Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 464

Search results for: penalized weighted least squares

464 Iterative Image Reconstruction for Sparse-View Computed Tomography via Total Variation Regularization and Dictionary Learning

Authors: XianYu Zhao, JinXu Guo

Abstract:

Recently, low-dose computed tomography (CT) has become highly desirable due to increasing attention to the potential risks of excessive radiation. For low-dose CT imaging, ensuring image quality while reducing radiation dose is a major challenge. To facilitate low-dose CT imaging, we propose an improved statistical iterative reconstruction scheme based on the Penalized Weighted Least Squares (PWLS) standard combined with total variation (TV) minimization and sparse dictionary learning (DL) to improve reconstruction performance. We call this method "PWLS-TV-DL". In order to evaluate the PWLS-TV-DL method, we performed experiments on digital phantoms and physical phantoms, respectively. The experimental results show that our method is in image quality and calculation. The efficiency is superior to other methods, which confirms the potential of its low-dose CT imaging.

Keywords: Low dose computed tomography, penalized weighted least squares, total variation, dictionary learning.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 443
463 Variogram Fitting Based on the Wilcoxon Norm

Authors: Hazem Al-Mofleh, John Daniels, Joseph McKean

Abstract:

Within geostatistics research, effective estimation of the variogram points has been examined, particularly in developing robust alternatives. The parametric fit of these variogram points which eventually defines the kriging weights, however, has not received the same attention from a robust perspective. This paper proposes the use of the non-linear Wilcoxon norm over weighted non-linear least squares as a robust variogram fitting alternative. First, we introduce the concept of variogram estimation and fitting. Then, as an alternative to non-linear weighted least squares, we discuss the non-linear Wilcoxon estimator. Next, the robustness properties of the non-linear Wilcoxon are demonstrated using a contaminated spatial data set. Finally, under simulated conditions, increasing levels of contaminated spatial processes have their variograms points estimated and fit. In the fitting of these variogram points, both non-linear Weighted Least Squares and non-linear Wilcoxon fits are examined for efficiency. At all levels of contamination (including 0%), using a robust estimation and robust fitting procedure, the non-weighted Wilcoxon outperforms weighted Least Squares.

Keywords: Non-Linear Wilcoxon, robust estimation, Variogram estimation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 756
462 A Comparison of the Sum of Squares in Linear and Partial Linear Regression Models

Authors: Dursun Aydın

Abstract:

In this paper, estimation of the linear regression model is made by ordinary least squares method and the partially linear regression model is estimated by penalized least squares method using smoothing spline. Then, it is investigated that differences and similarity in the sum of squares related for linear regression and partial linear regression models (semi-parametric regression models). It is denoted that the sum of squares in linear regression is reduced to sum of squares in partial linear regression models. Furthermore, we indicated that various sums of squares in the linear regression are similar to different deviance statements in partial linear regression. In addition to, coefficient of the determination derived in linear regression model is easily generalized to coefficient of the determination of the partial linear regression model. For this aim, it is made two different applications. A simulated and a real data set are considered to prove the claim mentioned here. In this way, this study is supported with a simulation and a real data example.

Keywords: Partial Linear Regression Model, Linear RegressionModel, Residuals, Deviance, Smoothing Spline.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1637
461 Relationship between Sums of Squares in Linear Regression and Semi-parametric Regression

Authors: Dursun Aydın, Bilgin Senel

Abstract:

In this paper, the sum of squares in linear regression is reduced to sum of squares in semi-parametric regression. We indicated that different sums of squares in the linear regression are similar to various deviance statements in semi-parametric regression. In addition to, coefficient of the determination derived in linear regression model is easily generalized to coefficient of the determination of the semi-parametric regression model. Then, it is made an application in order to support the theory of the linear regression and semi-parametric regression. In this way, study is supported with a simulated data example.

