Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1821

Search results for: dictionary learning.

1821 A Dictionary Learning Method Based On EMD for Audio Sparse Representation

Authors: Yueming Wang, Zenghui Zhang, Rendong Ying, Peilin Liu

Abstract:

Sparse representation has long been studied and several dictionary learning methods have been proposed. The dictionary learning methods are widely used because they are adaptive. In this paper, a new dictionary learning method for audio is proposed. Signals are at first decomposed into different degrees of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) using Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) technique. Then these IMFs form a learned dictionary. To reduce the size of the dictionary, the K-means method is applied to the dictionary to generate a K-EMD dictionary. Compared to K-SVD algorithm, the K-EMD dictionary decomposes audio signals into structured components, thus the sparsity of the representation is increased by 34.4% and the SNR of the recovered audio signals is increased by 20.9%.

Keywords: Dictionary Learning, EMD, K-means Method, Sparse Representation.

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1820 Learning an Overcomplete Dictionary using a Cauchy Mixture Model for Sparse Decay

Authors: E. S. Gower, M. O. J. Hawksford

Abstract:

An algorithm for learning an overcomplete dictionary using a Cauchy mixture model for sparse decomposition of an underdetermined mixing system is introduced. The mixture density function is derived from a ratio sample of the observed mixture signals where 1) there are at least two but not necessarily more mixture signals observed, 2) the source signals are statistically independent and 3) the sources are sparse. The basis vectors of the dictionary are learned via the optimization of the location parameters of the Cauchy mixture components, which is shown to be more accurate and robust than the conventional data mining methods usually employed for this task. Using a well known sparse decomposition algorithm, we extract three speech signals from two mixtures based on the estimated dictionary. Further tests with additive Gaussian noise are used to demonstrate the proposed algorithm-s robustness to outliers.

Keywords: expectation-maximization, Pitman estimator, sparsedecomposition

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1819 An Image Segmentation Algorithm for Gradient Target Based on Mean-Shift and Dictionary Learning

Authors: Yanwen Li, Shuguo Xie

Abstract:

In electromagnetic imaging, because of the diffraction limited system, the pixel values could change slowly near the edge of the image targets and they also change with the location in the same target. Using traditional digital image segmentation methods to segment electromagnetic gradient images could result in lots of errors because of this change in pixel values. To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel image segmentation and extraction algorithm based on Mean-Shift and dictionary learning. Firstly, the preliminary segmentation results from adaptive bandwidth Mean-Shift algorithm are expanded, merged and extracted. Then the overlap rate of the extracted image block is detected before determining a segmentation region with a single complete target. Last, the gradient edge of the extracted targets is recovered and reconstructed by using a dictionary-learning algorithm, while the final segmentation results are obtained which are very close to the gradient target in the original image. Both the experimental results and the simulated results show that the segmentation results are very accurate. The Dice coefficients are improved by 70% to 80% compared with the Mean-Shift only method.

Keywords: Gradient image, segmentation and extract, mean-shift algorithm, dictionary learning.

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1818 Sparse Coding Based Classification of Electrocardiography Signals Using Data-Driven Complete Dictionary Learning

Authors: Fuad Noman, Sh-Hussain Salleh, Chee-Ming Ting, Hadri Hussain, Syed Rasul

Abstract:

In this paper, a data-driven dictionary approach is proposed for the automatic detection and classification of cardiovascular abnormalities. Electrocardiography (ECG) signal is represented by the trained complete dictionaries that contain prototypes or atoms to avoid the limitations of pre-defined dictionaries. The data-driven trained dictionaries simply take the ECG signal as input rather than extracting features to study the set of parameters that yield the most descriptive dictionary. The approach inherently learns the complicated morphological changes in ECG waveform, which is then used to improve the classification. The classification performance was evaluated with ECG data under two different preprocessing environments. In the first category, QT-database is baseline drift corrected with notch filter and it filters the 60 Hz power line noise. In the second category, the data are further filtered using fast moving average smoother. The experimental results on QT database confirm that our proposed algorithm shows a classification accuracy of 92%.

Keywords: Electrocardiogram, dictionary learning, sparse coding, classification.

