Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2965

Search results for: Relative efficiency

2965 The New Relative Efficiency Based on the Least Eigenvalue in Generalized Linear Model

Authors: Chao Yuan, Bao Guang Tian

Abstract:

A new relative efficiency is defined as LSE and BLUE in the generalized linear model. The relative efficiency is based on the ratio of the least eigenvalues. In this paper, we discuss about its lower bound and the relationship between it and generalized relative coefficient. Finally, this paper proves that the new estimation is better under Stein function and special condition in some degree.

Keywords: Generalized linear model, generalized relative coefficient, least eigenvalue, relative efficiency.

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2964 The Relative Efficiency Based on the MSE in Generalized Ridge Estimate

Authors: Chao Yuan, Bao Guang Tian

Abstract:

A relative efficiency is defined as Ridge Estimate in the general linear model. The relative efficiency is based on the Mean square error. In this paper, we put forward a parameter of Ridge Estimate and discussions are made on the relative efficiency between the ridge estimation and the General Ridge Estimate. Eventually, this paper proves that the estimation is better than the general ridge estimate, which is based on the MSE.

Keywords: Ridge estimate, generalized ridge estimate, MSE, relative efficiency.

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2963 The Study of Relative Efficiency in Growth Curve Model

Authors: Nan Chen, Baoguang Tian

Abstract:

In this paper, some relative efficiency have been discussed, including the LSE estimate with respect to BLUE in curve model. Four new kinds of relative efficiency have defined, and their upper bounds have been discussed.

Keywords: Relative efficiency, LSE estimate, BLUE estimate, Upper bound, Curve model.

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2962 The Relative Efficiency of Parameter Estimation in Linear Weighted Regression

Authors: Baoguang Tian, Nan Chen

Abstract:

A new relative efficiency in linear model in reference is instructed into the linear weighted regression, and its upper and lower bound are proposed. In the linear weighted regression model, for the best linear unbiased estimation of mean matrix respect to the least-squares estimation, two new relative efficiencies are given, and their upper and lower bounds are also studied.

Keywords: Linear weighted regression, Relative efficiency, Mean matrix, Trace.

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2961 Measuring Relative Efficiency of Korean Construction Company using DEA/Window

Authors: Jung-Lo Park, Sung-Sik Kim, Sun-Young Choi, Ju-Hyung Kim, Jae-Jun Kim

Abstract:

Sub-prime mortgage crisis which began in the US is regarded as the most economic crisis since the Great Depression in the early 20th century. Especially, hidden problems on efficient operation of a business were disclosed at a time and many financial institutions went bankrupt and filed for court receivership. The collapses of physical market lead to bankruptcy of manufacturing and construction businesses. This study is to analyze dynamic efficiency of construction businesses during the five years at the turn of the global financial crisis. By discovering the trend and stability of efficiency of a construction business, this study-s objective is to improve management efficiency of a construction business in the ever-changing construction market. Variables were selected by analyzing corporate information on top 20 construction businesses in Korea and analyzed for static efficiency in 2008 and dynamic efficiency between 2006 and 2010. Unlike other studies, this study succeeded in deducing efficiency trend and stability of a construction business for five years by using the DEA/Window model. Using the analysis result, efficient and inefficient companies could be figured out. In addition, relative efficiency among DMU was measured by comparing the relationship between input and output variables of construction businesses. This study can be used as a literature to improve management efficiency for companies with low efficiency based on efficiency analysis of construction businesses.

Keywords: Construction Company, DEA, DEA/Window, Efficiency Analysis

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2960 The Influence of the Inlet Conditions on the Airside Heat Transfer Performance of Plain Finned Evaporator

Authors: Abdenour Bourabaa, Mohamed Saighi, Ibrahim Belal

Abstract:

A numerical study has been conducted to investigate the influence of fin pitch and relative humidity on the heat transfer performance of the fin-and-tube heat exchangers having plain fin geometry under dehumidifying conditions. The analysis is done using the ratio between the heat transfer coefficients in totally wet conditions and those in totally dry conditions using the appropriate correlations for both dry and wet conditions. For a constant relative humidity, it is found that the heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase of the air frontal velocity. By contrast, the fin efficiency decreases when the face velocity is increased. Apparently, this phenomenon is attributed to the path of condensate drainage. For the influence of relative humidity, the results showed an increase in heat transfer performance and a decrease in wet fin efficiency when relative humidity increases. This is due to the higher amount of mass transfer encountered at higher relative humidity. However, it is found that the effect of fin pitch on the heat transfer performance depends strongly on the face velocity. At lower frontal velocity the heat transfer increases with fin pitch. Conversely, an increase in fin pitch gives lower heat transfer coefficients when air velocity is increased.