Keywords: Semi-parametric regression, Penalized LeastSquares, Residuals, Deviance, Smoothing Spline.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1593
460 Orthogonal Regression for Nonparametric Estimation of Errors-in-Variables Models

Authors: Anastasiia Yu. Timofeeva

Abstract:

Two new algorithms for nonparametric estimation of errors-in-variables models are proposed. The first algorithm is based on penalized regression spline. The spline is represented as a piecewise-linear function and for each linear portion orthogonal regression is estimated. This algorithm is iterative. The second algorithm involves locally weighted regression estimation. When the independent variable is measured with error such estimation is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. The simulation results have shown the advantage of the second algorithm under the assumption that true smoothing parameters values are known. Nevertheless the use of some indexes of fit to smoothing parameters selection gives the similar results and has an oversmoothing effect.

Keywords: Grade point average, orthogonal regression, penalized regression spline, locally weighted regression.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1908
459 A Modified Genetic Based Technique for Solving the Power System State Estimation Problem

Authors: A. A. Hossam-Eldin, E. N. Abdallah, M. S. El-Nozahy

Abstract:

Power system state estimation is the process of calculating a reliable estimate of the power system state vector composed of bus voltages' angles and magnitudes from telemetered measurements on the system. This estimate of the state vector provides the description of the system necessary for the operation and security monitoring. Many methods are described in the literature for solving the state estimation problem, the most important of which are the classical weighted least squares method and the nondeterministic genetic based method; however both showed drawbacks. In this paper a modified version of the genetic algorithm power system state estimation is introduced, Sensitivity of the proposed algorithm to genetic operators is discussed, the algorithm is applied to case studies and finally it is compared with the classical weighted least squares method formulation.

Keywords: Genetic algorithms, ill-conditioning, state estimation, weighted least squares.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1363
458 Integrating Process Planning, WMS Dispatching, and WPPW Weighted Due Date Assignment Using a Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Halil Ibrahim Demir, Tarık Cakar, Ibrahim Cil, Muharrem Dugenci, Caner Erden

Abstract:

Conventionally, process planning, scheduling, and due-date assignment functions are performed separately and sequentially. The interdependence of these functions requires integration. Although integrated process planning and scheduling, and scheduling with due date assignment problems are popular research topics, only a few works address the integration of these three functions. This work focuses on the integration of process planning, WMS scheduling, and WPPW due date assignment. Another novelty of this work is the use of a weighted due date assignment. In the literature, due dates are generally assigned without considering the importance of customers. However, in this study, more important customers get closer due dates. Typically, only tardiness is punished, but the JIT philosophy punishes both earliness and tardiness. In this study, all weighted earliness, tardiness, and due date related costs are penalized. As no customer desires distant due dates, such distant due dates should be penalized. In this study, various levels of integration of these three functions are tested and genetic search and random search are compared both with each other and with ordinary solutions. Higher integration levels are superior, while search is always useful. Genetic searches outperformed random searches.

Keywords: Process planning, weighted scheduling, weighted due-date assignment, genetic algorithm, random search.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 988
457 A Note on Penalized Power-Divergence Test Statistics

Authors: Aylin Alin

Abstract:

In this paper, penalized power-divergence test statistics have been defined and their exact size properties to test a nested sequence of log-linear models have been compared with ordinary power-divergence test statistics for various penalization, λ and main effect values. Since the ordinary and penalized power-divergence test statistics have the same asymptotic distribution, comparisons have been only made for small and moderate samples. Three-way contingency tables distributed according to a multinomial distribution have been considered. Simulation results reveal that penalized power-divergence test statistics perform much better than their ordinary counterparts.

Keywords: Contingency table, Log-linear models, Penalization, Power-divergence measure, Penalized power-divergence measure.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1041
456 Hybrid Artificial Bee Colony and Least Squares Method for Rule-Based Systems Learning

Authors: Ahcene Habbi, Yassine Boudouaoui

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of automatic rule generation for fuzzy systems design. The proposed approach is based on hybrid artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization and weighted least squares (LS) method and aims to find the structure and parameters of fuzzy systems simultaneously. More precisely, two ABC based fuzzy modeling strategies are presented and compared. The first strategy uses global optimization to learn fuzzy models, the second one hybridizes ABC and weighted least squares estimate method. The performances of the proposed ABC and ABC-LS fuzzy modeling strategies are evaluated on complex modeling problems and compared to other advanced modeling methods.

