Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics and Heavy Metals Concentration in Freshwater from Jega River, Kebbi State, Nigeria
This study was conducted to determine the physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal concentration (Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn)) in freshwater from Jega river. 30 water samples were collected in two 1-liter sterile plastic containers from three designated sampling points, namely; Station A (before the bridge; upstream), Station B (at the bridge where human activities such as washing of cars, motorbike, clothes, bathing and other household materials are concentrated), Station C (after the bridge; downstream) fortnightly, between March and July 2014. Results indicated that the highest pH mean value of 7.08 ± 1.12 was observed in station C, the highest conductivity with the mean 58.75 ± 7.87 µs/cm was observed at station A, the highest mean value of the water total hardness was observed at station A (54 ± 16.11 mg/L), the highest mean value of nitrate deposit was observed in station A (1.66 ± 1.33 mg/L), the highest mean value of alkalinity was observed at station B (51.33 ± 6.66 mg/L) and the highest mean (39.56 ± 3.24 mg/L) of total dissolved solids was observed at station A. The highest concentration mean value of Fe was observed in station C (65.33 ± 4.50 mg/L), the highest concentrations of Cd was observed in station C (0.99 ± 0.36 mg/L), the mean value of 2.13 ± 1.99 mg/L was the highest concentration of Zn observed in station B, the concentration of Pb was not detected (ND) and the highest concentration of Cu with the mean value of 0.43 ± 0.16 mg/L was observed in station B, while the lowest concentration was observed at station C (0.27 ± 0.26 mg/L). Statistical analysis shows no significant difference (P > 0.05) among the sampling stations for both the physicochemical characteristics and heavy metal concentrations. The results were found to be within the internationally acceptable standard limits.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316227Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 398
 J. E. Fergusson, “The Heavy Elements: Chemistry, Environmental Impact and Health Effects,” Pergamon Press, Oxford, England. Pp 89. 1990.
 D. P. Batzer and S. A. Wissinger “Ecology on insect communities in nontidal wetlands”. Annu. Rev. Ent., Vol 41, 1996: pp 75-100.
 W. Ashraj “Accumulation of heavy metals in kidney and heart tissues of Epinephelus microdon fish from the Arabian Gulf. Envirl. Monitor Assess, Vol 101, no.1-3, 2005: pp 311-316.
 R. K. Singh, S. L. Chavan, and P. H. Sapkale “Heavy metal concentrations in water, sediments and body tissues of red worm (Tubifex spp.) collected from natural habitats in Mumbai, India”. Envil. Monitoring Assesst, Vol. 129, no.1-3: pp 471- 481. 2006.
 WHO “Guidelines for drinking-water quality, electronic resource: incorporating 1st and 2nd addenda”. World Health Organization, Vol.1, Recommendations. 3rd ed. Geneva. 2004.
 M. Öztürk, G. Özözen, O. Minareci and E. Minareci “Determination of heavy metals in fish, water and sediments of Avsar Dam Lake in Turkey”. Iran. J. Env. Health. Sc.& Eng. Vol. 6, no. 2, 2009:pp 73-80.
 H. O. Nwankwoala, A. N. Amadi, E. Oborie, F. A Ushie. Hydrochemical Factors and Correlation Analysis in Groundwater Quality in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2014; 2(4):100-105.
 WHO. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. A publication of the World Health Organisation, 2011; 4th edition. Pp564.
 NSDWQ. Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water. Nigerian Industrial Standard, NIS: 2007; 554, pp13-14.
 USEPA. Water quality standards: regulations and resources. United States Environmental Pprotection Agency. Retrieved on 4th November, 2016 from www.EPA.gov/waterquality.