Keywords: Dehumidifying conditions, Fin efficiency, Heat andmass transfer, Heat exchangers.

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2959 Experimental Characterization of a Thermoacoustic Travelling-Wave Refrigerator

Authors: M. Pierens, J.-P. Thermeau, T. Le Pollès, P. Duthil

Abstract:

The performances of a thermoacoustic travelling-wave refrigerator are presented. Developed in the frame of the European project called THATEA, it is designed for providing 600 W at a temperature of 233 K with an efficiency of 40 % relative to the Carnot efficiency. This paper presents the device and the results of the first measurements. For a cooling power of 210 W, a coefficient of performance relative to Carnot of 30 % is achieved when the refrigerator is coupled with an existing standing-wave engine.

Keywords: Refrigeration, sustainable energy, thermoacoustics, travelling-wave type heat pump

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2958 Exergy Based Performance Analysis of a Gas Turbine Unit at Various Ambient Conditions

Authors: Idris A. Elfeituri

Abstract:

This paper studies the effect of ambient conditions on the performance of a 285 MW gas turbine unit using the exergy concept. Based on the available exergy balance models developed, a computer program has been constructed to investigate the performance of the power plant under varying ambient temperature and relative humidity conditions. The variations of ambient temperature range from zero to 50 ºC and the relative humidity ranges from zero to 100%, while the unit load kept constant at 100% of the design load. The exergy destruction ratio and exergy efficiency are determined for each component and for the entire plant. The results show a moderate increase in the total exergy destruction ratio of the plant from 62.05% to 65.20%, while the overall exergy efficiency decrease from 38.2% to 34.8% as the ambient temperature increases from zero to 50 ºC at all relative humidity values. Furthermore, an increase of 1 ºC in ambient temperature leads to 0.063% increase in the total exergy destruction ratio and 0.07% decrease in the overall exergy efficiency. The relative humidity has a remarkable influence at higher ambient temperature values on the exergy destruction ratio of combustion chamber and on exergy loss ratio of the exhaust gas but almost no effect on the total exergy destruction ratio and overall exergy efficiency. At 50 ºC ambient temperature, the exergy destruction ratio of the combustion chamber increases from 30% to 52% while the exergy loss ratio of the exhaust gas decreases from 28% to 8% as the relative humidity increases from zero to 100%. In addition, exergy analysis reveals that the combustion chamber and exhaust gas are the main source of irreversibility in the gas turbine unit. It is also identified that the exergy efficiency and exergy destruction ratio are considerably dependent on the variations in the ambient air temperature and relative humidity. Therefore, the incorporation of the existing gas turbine plant with inlet air cooling and humidifier technologies should be considered seriously.

Keywords: Destruction, exergy, gas turbine, irreversibility, performance.

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2957 Two New Relative Efficiencies of Linear Weighted Regression

Authors: Shuimiao Wan, Chao Yuan, Baoguang Tian

Abstract:

In statistics parameter theory, usually the parameter estimations have two kinds, one is the least-square estimation (LSE), and the other is the best linear unbiased estimation (BLUE). Due to the determining theorem of minimum variance unbiased estimator (MVUE), the parameter estimation of BLUE in linear model is most ideal. But since the calculations are complicated or the covariance is not given, people are hardly to get the solution. Therefore, people prefer to use LSE rather than BLUE. And this substitution will take some losses. To quantize the losses, many scholars have presented many kinds of different relative efficiencies in different views. For the linear weighted regression model, this paper discusses the relative efficiencies of LSE of β to BLUE of β. It also defines two new relative efficiencies and gives their lower bounds.