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1817 A Fast HRRP Synthesis Algorithm with Sensing Dictionary in GTD Model

Authors: R. Fan, Q. Wan, H. Chen, Y.L. Liu, Y.P. Liu

Abstract:

In the paper, a fast high-resolution range profile synthetic algorithm called orthogonal matching pursuit with sensing dictionary (OMP-SD) is proposed. It formulates the traditional HRRP synthetic to be a sparse approximation problem over redundant dictionary. As it employs a priori that the synthetic range profile (SRP) of targets are sparse, SRP can be accomplished even in presence of data lost. Besides, the computation complexity decreases from O(MNDK) flops for OMP to O(M(N + D)K) flops for OMP-SD by introducing sensing dictionary (SD). Simulation experiments illustrate its advantages both in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and noiseless situation, respectively.

Keywords: GTD-based model, HRRP, orthogonal matching pursuit, sensing dictionary.

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1816 Iterative Image Reconstruction for Sparse-View Computed Tomography via Total Variation Regularization and Dictionary Learning

Authors: XianYu Zhao, JinXu Guo

Abstract:

Recently, low-dose computed tomography (CT) has become highly desirable due to increasing attention to the potential risks of excessive radiation. For low-dose CT imaging, ensuring image quality while reducing radiation dose is a major challenge. To facilitate low-dose CT imaging, we propose an improved statistical iterative reconstruction scheme based on the Penalized Weighted Least Squares (PWLS) standard combined with total variation (TV) minimization and sparse dictionary learning (DL) to improve reconstruction performance. We call this method "PWLS-TV-DL". In order to evaluate the PWLS-TV-DL method, we performed experiments on digital phantoms and physical phantoms, respectively. The experimental results show that our method is in image quality and calculation. The efficiency is superior to other methods, which confirms the potential of its low-dose CT imaging.

Keywords: Low dose computed tomography, penalized weighted least squares, total variation, dictionary learning.

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1815 Two Undetectable On-line Dictionary Attacks on Debiao et al.’s S-3PAKE Protocol

Authors: Sung-Bae Choi, Sang-Yoon Yoon, Eun-Jun Yoon

Abstract:

In 2011, Debiao et al. pointed out that S-3PAKE protocol proposed by Lu and Cao for password-authenticated key exchange in the three-party setting is vulnerable to an off-line dictionary attack. Then, they proposed some countermeasures to eliminate the security vulnerability of the S-3PAKE. Nevertheless, this paper points out their enhanced S-3PAKE protocol is still vulnerable to undetectable on-line dictionary attacks unlike their claim.

Keywords: Authentication, 3PAKE, password, three-party key exchange, network security, dictionary attacks.

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1814 Cryptanalysis of Yang-Li-Liao’s Simple Three-Party Key Exchange (S-3PAKE) Protocol

Authors: Hae-Soon Ahn, Eun-Jun Yoon

Abstract:

Three-party password authenticated key exchange (3PAKE) protocols are widely deployed on lots of remote user authentication system due to its simplicity and convenience of maintaining a human-memorable password at client side to achieve secure communication within a hostile network. Recently, an improvement of 3PAKE protocol by processing a built-in data attached to other party for identity authentication to individual data was proposed by some researchers. However, this paper points out that the improved 3PAKE protocol is still vulnerable to undetectable on-line dictionary attack and off-line dictionary attack.

Keywords: Three-party key exchange, 3PAKE, Passwordauthenticated key exchange, Network security, Dictionary attack

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1813 Online Multilingual Dictionary Using Hamburg Notation for Avatar-Based Indian Sign Language Generation System

Authors: Sugandhi, Parteek Kumar, Sanmeet Kaur

Abstract:

Sign Language (SL) is used by deaf and other people who cannot speak but can hear or have a problem with spoken languages due to some disability. It is a visual gesture language that makes use of either one hand or both hands, arms, face, body to convey meanings and thoughts. SL automation system is an effective way which provides an interface to communicate with normal people using a computer. In this paper, an avatar based dictionary has been proposed for text to Indian Sign Language (ISL) generation system. This research work will also depict a literature review on SL corpus available for various SL s over the years. For ISL generation system, a written form of SL is required and there are certain techniques available for writing the SL. The system uses Hamburg sign language Notation System (HamNoSys) and Signing Gesture Mark-up Language (SiGML) for ISL generation. It is developed in PHP using Web Graphics Library (WebGL) technology for 3D avatar animation. A multilingual ISL dictionary is developed using HamNoSys for both English and Hindi Language. This dictionary will be used as a database to associate signs with words or phrases of a spoken language. It provides an interface for admin panel to manage the dictionary, i.e., modification, addition, or deletion of a word. Through this interface, HamNoSys can be developed and stored in a database and these notations can be converted into its corresponding SiGML file manually. The system takes natural language input sentence in English and Hindi language and generate 3D sign animation using an avatar. SL generation systems have potential applications in many domains such as healthcare sector, media, educational institutes, commercial sectors, transportation services etc. This research work will help the researchers to understand various techniques used for writing SL and generation of Sign Language systems.

Keywords: Avatar, dictionary, HamNoSys, hearing-impaired, Indian Sign Language, sign language.

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1812 An Improvement of PDLZW implementation with a Modified WSC Updating Technique on FPGA

Authors: Perapong Vichitkraivin, Orachat Chitsobhuk

Abstract:

In this paper, an improvement of PDLZW implementation with a new dictionary updating technique is proposed. A unique dictionary is partitioned into hierarchical variable word-width dictionaries. This allows us to search through dictionaries in parallel. Moreover, the barrel shifter is adopted for loading a new input string into the shift register in order to achieve a faster speed. However, the original PDLZW uses a simple FIFO update strategy, which is not efficient. Therefore, a new window based updating technique is implemented to better classify the difference in how often each particular address in the window is referred. The freezing policy is applied to the address most often referred, which would not be updated until all the other addresses in the window have the same priority. This guarantees that the more often referred addresses would not be updated until their time comes. This updating policy leads to an improvement on the compression efficiency of the proposed algorithm while still keep the architecture low complexity and easy to implement.

Keywords: lossless data compression, LZW algorithm, PDLZW algorithm, WSC and dictionary update.

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1811 Speaker Identification by Atomic Decomposition of Learned Features Using Computational Auditory Scene Analysis Principals in Noisy Environments

Authors: Thomas Bryan, Veton Kepuska, Ivica Kostanic

Abstract:

Speaker recognition is performed in high Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) environments using principals of Computational Auditory Scene Analysis (CASA). CASA methods often classify sounds from images in the time-frequency (T-F) plane using spectrograms or cochleargrams as the image. In this paper atomic decomposition implemented by matching pursuit performs a transform from time series speech signals to the T-F plane. The atomic decomposition creates a sparsely populated T-F vector in “weight space” where each populated T-F position contains an amplitude weight. The weight space vector along with the atomic dictionary represents a denoised, compressed version of the original signal. The arraignment or of the atomic indices in the T-F vector are used for classification. Unsupervised feature learning implemented by a sparse autoencoder learns a single dictionary of basis features from a collection of envelope samples from all speakers. The approach is demonstrated using pairs of speakers from the TIMIT data set. Pairs of speakers are selected randomly from a single district. Each speak has 10 sentences. Two are used for training and 8 for testing. Atomic index probabilities are created for each training sentence and also for each test sentence. Classification is performed by finding the lowest Euclidean distance between then probabilities from the training sentences and the test sentences. Training is done at a 30dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). Testing is performed at SNR’s of 0 dB, 5 dB, 10 dB and 30dB. The algorithm has a baseline classification accuracy of ~93% averaged over 10 pairs of speakers from the TIMIT data set. The baseline accuracy is attributable to short sequences of training and test data as well as the overall simplicity of the classification algorithm. The accuracy is not affected by AWGN and produces ~93% accuracy at 0dB SNR.

Keywords: Time-frequency plane, atomic decomposition, envelope sampling, Gabor atoms, matching pursuit, sparse dictionary learning, sparse autoencoder.

