Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32451
Physicochemical Parameters of Tap Water in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia: An Empirical Assessment

Authors: Ahmed A. Hassan, Bassam Tawabini


In this study, the physicochemical parameters of Dhahran tap water were assessed to determine its suitability for drinking purposes. A total of 45 water samples were collected from different locations. The results indicate temperature ranges of 19.76 to 22.86 °C, pH (6.5 to 8.23), dissolved oxygen (4.21 to 8.32 mg/L), conductivity (232 to 2586 uS/cm), turbidity (0.17 to 0.37 Nephelometric Turbidity unit (NTU)), total dissolved solids (93 to 1671 mg/L), total alkalinity (4.11 to 24.04 mg/L), calcium (0.02 to 164 mg/L), magnesium (0 .6 to 77.9 mg/L), chloride (32.7 to 568.7 mg/L), nitrate (0.02 to 3 mg/L), fluoride (0.001 to 0.591 mg/L), sodium (18.4 to 232 mg/L), potassium (0.5 to 26.4 mg/L), and sulphate (2.39 to 258 mg/L). The results were compared with the drinking water standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The study determined that though the levels of most of the physicochemical parameters comply with the standards, however, slight deviations exist. This is evident in the values of the physical parameters (conductivity and total dissolved solids), and the chemical parameters (sulphate, chloride, and sodium) recorded at a few sample sites.

Keywords: Physicochemical parameters, tap water, water quality, Dhahran.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 349