Keywords: Linear weighted regression, Relative efficiency, Lower bound, Parameter estimation.

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2956 On the Efficiency of a Double-Cone Gravitational Motor and Generator

Authors: Barenten Suciu, Akio Miyamura

Abstract:

In this paper, following the study-case of an inclined plane gravitational machine, efficiency of a double-cone gravitational motor and generator is evaluated. Two types of efficiency ratios, called translational efficiency and rotational efficiency, are defined relative to the intended duty of the gravitational machine, which can be either the production of translational kinetic energy, or rotational kinetic energy. One proved that, for pure rolling movement of the double- cone, in the absence of rolling friction, the total mechanical energy is conserved. In such circumstances, as the motion of the double-cone progresses along rails, the translational efficiency decreases and the rotational efficiency increases, in such way that sum of the rotational and translational efficiencies remains unchanged and equal to 1. Results obtained allow a comparison of the gravitational machine with other types of motor-generators, in terms of the achievable efficiency.

Keywords: Truncated double-cone, friction, rolling and sliding, efficiency, gravitational motor and generator.

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2955 Data Envelopment Analysis with Partially Perfect Objects

Authors: Alexander Y. Vaninsky

Abstract:

This paper presents a simplified version of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) - a conventional approach to evaluating the performance and ranking of competitive objects characterized by two groups of factors acting in opposite directions: inputs and outputs. DEA with a Perfect Object (DEA PO) augments the group of actual objects with a virtual Perfect Object - the one having greatest outputs and smallest inputs. It allows for obtaining an explicit analytical solution and making a step to an absolute efficiency. This paper develops this approach further and introduces a DEA model with Partially Perfect Objects. DEA PPO consecutively eliminates the smallest relative inputs or greatest relative outputs, and applies DEA PO to the reduced collections of indicators. The partial efficiency scores are combined to get the weighted efficiency score. The computational scheme remains simple, like that of DEA PO, but the advantage of the DEA PPO is taking into account all of the inputs and outputs for each actual object. Firm evaluation is considered as an example.

Keywords: Data Envelopment Analysis, Perfect object, Partially perfect object, Partial efficiency, Explicit solution, Simplified algorithm.

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2954 Study on the Heat Transfer Performance of the Annular Fin under Condensing Conditions

Authors: Abdenour Bourabaa, Malika Fekih, Mohamed Saighi

Abstract:

A numerical investigation of the fin efficiency and temperature distribution of an annular fin under dehumidification has been presented in this paper. The non-homogeneous second order differential equation that describes the temperature distribution from the fin base to the fin tip has been solved using the central finite difference method. The effects of variations in parameters including relative humidity, air temperature, air face velocity on temperature distribution and fin efficiency are investigated and compared with those under fully dry fin conditions. Also, the effect of fin pitch on the dimensionless temperature has been studied.

Keywords: Annular fin, Dehumidification, Fin efficiency, Heat and mass transfer, Wet fin.

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2953 A Study of Relationship between WBGT and Relative Humidity to Worker Performance

Authors: A.R. Ismail, M. R. A. Rani, Z. K. M. Makhbul, M. J. M. Nor, M. N. A. Rahman

Abstract:

The environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity are very contribute to the effect of comfort, health, performance and worker productivity. To ensure an ergonomics work environment, it is possible to require a specific attention especially in industries. The aim of this study is to show the effect of temperature and relative humidity on worker productivity in automotive industry by taking a workstation in an automotive plant as the location to conduct the study. From the analysis of the data, there were relationship between temperature and relative humidity on worker productivity. Mathematical equation to represent the relationship between temperatures and relative humidity on the production rate is modelled. From the equation model, the production rate for the workstation can be predicted base on the value of temperature and relative humidity.

Keywords: WBGT, Relative Humidity, Comfort, Productivity.