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1810 How Efficiency of Password Attack Based on a Keyboard

Authors: Hsien-cheng Chou, Fei-pei Lai, Hung-chang Lee

Abstract:

At present, dictionary attack has been the basic tool for recovering key passwords. In order to avoid dictionary attack, users purposely choose another character strings as passwords. According to statistics, about 14% of users choose keys on a keyboard (Kkey, for short) as passwords. This paper develops a framework system to attack the password chosen from Kkeys and analyzes its efficiency. Within this system, we build up keyboard rules using the adjacent and parallel relationship among Kkeys and then use these Kkey rules to generate password databases by depth-first search method. According to the experiment results, we find the key space of databases derived from these Kkey rules that could be far smaller than the password databases generated within brute-force attack, thus effectively narrowing down the scope of attack research. Taking one general Kkey rule, the combinations in all printable characters (94 types) with Kkey adjacent and parallel relationship, as an example, the derived key space is about 240 smaller than those in brute-force attack. In addition, we demonstrate the method's practicality and value by successfully cracking the access password to UNIX and PC using the password databases created

Keywords: Brute-force attack, dictionary attack, depth-firstsearch, password attack.

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1809 Lexical Based Method for Opinion Detection on Tripadvisor Collection

Authors: Faiza Belbachir, Thibault Schienhinski

Abstract:

The massive development of online social networks allows users to post and share their opinions on various topics. With this huge volume of opinion, it is interesting to extract and interpret these information for different domains, e.g., product and service benchmarking, politic, system of recommendation. This is why opinion detection is one of the most important research tasks. It consists on differentiating between opinion data and factual data. The difficulty of this task is to determine an approach which returns opinionated document. Generally, there are two approaches used for opinion detection i.e. Lexical based approaches and Machine Learning based approaches. In Lexical based approaches, a dictionary of sentimental words is used, words are associated with weights. The opinion score of document is derived by the occurrence of words from this dictionary. In Machine learning approaches, usually a classifier is trained using a set of annotated document containing sentiment, and features such as n-grams of words, part-of-speech tags, and logical forms. Majority of these works are based on documents text to determine opinion score but dont take into account if these texts are really correct. Thus, it is interesting to exploit other information to improve opinion detection. In our work, we will develop a new way to consider the opinion score. We introduce the notion of trust score. We determine opinionated documents but also if these opinions are really trustable information in relation with topics. For that we use lexical SentiWordNet to calculate opinion and trust scores, we compute different features about users like (numbers of their comments, numbers of their useful comments, Average useful review). After that, we combine opinion score and trust score to obtain a final score. We applied our method to detect trust opinions in TRIPADVISOR collection. Our experimental results report that the combination between opinion score and trust score improves opinion detection.

Keywords: Tripadvisor, Opinion detection, SentiWordNet, trust score.

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1808 Explanatory of Relationship between Learning Motivation and Learning Performance

Authors: Chih Chin Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, the relationship between learning motivation and learning performance is explored by using exchange theory. The relationship is concluded that external performance can raise learning motivation and then increase learning performance. The internal performance should be not completely neglected and the external performance should be not attached important excessively. The parents need self-study and must be also reeducated. The existing education must be improved in raise of internal performance. The incorrect learning thinking will mislead the students, parents, and educators of next generation, when the students obtain good learning performance in the learning environment with excess stimulants. Over operation of external performance will result abnormal learning thinking and violating learning goal. Learning is not only to obtain performance. Learning quality and learning performance will be limited as without learning motivation. The best learning motivation is, the best learning performance is. The learning for reward is not good for learning performance. Strategies of promoting life-long learning are including the encouraging for learner, establishment of good interaction learning environment, and the advertisement of the merit and the importance of life-long learning, which can let the learner with the correct learning motivation.

Keywords: exchange theory, learning motivation, learning performance, learning quality

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1807 Inferring Hierarchical Pronunciation Rules from a Phonetic Dictionary

Authors: Erika Pigliapoco, Valerio Freschi, Alessandro Bogliolo

Abstract:

This work presents a new phonetic transcription system based on a tree of hierarchical pronunciation rules expressed as context-specific grapheme-phoneme correspondences. The tree is automatically inferred from a phonetic dictionary by incrementally analyzing deeper context levels, eventually representing a minimum set of exhaustive rules that pronounce without errors all the words in the training dictionary and that can be applied to out-of-vocabulary words. The proposed approach improves upon existing rule-tree-based techniques in that it makes use of graphemes, rather than letters, as elementary orthographic units. A new linear algorithm for the segmentation of a word in graphemes is introduced to enable outof- vocabulary grapheme-based phonetic transcription. Exhaustive rule trees provide a canonical representation of the pronunciation rules of a language that can be used not only to pronounce out-of-vocabulary words, but also to analyze and compare the pronunciation rules inferred from different dictionaries. The proposed approach has been implemented in C and tested on Oxford British English and Basic English. Experimental results show that grapheme-based rule trees represent phonetically sound rules and provide better performance than letter-based rule trees.