[1] R. W. Company, “Ecohydrology Study of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Water Quality in the Lumbardh Deçani,” no. June, pp. 154–158, 2013.
[2] G. O. Odhiambo, “Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications,” Appl. Water Sci., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 2479–2492, 2017.
[3] I. Slavik, K. R. Oliveira, P. B. Cheung, and W. Uhl, “Water quality aspects related to domestic drinking water storage tanks and consideration in current standards and guidelines throughout the world–a review,” J. Water Health, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 439–463, 2020.
[4] A. J. Whelton et al., “Residential tap water contamination following the freedom industries chemical spill: perceptions, water quality, and health impacts,” Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 813–823, 2015.
[5] A. A. Hassan, M. Sajid, A. Tanimu, I. Abdulazeez, and K. Alhooshani, “Removal of methylene blue and rose bengal dyes from aqueous solutions using 1-naphthylammonium tetrachloroferrate (III),” J. Mol. Liq., p. 114966, 2020.
[6] R. Reza and G. Singh, “Physico-Chemical Analysis of Ground Water in Angul-Talcher Region of Orissa, India,” vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 53–58, 2009.
[7] C. P. Liyanage and K. Yamada, “Impact of population growth on the water quality of natural water bodies,” Sustainability, vol. 9, no. 8, p. 1405, 2017.
[8] A. A. Hassan, A. Tanimu, and K. Alhooshani, “Dispersive Micro-Solid Phase Extraction of Pharmaceutical Drugs from Wastewater and Human Urine Using (Z)-Octadec-9-en-1-aminium tetrachloroferrate (III) Ionic Liquid and Analysis by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography,” Arab. J. Sci. Eng., pp. 1–15, 2021.
[9] A. A. Hassan, A. Tanimu, and K. Alhooshani, “Iron and cobalt-containing magnetic ionic liquids for dispersive micro-solid phase extraction coupled with HPLC-DAD for the preconcentration and quantification of carbamazepine drug in urine and environmental water samples,” J. Mol. Liq., vol. 336, p. 116370, 2021.
[10] A. Galadima, Z.. Garba, L. Leke, M. N. Almustapha, and I.. Adam, “Domestic Water Pollution among Local Communities in Nigeria ----Causes and Consequences,” vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 592–603, 2011.
[11] S. M. Mintenig, M. G. J. Löder, S. Primpke, and G. Gerdts, “Low numbers of microplastics detected in drinking water from ground water sources,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 648, pp. 631–635, 2019.
[12] A. A. Hassan, A. Tanimu, S. A. Ganiyu, I. Y. Yaagoob, and K. Alhooshani, “Selective removal of Cd (II), As (III), Pb (II) and Cr (III) ions from water resources using novel 2-anthracene ammonium-based magnetic ionic liquids,” Arab. J. Chem., p. 104136, 2022.
[13] A. Abdi Hassan, M. Sajid, H. Al Ghafly, and K. Alhooshani, “Ionic liquid-based membrane-protected micro-solid-phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides in environmental water samples,” Microchem. J., vol. 158, p. 105295, 2020.
[14] P. Sahu, “Fluoride pollution in groundwater,” in Groundwater Development and Management, Springer, 2019, pp. 329–350.
[15] Y. Sayato, “WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality,” Eisei kagaku, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 307–312, 1989.
[16] WHO, “Drinking-water,” 2019.
[17] G. Bjørklund et al., “Uranium in drinking water: a public health threat,” Arch. Toxicol., vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 1551–1560, 2020.
[18] C. L. Chan, M. K. Zalifah, and A. S. Norrakiah, “Microbiological and physicochemical quality of drinking water,” Malaysian J. Anal. Sci., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 414–420, 2007.
[19] A. M. Dietrich and G. A. Burlingame, “Critical review and rethinking of USEPA secondary standards for maintaining organoleptic quality of drinking water,” Environ. Sci. Technol., vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 708–720, 2015.
[20] Bijay-Singh and E. Craswell, “Fertilizers and nitrate pollution of surface and ground water: an increasingly pervasive global problem,” SN Appl. Sci., vol. 3, no. 4, p. 518, 2021.
[21] N. Sharma, U. Vaid, and S. K. Sharma, “Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purpose using hydrochemical studies in Dera Bassi town and its surrounding agricultural area of Dera Bassi Tehsil of Punjab, India,” SN Appl. Sci., vol. 3, no. 2, p. 245, 2021.
[22] O. A. Ojo, S. B. Bakare, A. O. Babatunde, and B. Expressway, “Microbial and Chemical analysis of potable water in public-water supply within lagos university, Ojo,” vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 30–35, 2001.
[23] D. Gianello, E. Ávila-Hernández, I. Aguer, and M. C. Crettaz-Minaglia, “Water quality assessment of a temperate urban lagoon using physico-chemical and biological indicators,” SN Appl. Sci., vol. 1, no. 5, p. 470, 2019.
[24] P. Verlicchi and V. Grillini, “Surface water and groundwater quality in South Africa and Mozambique—Analysis of the Most critical pollutants for drinking purposes and challenges in water treatment selection,” Water, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 305, 2020.
[25] A. CMA, “Standard Methods for Water and Effluent Analysis. Foludex Press Ltd, Ibadan, p. 182,” p. 1996, 1996.
[26] WHO, “1 in 3 people globally do not have access to safe drinking water – UNICEF, WHO,” 2019.
[27] X. Kepuska, L. Daija, and I. Kristo, “Determination of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Water in Biological Minimum in the Lake" Radoniq",” Eur. Sci. J., 2014.
[28] N. A. Ajadi, J. O. Ajadi, A. S. Damisa, O. E. Asiribo, and G. A. Dawodu, “Modeling Monthly Average Temperature of Dhahran City of Saudi-Arabia Using Arima Models,” J. data Sci., vol. 3, no. 5, 2017.
[29] A. N. Patel and E. T. Puttiah, “Analysis of Water Quality Using Physico-Chemical Parameters Hosahalli Tank in Shimoga District, Karnataka, India,” vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 0–4, 2011.
[30] M. B. Baig, Y. Alotibi, G. S. Straquadine, and A. Alataway, “Water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Challenges and strategies for improvement,” in Water Policies in MENA Countries, Springer, 2020, pp. 135–160.
[31] S. Chowdhury and M. Al-Zahrani, “Implications of climate change on water resources in Saudi Arabia,” Arab. J. Sci. Eng., vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1959–1971, 2013.
[32] N. B. Khan and A. N. Chohan, “Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content,” Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 166, no. 1, pp. 169–176, 2010.
[33] B. Tawabini and A. Zubair, “Bromate control in phenol-contaminated water treated by UV and ozone processes,” Desalination, vol. 267, no. 1, pp. 16–19, 2011.
[34] B. S. Tawabini, “Effect of blending ratio on the formation of bromoform and bromate in blended water samples disinfected with chlorine or ozone,” Int. J. Environ. Eng., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 349–360, 2014.
[35] A. A. Othman, S. A. Al-Ansi, and M. A. Al-Tufail, “Determination of bromate in bottled drinking water from Saudi Arabian markets by HPLC/ICP-MS,” Anal. Lett., vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 886–891, 2010.
[36] A. M. Al-omran and M. E. Nadeem, “Quality assessment of various bottled waters marketed in Saudi Arabia,” pp. 6397–6406, 2013.
[37] WHO, “Guidelines for drinking-water quality,” WHO Chron., vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 104–108, 2011.
[38] S. Yamamura, “Drinking water guidelines and standards,” report, p. 18, 2001.
[39] W. H. Organization, “A global overview of national regulations and standards for drinking-water quality,” 2021.
[40] USEPA, “USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) (2007),” vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 14–21, 2007.
[41] F. W. Pontius, “Update on USEPA’s drinking water regulations,” Journal‐American Water Work. Assoc., vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 57–68, 2003.
[42] J. Edzwald and A. W. W. Association, Water quality & treatment: a handbook on drinking water. McGraw-Hill Education, 2011.
[43] E. A. Oluyemi, A. S. Adekunle, A. A. Adenuga, and W. O. Makinde, “Physico-chemical properties and heavy metal content of water sources in Ife North Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria,” vol. 4, no. October, pp. 691–697, 2010.
[44] C. Rout and A. Sharma, “Assessment of drinking water quality: A case study of Ambala cantonment area, Haryana, India,” vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 933–945, 2011.
[45] A. M. Kalwale and P. A. Savale, “Determination of Physico-Chemical Parameters of Deoli Bhorus Dam water,” vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 273–279, 2012.
[46] H. Murhekar Gopalkrushna, “Assessment of physico-chemical status of ground water samples in Akot city,” Res. J. Chem. Sci., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 117–124, 2011.
[47] V. M. Wagh, S. V. Mukate, D. B. Panaskar, A. A. Muley, and U. L. Sahu, “Study of groundwater hydrochemistry and drinking suitability through Water Quality Index (WQI) modelling in Kadava river basin, India,” SN Appl. Sci., vol. 1, no. 10, p. 1251, 2019.
[48] C. K. Jain, S. K. Sharma, and S. Singh, “Assessment of groundwater quality and determination of hydrochemical evolution of groundwater in Shillong, Meghalaya (India),” SN Appl. Sci., vol. 3, no. 1, p. 33, 2021.