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2952 Relative Navigation with Laser-Based Intermittent Measurement for Formation Flying Satellites

Authors: Jongwoo Lee, Dae-Eun Kang, Sang-Young Park

Abstract:

This study presents a precise relative navigational method for satellites flying in formation using laser-based intermittent measurement data. The measurement data for the relative navigation between two satellites consist of a relative distance measured by a laser instrument and relative attitude angles measured by attitude determination. The relative navigation solutions are estimated by both the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The solutions estimated by the EKF may become inaccurate or even diverge as measurement outage time gets longer because the EKF utilizes a linearization approach. However, this study shows that the UKF with the appropriate scaling parameters provides a stable and accurate relative navigation solutions despite the long measurement outage time and large initial error as compared to the relative navigation solutions of the EKF. Various navigation results have been analyzed by adjusting the scaling parameters of the UKF.

Keywords: Satellite relative navigation, laser-based measurement, intermittent measurement, unscented kalman filter.

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2951 Fuzzy Logic Based Determination of Battery Charging Efficiency Applied to Hybrid Power System

Authors: Priyanka Paliwal, N. P. Patidar, R. K. Nema

Abstract:

Battery storage system is emerging as an essential component of hybrid power system based on renewable energy resources such as solar and wind in order to make these sources dispatchable. Accurate modeling of battery storage system is ssential in order to ensure optimal planning of hybrid power systems incorporating battery storage. Majority of the system planning studies involving battery storage assume battery charging efficiency to be constant. However a strong correlation exists between battery charging efficiency and battery state of charge. In this work a Fuzzy logic based model has been presented for determining battery charging efficiency relative to a particular SOC. In order to demonstrate the efficacy of proposed approach, reliability evaluation studies are carried out for a hypothetical autonomous hybrid power system located in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, India. The impact of considering battery charging efficiency as a function of state of charge is compared against the assumption of fixed battery charging efficiency for three different configurations comprising of wind-storage, solar-storage and wind-solar-storage.

Keywords: Battery Storage, Charging efficiency, Fuzzy Logic, Hybrid Power System, Reliability

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2950 Institutional Efficiency of Commonhold Industrial Parks Using a Polynomial Regression Model

Authors: Jeng-Wen Lin, Simon Chien-Yuan Chen

Abstract:

Based on assumptions of neo-classical economics and rational choice / public choice theory, this paper investigates the regulation of industrial land use in Taiwan by homeowners associations (HOAs) as opposed to traditional government administration. The comparison, which applies the transaction cost theory and a polynomial regression analysis, manifested that HOAs are superior to conventional government administration in terms of transaction costs and overall efficiency. A case study that compares Taiwan-s commonhold industrial park, NangKang Software Park, to traditional government counterparts using limited data on the costs and returns was analyzed. This empirical study on the relative efficiency of governmental and private institutions justified the important theoretical proposition. Numerical results prove the efficiency of the established model.

Keywords: Homeowners Associations, Institutional Efficiency, Polynomial Regression, Transaction Cost.

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2949 Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Efficiency within the Production Process

Authors: S. Kreitlein, N. Eder, A. Syed-Khaja, J. Franke

Abstract:

The importance of energy efficiency within the production processes increases steadily. For a comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency within the production process, unfortunately no tools exist or have been developed yet. Therefore the Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg has developed two methods with the goal of achieving transparency and a quantitative assessment of energy efficiency namely EEV (Energy Efficiency Value) and EPE (Energetic Process Efficiency). This paper describes the basics and state-of-the-art as well as the developed approaches.

Keywords: Energy efficiency, energy efficiency value, energetic process efficiency, production.

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2948 Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) as an Index Measurement for Power Transmission Grid Performance

Authors: Ahmad Abubakar Sadiq, Mark N. Nwohu, Jacob Tsado, Ahmad A. Ashraf, Agbachi E. Okenna, Enesi E. Yahaya, Ambafi James Garba

Abstract:

Transmission system performance analysis is vital to proper planning and operations of power systems in the presence of deregulation. Key performance indicators (KPIs) are often used as measure of degree of performance. This paper gives a novel method to determine the transmission efficiency by evaluating the ratio of real power losses incurred from a specified transfer direction. Available Transmission Transfer Efficiency (ATTE) expresses the percentage of real power received resulting from inter-area available power transfer. The Tie line (Rated system path) performance is seen to differ from system wide (Network response) performance and ATTE values obtained are transfer direction specific. The required sending end quantities with specified receiving end ATC and the receiving end power circle diagram are obtained for the tie line analysis. The amount of real power loss load relative to the available transfer capability gives a measure of the transmission grid efficiency.