Keywords: Automatic design, learning, fuzzy rules, hybrid, swarm optimization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1869
455 The Relative Efficiency of Parameter Estimation in Linear Weighted Regression

Authors: Baoguang Tian, Nan Chen

Abstract:

A new relative efficiency in linear model in reference is instructed into the linear weighted regression, and its upper and lower bound are proposed. In the linear weighted regression model, for the best linear unbiased estimation of mean matrix respect to the least-squares estimation, two new relative efficiencies are given, and their upper and lower bounds are also studied.

Keywords: Linear weighted regression, Relative efficiency, Mean matrix, Trace.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2220
454 Generalised Slant Weighted Toeplitz Operator

Authors: S. C. Arora, Ritu Kathuria

Abstract:

A slant weighted Toeplitz operator Aφ is an operator on L2(β) defined as Aφ = WMφ where Mφ is the weighted multiplication operator and W is an operator on L2(β) given by We2n = βn β2n en, {en}n∈Z being the orthonormal basis. In this paper, we generalise Aφ to the k-th order slant weighted Toeplitz operator Uφ and study its properties.

Keywords: Slant weighted Toeplitz operator, weighted multiplicationoperator.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 893
453 Design of Two-Channel Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks Using Digital All-Pass Filters

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Yi-Lin Shieh

Abstract:

The paper deals with the minimax design of two-channel linear-phase (LP) quadrature mirror filter (QMF) banks using infinite impulse response (IIR) digital all-pass filters (DAFs). Based on the theory of two-channel QMF banks using two IIR DAFs, the design problem is appropriately formulated to result in an appropriate Chebyshev approximation for the desired group delay responses of the IIR DAFs and the magnitude response of the low-pass analysis filter. Through a frequency sampling and iterative approximation method, the design problem can be solved by utilizing a weighted least squares approach. The resulting two-channel QMF banks can possess approximately LP response without magnitude distortion. Simulation results are presented for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: Chebyshev approximation, Digital All-Pass Filter, Quadrature Mirror Filter, Weighted Least Squares.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2412
452 Duration Analysis of New Firms in the Banking Industry

Authors: Jesus Orbe, Vicente Nunez-Anton

Abstract:

This paper studies the duration or survival time of commercial banks active in the Moscovian three month Rouble deposits market, during the 1994-1997 period. The privatization process of the Russian commercial banking industry, after the 1988 banking reform, caused a massive entry of new banks followed by a period of high rates of exit. As a consequence, many firms went bankrupt without refunding their deposits. Therefore, both for the banks and for the banks- depositors, it is of interest to analyze which are the significant characteristics that motivate the exit or the closing of the bank. We propose a different methodology based on penalized weighted least squares which represents a very general, flexible and innovative approach for this type of analysis. The more relevant results are that smaller banks exit sooner, banks that enter the market in the last part of the study have shorter durations. As expected, the more experienced banks have a longer duration in the market. In addition, the mean survival time is lower for banks which offer extreme interest rates.

Keywords: Banking, censored, duration, Kaplan-Meier.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1299
451 A Weighted Least Square Algorithm for Low-Delay FIR Filters with Piecewise Variable Stopbands

Authors: Yasunori Sugita, Toshinori Yoshikawa, Naoyuki Aikawa

Abstract:

Variable digital filters are useful for various signal processing and communication applications where the frequency characteristics, such as fractional delays and cutoff frequencies, can be varied. In this paper, we propose a design method of variable FIR digital filters with an approximate linear phase characteristic in the passband. The proposed variable FIR filters have some large attenuation in stopband and their large attenuation can be varied by spectrum parameters. In the proposed design method, a quasi-equiripple characteristic can be obtained by using an iterative weighted least square method. The usefulness of the proposed design method is verified through some examples.

Keywords: Weighted Least Squares Approximation, Variable FIR Filters, Low-Delay, Quasi-Equiripple

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1300
450 Least Squares Method Identification of Corona Current-Voltage Characteristics and Electromagnetic Field in Electrostatic Precipitator

Authors: H. Nouri, I. E. Achouri, A. Grimes, H. Ait Said, M. Aissou, Y. Zebboudj

Abstract:

This paper aims to analysis the behavior of DC corona discharge in wire-to-plate electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Currentvoltage curves are particularly analyzed. Experimental results show that discharge current is strongly affected by the applied voltage. The proposed method of current identification is to use the method of least squares. Least squares problems that of into two categories: linear or ordinary least squares and non-linear least squares, depending on whether or not the residuals are linear in all unknowns. The linear least-squares problem occurs in statistical regression analysis; it has a closed-form solution. A closed-form solution (or closed form expression) is any formula that can be evaluated in a finite number of standard operations. The non-linear problem has no closed-form solution and is usually solved by iterative.