Keywords: Automatic phonetic transcription, pronunciation rules, hierarchical tree inference.

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1806 Development of Multimodal e-Slide Presentation to Support Self-Learning for the Visually Impaired

Authors: Rustam Asnawi, Wan Fatimah Wan Ahmad

Abstract:

Currently electronic slide (e-slide) is one of the most common styles in educational presentation. Unfortunately, the utilization of e-slide for the visually impaired is uncommon since they are unable to see the content of such e-slides which are usually composed of text, images and animation. This paper proposes a model for presenting e-slide in multimodal presentation i.e. using conventional slide concurrent with voicing, in both languages Malay and English. At the design level, live multimedia presentation concept is used, while at the implementation level several components are used. The text content of each slide is extracted using COM component, Microsoft Speech API for voicing the text in English language and the text in Malay language is voiced using dictionary approach. To support the accessibility, an auditory user interface is provided as an additional feature. A prototype of such model named as VSlide has been developed and introduced.

Keywords: presentation, self-learning, slide, visually impaired

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1805 Analysis and Categorization of e-Learning Activities Based On Meaningful Learning Characteristics

Authors: Arda Yunianta, Norazah Yusof, Mohd Shahizan Othman, Dewi Octaviani

Abstract:

Learning is the acquisition of new mental schemata, knowledge, abilities and skills which can be used to solve problems potentially more successfully. The learning process is optimum when it is assisted and personalized. Learning is not a single activity, but should involve many possible activities to make learning become meaningful. Many e-learning applications provide facilities to support teaching and learning activities. One way to identify whether the e-learning system is being used by the learners is through the number of hits that can be obtained from the e-learning system's log data. However, we cannot rely solely to the number of hits in order to determine whether learning had occurred meaningfully. This is due to the fact that meaningful learning should engage five characteristics namely active, constructive, intentional, authentic and cooperative. This paper aims to analyze the e-learning activities that is meaningful to learning. By focusing on the meaningful learning characteristics, we match it to the corresponding Moodle e-learning activities. This analysis discovers the activities that have high impact to meaningful learning, as well as activities that are less meaningful. The high impact activities is given high weights since it become important to meaningful learning, while the low impact has less weight and said to be supportive e-learning activities. The result of this analysis helps us categorize which e-learning activities that are meaningful to learning and guide us to measure the effectiveness of e-learning usage.

Keywords: e-learning system, e-learning activity, meaningful learning characteristics, Moodle

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1804 Is E-learning Based On Learning Theories? A Literature Review

Authors: Apostolia Pange, Jenny Pange

Abstract:

E-learning aims to build knowledge and skills in order to enhance the quality of learning. Research has shown that the majority of the e-learning solutions lack in pedagogical background and present some serious deficiencies regarding teaching strategies and content delivery, time and pace management, interface design and preservation of learners- focus. The aim of this review is to approach the design of e-learning solutions with a pedagogical perspective and to present some good practices of e-learning design grounded on the core principles of Learning Theories (LTs).

Keywords: design principles, e-learning, Learning Theories

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1803 E-Learning Experiences of Hong Kong Students

Authors: J. Lam, R. Chan

Abstract:

The adoption of e-learning in Hong Kong has been increasing rapidly in the past decade. To understand the e-learning experiences of the students, the School of Professional and Continuing Education of The University of Hong Kong conducted a survey. The survey aimed to collect students- experiences in using learning management system, their perceived e-learning advantages, barriers in e-learning and preferences in new e-learning development. A questionnaire with 84 questions was distributed in mid 2012 and 608 valid responds were received. The analysis results showed that the students found e-learning helpful to their study. They preferred interactive functions and mobile features. Blended learning mode, both face-to-face learning mode integrated with online learning and face-to-face learning mode supplemented with online resources, were preferred by the students. The results of experiences of Hong Kong students in e-learning provided a contemporary reference to the e-learning practitioners to understand the e-learning situation in Asia.