Keywords: Available transfer capability, efficiency performance, real power, transmission system.

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2947 Estimation of Relative Self-Localization Based On Natural Landmark and an Improved SURF

Authors: Xing Xiong, Byung-Jae Choi

Abstract:

It is important for an autonomous mobile robot to know where it is in any time in an indoor environment. In this paper, we design a relative self-localization algorithm. The algorithm compare the interest point in two images and compute the relative displacement and orientation to determent the posture. Firstly, we use the SURF algorithm to extract the interest points of the ceiling. Second, in order to reduce amount of calculation, a replacement SURF is used to extract orientation and description of the interest points. At last, according to the transformation of the interest points in two images, the relative self-localization of the mobile robot will be estimated greatly.

Keywords: Relative Self-Localization Posture, SURF, Natural Landmark, Interest Point.

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2946 Experimental Study on Capturing of Magnetic Nanoparticles Transported in an Implant Assisted Cylindrical Tube under Magnetic Field

Authors: Anurag Gaur, Nidhi, Shashi Sharma

Abstract:

Targeted drug delivery is a method of delivering medication to a patient in a manner that increases the concentration of the medication in some parts of the body relative to others. Targeted drug delivery seeks to concentrate the medication in the tissues of interest while reducing the relative concentration of the medication in the remaining tissues. This improves efficacy of the while reducing side effects. In the present work, we investigate the effect of magnetic field, flow rate and particle concentration on the capturing of magnetic particles transported in a stent implanted fluidic channel. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized via co-precipitation method. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles were added in the de-ionized (DI) water to prepare the Fe3O4 magnetic particle suspended fluid. This fluid is transported in a cylindrical tube of diameter 8 mm with help of a peristaltic pump at different flow rate (25-40 ml/min). A ferromagnetic coil of SS 430 has been implanted inside the cylindrical tube to enhance the capturing of magnetic nanoparticles under magnetic field. The capturing of magnetic nanoparticles was observed at different magnetic magnetic field, flow rate and particle concentration. It is observed that capture efficiency increases from 47-67% at magnetic field 2-5kG, respectively at particle concentration 0.6mg/ml and at flow rate 30 ml/min. However, the capture efficiency decreases from 65 to 44% by increasing the flow rate from 25 to 40 ml/min, respectively. Furthermore, it is observed that capture efficiency increases from 51 to 67% by increasing the particle concentration from 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml, respectively.

Keywords: Capture efficiency, Implant assisted-Magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT), Magnetic nanoparticles, in vitro study.

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2945 Heat transfer Characteristics of Fin-and-Tube heat Exchanger under Condensing Conditions

Authors: Abdenour Bourabaa, Mohamed Saighi, Said El Metenani

Abstract:

In the present work an investigation of the effects of the air frontal velocity, relative humidity and dry air temperature on the heat transfer characteristics of plain finned tube evaporator has been conducted. Using an appropriate correlation for the air side heat transfer coefficient the temperature distribution along the fin surface was calculated using a dimensionless temperature distribution. For a constant relative humidity and bulb temperature, it is found that the temperature distribution decreases with increasing air frontal velocity. Apparently, it is attributed to the condensate water film flowing over the fin surface. When dry air temperature and face velocity are being kept constant, the temperature distribution decreases with the increase of inlet relative humidity. An increase in the inlet relative humidity is accompanied by a higher amount of moisture on the fin surface. This results in a higher amount of latent heat transfer which involves higher fin surface temperature. For the influence of dry air temperature, the results here show an increase in the dimensionless temperature parameter with a decrease in bulb temperature. Increasing bulb temperature leads to higher amount of sensible and latent heat transfer when other conditions remain constant.

Keywords: Fin efficiency, heat and mass transfer, dehumidifying conditions, finned tube heat exchangers.