Keywords: Electrostatic precipitator, current-voltage characteristics, Least Squares method, electric field, magnetic field.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1660
449 Optimal Design of Two-Channel Recursive Parallelogram Quadrature Mirror Filter Banks

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Yi-Lin Shieh

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimal design of two-channel recursive parallelogram quadrature mirror filter (PQMF) banks. The analysis and synthesis filters of the PQMF bank are composed of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive digital all-pass filters (DAFs) with nonsymmetric half-plane (NSHP) support region. The design problem can be facilitated by using the 2-D doubly complementary half-band (DC-HB) property possessed by the analysis and synthesis filters. For finding the coefficients of the 2-D recursive NSHP DAFs, we appropriately formulate the design problem to result in an optimization problem that can be solved by using a weighted least-squares (WLS) algorithm in the minimax (L) optimal sense. The designed 2-D recursive PQMF bank achieves perfect magnitude response and possesses satisfactory phase response without requiring extra phase equalizer. Simulation results are also provided for illustration and comparison.

Keywords: Parallelogram Quadrature Mirror Filter Bank, Doubly Complementary Filter, Nonsymmetric Half-Plane Filter, Weighted Least Squares Algorithm, Digital All-Pass Filter.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1312
448 An Adaptive Least-squares Mixed Finite Element Method for Pseudo-parabolic Integro-differential Equations

Authors: Zilong Feng, Hong Li, Yang Liu, Siriguleng He

Abstract:

In this article, an adaptive least-squares mixed finite element method is studied for pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equations. The solutions of least-squares mixed weak formulation and mixed finite element are proved. A posteriori error estimator is constructed based on the least-squares functional and the posteriori errors are obtained.

Keywords: Pseudo-parabolic integro-differential equation, least squares mixed finite element method, adaptive method, a posteriori error estimates.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1075
447 Wavelet Based Identification of Second Order Linear System

Authors: Sudipta Majumdar, Harish Parthasarathy

Abstract:

In this paper, a wavelet based method is proposed to identify the constant coefficients of a second order linear system and is compared with the least squares method. The proposed method shows improved accuracy of parameter estimation as compared to the least squares method. Additionally, it has the advantage of smaller data requirement and storage requirement as compared to the least squares method.

Keywords: Least squares method, linear system, system identification, wavelet transform.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1303
446 Weighted Composition Operators Acting between Kind of Weighted Bergman-Type Spaces and the Bers-Type Space

Authors: Amnah E. Shammahy

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the boundedness and compactness of the weighted composition operator Wu,φ, which is induced by an holomorphic function u and holomorphic self-map φ, acting between the NK-space and the Bers-type space Hα on the unit disk.

Keywords: Weighted composition operators, NK-space, Bers-type space.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1378
445 Some Constructions of Non-Commutative Latin Squares of Order n

Authors: H. V. Chen, A. Y. M. Chin, S. Sharmini

Abstract:

Let n be an integer. We show the existence of at least three non-isomorphic non-commutative Latin squares of order n which are embeddable in groups when n ≥ 5 is odd. By using a similar construction for the case when n ≥ 4 is even, we show that certain non-commutative Latin squares of order n are not embeddable in groups.

Keywords: group, Latin square, embedding.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1549
444 An Iterative Method for the Least-squares Symmetric Solution of AXB+CYD=F and its Application

Authors: Minghui Wang

Abstract:

Based on the classical algorithm LSQR for solving (unconstrained) LS problem, an iterative method is proposed for the least-squares like-minimum-norm symmetric solution of AXB+CYD=E. As the application of this algorithm, an iterative method for the least-squares like-minimum-norm biymmetric solution of AXB=E is also obtained. Numerical results are reported that show the efficiency of the proposed methods.

