a good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: papaya, microwave-vacuum drying, effective diffusivity, Page's model

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2 Biodiesel Fuel Production by Methanolysis of Fish Oil Derived from the Discarded Parts of Fish Catalyzed by Carica papaya Lipase

Authors: P. Pinyaphong, P. Sriburi, S. Phutrakul

Abstract:

In this paper, naturally immobilized lipase, Carica papaya lipase, catalyzed biodiesel production from fish oil was studied. The refined fish oil, extracted from the discarded parts of fish, was used as a starting material for biodiesel production. The effects of molar ratio of oil: methanol, lipase dosage, initial water activity of lipase, temperature and solvent were investigated. It was found that Carica papaya lipase was suitable for methanolysis of fish oil to produce methyl ester. The maximum yield of methyl ester could reach up to 83% with the optimal reaction conditions: oil: methanol molar ratio of 1: 4, 20% (based on oil) of lipase, initial water activity of lipase at 0.23 and 20% (based on oil) of tert-butanol at 40oC after 18 h of reaction time. There was negligible loss in lipase activity even after repeated use for 30 cycles.

Keywords: biodiesel fuel production, methanolysis, fish oil, Carica papaya lipase.

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1 Modification of Palm Oil Structure to Cocoa Butter Equivalent by Carica papaya Lipase- Catalyzed Interesterification

Authors: P. Pinyaphong, S. Phutrakul

Abstract:

Palm oil could be converted to cocoa butter equivalent by lipase-catalyzed interesterification. The objective of this research was to investigate the structure modification of palm oil to cocoa butter equivalent using Carica papaya lipase –catalyzed interesterification. The study showed that the compositions of cocoa butter equivalent were affected by acyl donor sources, substrate ratio, initial water of enzyme, reaction time, reaction temperature and the amount of enzyme. Among three acyl donors tested (methyl stearate, ethyl stearate and stearic acid), methyl stearate appeared to be the best acyl donor for incorporation to palm oil structure. The best reaction conditions for cocoa butter equivalent production were : substrate ratio (palm oil : methyl stearate, mol/mol) at 1 : 4, water activity of enzyme at 0.11, reaction time at 4 h, reaction temperature at 45 ° C and 18% by weight of the enzyme. The chemical and physical properties of cocoa butter equivalent were 9.75 ± 0.41% free fatty acid, 44.89 ± 0.84 iodine number, 193.19 ± 0.78 sponification value and melting point at 37-39 °C.

Keywords: Carica papaya lipase, cocoa butter equivalent, interesterification, palm oil.

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