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2944 Improved IDR(s) Method for Gaining Very Accurate Solutions

Authors: Yusuke Onoue, Seiji Fujino, Norimasa Nakashima

Abstract:

The IDR(s) method based on an extended IDR theorem was proposed by Sonneveld and van Gijzen. The original IDR(s) method has excellent property compared with the conventional iterative methods in terms of efficiency and small amount of memory. IDR(s) method, however, has unexpected property that relative residual 2-norm stagnates at the level of less than 10-12. In this paper, an effective strategy for stagnation detection, stagnation avoidance using adaptively information of parameter s and improvement of convergence rate itself of IDR(s) method are proposed in order to gain high accuracy of the approximated solution of IDR(s) method. Through numerical experiments, effectiveness of adaptive tuning IDR(s) method is verified and demonstrated.

Keywords: Krylov subspace methods, IDR(s), adaptive tuning, stagnation of relative residual.

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2943 Non-Parametric, Unconditional Quantile Estimation of Efficiency in Microfinance Institutions

Authors: Komlan Sedzro

Abstract:

We apply the non-parametric, unconditional, hyperbolic order-α quantile estimator to appraise the relative efficiency of Microfinance Institutions in Africa in terms of outreach. Our purpose is to verify if these institutions, which must constantly try to strike a compromise between their social role and financial sustainability are operationally efficient. Using data on African MFIs extracted from the Microfinance Information eXchange (MIX) database and covering the 2004 to 2006 periods, we find that more efficient MFIs are also the most profitable. This result is in line with the view that social performance is not in contradiction with the pursuit of excellent financial performance. Our results also show that large MFIs in terms of asset and those charging the highest fees are not necessarily the most efficient.

Keywords: Data envelopment analysis, microfinance institutions, quantile estimation of efficiency, social and financial performance.

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2942 Flow Behavior and Performances of Centrifugal Compressor Stage Vaneless Diffusers

Authors: Y. Galerkin, O. Solovieva

Abstract:

Parameters of flow are calculated in vaneless diffusers with relative width 0,014–0,10. Inlet angles of flow and similarity criteria were varied. There is information on flow separation, boundary layer development, configuration of streamlines. Polytrophic efficiency, loss coefficient and recovery coefficient are used to compare effectiveness of diffusers. The sample of optimization of narrow diffuser with conical walls is presented. Three wide diffusers with narrowing walls are compared. The work is made in the R&D laboratory “Gas dynamics of turbo machines” of the TU SPb.

Keywords: Vaneless diffuser, relative width, flow angle, flow separation, loss coefficient, similarity criteria.

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2941 An Output Oriented Super-Efficiency Model for Considering Time Lag Effect

Authors: Yanshuang Zhang, Byungho Jeong

Abstract:

There exists some time lag between the consumption of inputs and the production of outputs. This time lag effect should be considered in calculating efficiency of decision making units (DMU). Recently, a couple of DEA models were developed for considering time lag effect in efficiency evaluation of research activities. However, these models can’t discriminate efficient DMUs because of the nature of basic DEA model in which efficiency scores are limited to ‘1’. This problem can be resolved a super-efficiency model. However, a super efficiency model sometimes causes infeasibility problem. This paper suggests an output oriented super-efficiency model for efficiency evaluation under the consideration of time lag effect. A case example using a long term research project is given to compare the suggested model with the MpO model.

Keywords: DEA, Super-efficiency, Time Lag.

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2940 Power Efficiency Characteristics of Magnetohydrodynamic Thermodynamic Gas Cycle

Authors: Mahmoud Huleihil

Abstract:

In this study, the performance of a thermodynamic gas cycle of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation is considered and presented in terms of power efficiency curves. The dissipation mechanisms considered include: fluid friction modeled by means of the isentropic efficiency of the compressor, heat transfer leakage directly from the hot reservoir to the cold heat reservoir, and constant velocity of the MHD generator. The study demonstrates that power and efficiency vanish at the extremes of both slow and fast operating conditions. These points are demonstrated on power efficiency curves and the locus of efficiency at maximum power and the locus of maximum efficiency. Qualitatively, the considered loss mechanisms have a similar effect on the efficiency at maximum power operation and on maximum efficiency operation, thus these efficiencies are reduced, even for small values of the loss mechanisms.

Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamic generator, electrical efficiency, maximum power, maximum efficiency, heat engine.

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2939 An Empirical Formula for Seismic Test of Telecommunication Equipments

Authors: Young Hoon Lee, Bong Jin Kang, Won Ho Kang

Abstract:

Antiseismic property of telecommunication equipment is very important for the grasp of the damage and the restoration after earthquake. Telecommunication business operators are regulating seismic standard for their equipments. These standards are organized to simulate the real seismic situations and usually define the minimum value of first natural frequency of the equipments or the allowable maximum displacement of top of the equipments relative to bottom. Using the finite element analysis, natural frequency can be obtained with high accuracy but the relative displacement of top of the equipments is difficult to predict accurately using the analysis. Furthermore, in the case of simulating the equipments with access floor, predicting the relative displacement of top of the equipments become more difficult. In this study, using enormous experimental datum, an empirical formula is suggested to forecast the relative displacement of top of the equipments. Also it can be known that which physical quantities are related with the relative displacement.

Keywords: Empirical formula, First natural frequency, Seismic test, Telecommunication equipments.

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2938 Data Envelopment Analysis under Uncertainty and Risk

Authors: P. Beraldi, M. E. Bruni

Abstract:

Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is one of the most widely used technique for evaluating the relative efficiency of a set of homogeneous decision making units. Traditionally, it assumes that input and output variables are known in advance, ignoring the critical issue of data uncertainty. In this paper, we deal with the problem of efficiency evaluation under uncertain conditions by adopting the general framework of the stochastic programming. We assume that output parameters are represented by discretely distributed random variables and we propose two different models defined according to a neutral and risk-averse perspective. The models have been validated by considering a real case study concerning the evaluation of the technical efficiency of a sample of individual firms operating in the Italian leather manufacturing industry. Our findings show the validity of the proposed approach as ex-ante evaluation technique by providing the decision maker with useful insights depending on his risk aversion degree.

Keywords: DEA, Stochastic Programming, Ex-ante evaluation technique, Conditional Value at Risk.

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2937 A Super-Efficiency Model for Evaluating Efficiency in the Presence of Time Lag Effect

Authors: Yanshuang Zhang, Byungho Jeong

Abstract:

In many cases, there are some time lag between the consumption of inputs and the production of outputs. This time lag effect should be considered in evaluating the performance of organizations. Recently, a couple of DEA models were developed for considering time lag effect in efficiency evaluation of research activities. Multi-periods input(MpI) and Multi-periods output(MpO) models are integrate models to calculate simple efficiency considering time lag effect. However, these models can’t discriminate efficient DMUs because of the nature of basic DEA model in which efficiency scores are limited to ‘1’. That is, efficient DMUs can’t be discriminated because their efficiency scores are same. Thus, this paper suggests a super-efficiency model for efficiency evaluation under the consideration of time lag effect based on the MpO model. A case example using a long term research project is given to compare the suggested model with the MpO model.

Keywords: DEA, Super-efficiency, Time Lag.

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2936 Oil Displacement by Water in Hauterivian Sandstone Reservoir of Kashkari Oil Field

Authors: A. J. Nazari, S. Honma

Abstract:

This paper evaluates oil displacement by water in Hauterivian sandstone reservoir of Kashkari oil field in North of Afghanistan. The core samples of this oil field were taken out from well No-21st, and the relative permeability and fractional flow are analyzed. Steady state flow laboratory experiments are performed to empirically obtain the fractional flow curves and relative permeability in different water saturation ratio. The relative permeability represents the simultaneous flow behavior in the reservoir. The fractional flow approach describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. The fractional flow curve interprets oil displacement by water, and from the tangent of fractional flow curve can find out the average saturation behind the water front flow saturation. Therefore, relative permeability and fractional flow curves are suitable for describing the displacement of oil by water in a petroleum reservoir. The effects of irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation on the displaceable amount of oil are investigated through Buckley-Leveret analysis.

Keywords: Fractional flow, oil displacement, relative permeability, simultaneously flow.

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