Keywords: Matrix equation, bisymmetric matrix, least squares problem, like-minimum norm, iterative algorithm.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1252
443 Dependent Weighted Aggregation Operators of Hesitant Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: Jing Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, motivated by the ideas of dependent weighted aggregation operators, we develop some new hesitant fuzzy dependent weighted aggregation operators to aggregate the input arguments taking the form of hesitant fuzzy numbers rather than exact numbers, or intervals. In fact, we propose three hesitant fuzzy dependent weighted averaging(HFDWA) operators, and three hesitant fuzzy dependent weighted geometric(HFDWG) operators based on different weight vectors, and the most prominent characteristic of these operators is that the associated weights only depend on the aggregated hesitant fuzzy numbers and can relieve the influence of unfair hesitant fuzzy numbers on the aggregated results by assigning low weights to those “false” and “biased” ones. Some examples are given to illustrated the efficiency of the proposed operators.

Keywords: Hesitant fuzzy numbers, hesitant fuzzy dependent weighted averaging(HFDWA) operators, hesitant fuzzy dependent weighted geometric(HFDWG) operators.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1527
442 A Fuzzy Nonlinear Regression Model for Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets

Authors: O. Poleshchuk, E.Komarov

Abstract:

This paper presents a regression model for interval type-2 fuzzy sets based on the least squares estimation technique. Unknown coefficients are assumed to be triangular fuzzy numbers. The basic idea is to determine aggregation intervals for type-1 fuzzy sets, membership functions of whose are low membership function and upper membership function of interval type-2 fuzzy set. These aggregation intervals were called weighted intervals. Low and upper membership functions of input and output interval type-2 fuzzy sets for developed regression models are considered as piecewise linear functions.

Keywords: Interval type-2 fuzzy sets, fuzzy regression, weighted interval.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1938
441 Order Reduction by Least-Squares Methods about General Point ''a''

Authors: Integral square error, Least-squares, Markovparameters, Moment matching, Order reduction.

Abstract:

The concept of order reduction by least-squares moment matching and generalised least-squares methods has been extended about a general point ?a?, to obtain the reduced order models for linear, time-invariant dynamic systems. Some heuristic criteria have been employed for selecting the linear shift point ?a?, based upon the means (arithmetic, harmonic and geometric) of real parts of the poles of high order system. It is shown that the resultant model depends critically on the choice of linear shift point ?a?. The validity of the criteria is illustrated by solving a numerical example and the results are compared with the other existing techniques.

Keywords: Integral square error, Least-squares, Markovparameters, Moment matching, Order reduction.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1460
440 Extended Least Squares LS–SVM

Authors: József Valyon, Gábor Horváth

Abstract:

Among neural models the Support Vector Machine (SVM) solutions are attracting increasing attention, mostly because they eliminate certain crucial questions involved by neural network construction. The main drawback of standard SVM is its high computational complexity, therefore recently a new technique, the Least Squares SVM (LS–SVM) has been introduced. In this paper we present an extended view of the Least Squares Support Vector Regression (LS–SVR), which enables us to develop new formulations and algorithms to this regression technique. Based on manipulating the linear equation set -which embodies all information about the regression in the learning process- some new methods are introduced to simplify the formulations, speed up the calculations and/or provide better results.

Keywords: Function estimation, Least–Squares Support VectorMachines, Regression, System Modeling

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1610
439 The Intuitionistic Fuzzy Ordered Weighted Averaging-Weighted Average Operator and its Application in Financial Decision Making

Authors: Shouzhen Zeng

Abstract:

We present a new intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation operator called the intuitionistic fuzzy ordered weighted averaging-weighted average (IFOWAWA) operator. The main advantage of the IFOWAWA operator is that it unifies the OWA operator with the WA in the same formulation considering the degree of importance that each concept has in the aggregation. Moreover, it is able to deal with an uncertain environment that can be assessed with intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. We study some of its main properties and we see that it has a lot of particular cases such as the intuitionistic fuzzy weighted average (IFWA) and the intuitionistic fuzzy OWA (IFOWA) operator. Finally, we study the applicability of the new approach on a financial decision making problem concerning the selection of financial strategies.

Keywords: Intuitionistic fuzzy numbers, Weighted average, OWA operator, Financial decision making

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2100
438 Public Squares and Their Potential for Social Interactions: A Case Study of Historical Public Squares in Tehran

Authors: Asma Mehan

Abstract:

Under the thrust of technological changes, population growth and vehicular traffic, Iranian historical squares have lost their significance and they are no longer the main social nodes of the society. This research focuses on how historical public squares can inspire designers to enhance social interactions among citizens in Iranian urban context. Moreover, the recent master plan of Tehran demonstrates the lack of public spaces designed for the purpose of people’s social gatherings. For filling this gap, first the current situation of 7 selected primary historical public squares in Tehran including Sabze Meydan, Arg, Topkhaneh, Baherstan, Mokhber-al-dole, Rah Ahan and Hassan Abad have been compared. Later, the influencing elements on social interactions of the public squares such as subjective factors (human relationships and memories) and objective factors (natural and built environment) have been investigated. As a conclusion, some strategies are proposed for improving social interactions in historical public squares like; holding cultural, national, athletic and religious events, defining different and new functions in public squares’ surrounding, increasing pedestrian routs, reviving the collective memory, demonstrating the historical importance of square, eliminating visual obstacles across the square, organization the natural elements of the square, appropriate pavement for social activities. Finally, it is argued that the combination of all influencing factors which are: human interactions, natural elements and built environment criteria will lead to enhance the historical public squares’ potential for social interaction.

Keywords: Historical Square, Iranian Public Square, Social Interaction, Tehran.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2629
437 An Effective Algorithm for Minimum Weighted Vertex Cover Problem

Authors: S. Balaji, V. Swaminathan, K. Kannan

Abstract:

The Minimum Weighted Vertex Cover (MWVC) problem is a classic graph optimization NP - complete problem. Given an undirected graph G = (V, E) and weighting function defined on the vertex set, the minimum weighted vertex cover problem is to find a vertex set S V whose total weight is minimum subject to every edge of G has at least one end point in S. In this paper an effective algorithm, called Support Ratio Algorithm (SRA), is designed to find the minimum weighted vertex cover of a graph. Computational experiments are designed and conducted to study the performance of our proposed algorithm. Extensive simulation results show that the SRA can yield better solutions than other existing algorithms found in the literature for solving the minimum vertex cover problem.

Keywords: Weighted vertex cover, vertex support, approximation algorithms, NP-complete problem.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3507
436 Sample-Weighted Fuzzy Clustering with Regularizations

Authors: Miin-Shen Yang, Yee-Shan Pan

Abstract:

Although there have been many researches in cluster analysis to consider on feature weights, little effort is made on sample weights. Recently, Yu et al. (2011) considered a probability distribution over a data set to represent its sample weights and then proposed sample-weighted clustering algorithms. In this paper, we give a sample-weighted version of generalized fuzzy clustering regularization (GFCR), called the sample-weighted GFCR (SW-GFCR). Some experiments are considered. These experimental results and comparisons demonstrate that the proposed SW-GFCR is more effective than the most clustering algorithms.

Keywords: Clustering; fuzzy c-means, fuzzy clustering, sample weights, regularization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1527
435 OWA Operators in Generalized Distances

Authors: José M. Merigó, Anna M. Gil-Lafuente

Abstract:

Different types of aggregation operators such as the ordered weighted quasi-arithmetic mean (Quasi-OWA) operator and the normalized Hamming distance are studied. We introduce the use of the OWA operator in generalized distances such as the quasiarithmetic distance. We will call these new distance aggregation the ordered weighted quasi-arithmetic distance (Quasi-OWAD) operator. We develop a general overview of this type of generalization and study some of their main properties such as the distinction between descending and ascending orders. We also consider different families of Quasi-OWAD operators such as the Minkowski ordered weighted averaging distance (MOWAD) operator, the ordered weighted averaging distance (OWAD) operator, the Euclidean ordered weighted averaging distance (EOWAD) operator, the normalized quasi-arithmetic distance, etc.

Keywords: Aggregation operators, Distance measures, Quasi- OWA operator.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1398