Keywords: E-learning, blended learning, learning experience, learning management system.

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1802 Test Data Compression Using a Hybrid of Bitmask Dictionary and 2n Pattern Runlength Coding Methods

Authors: C. Kalamani, K. Paramasivam

Abstract:

In VLSI, testing plays an important role. Major problem in testing are test data volume and test power. The important solution to reduce test data volume and test time is test data compression. The Proposed technique combines the bit maskdictionary and 2n pattern run length-coding method and provides a substantial improvement in the compression efficiency without introducing any additional decompression penalty. This method has been implemented using Mat lab and HDL Language to reduce test data volume and memory requirements. This method is applied on various benchmark test sets and compared the results with other existing methods. The proposed technique can achieve a compression ratio up to 86%.

Keywords: Bit Mask dictionary, 2n pattern run length code, system-on-chip, SOC, test data compression.

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1801 University Students Awareness on M-Learning

Authors: Sahilu Wendeson, Wan Fatimah Bt. Wan Ahmad, Nazleeni Samiha Bt. Haron

Abstract:

Mobile learning (M-learning) is the current technology that is becoming more popular. It uses the current mobile and wireless computing technology to complement the effectiveness of traditional learning process. The objective of this paper is presents a survey from 90 undergraduate students of Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP), to identify the students- perception on Mlearning. From the results, the students are willing to use M-learning. The acceptance level of the students is high, and the results obtained revealed that the respondents almost accept M-learning as one method of teaching and learning process and also able to improve the educational efficiency by complementing traditional learning in UTP.

Keywords: M-learning, Traditional learning, WirelessTechnology.

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1800 Mobile Learning Implementation: Students- Perceptions in UTP

Authors: Ahmad Sobri bin Hashim, Wan Fatimah Bt. Wan Ahmad, Rohiza Bt. Ahmad

Abstract:

Mobile Learning (M-Learning) is a new technology which is to enhance current learning practices and activities for all people especially students and academic practitioners UTP is currently, implemented two types of learning styles which are conventional and electronic learning. In order to improve current learning approaches, it is necessary for UTP to implement m-learning in UTP. This paper presents a study on the students- perceptions on mobile utilization in the learning practices in UTP. Besides, this paper also presents a survey that was conducted among 82 students from System Analysis and Design (SAD) course in UTP. The survey includes basic information of mobile devices that have been used by the students, opinions on current learning practices and also the opinions regarding the m-learning implementation in the current learning practices especially in SAD course. Based on the results of the survey, majority of the students are using the mobile devices that can support m-learning environment. Other than that, students also agreed that current learning practices are ineffective and they believe that m-learning utilization can improve the effectiveness of current learning practices.

Keywords: m-learning, conventional learning, electronic learning, mobile devices.

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1799 e/b-Learning Activities and High School Pedagogy

Authors: Rui Antunes

Abstract:

This article presents the implementation of several different e/b-Learning collaborative activities, used to improve the students learning process in an high school Polytechnic Institution. A new learning model arises, based on a combination between face-toface and distance leaning. Learning is now becoming centered with the development of collaborative activities, and its actors (teachers and students) have to be re-socialized to a new e/b-Learning paradigm. Measuring approaches are proposed for this model and results are presented, showing prospective correlation between students learning success and the use of online collaborative activities.

Keywords: e/b-Learning, Collaborative Learning, TeachingCommunities, Web-based Courseware

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1798 Blended Learning through Google Classroom

Authors: Lee Bih Ni

Abstract:

This paper discusses that good learning involves all academic groups in the school. Blended learning is learning outside the classroom. Google Classroom is a free service learning app for schools, non-profit organizations and anyone with a personal Google account. Facilities accessed through computers and mobile phones are very useful for school teachers and students. Blended learning classrooms using both traditional and technology-based methods for teaching have become the norm for many educators. Using Google Classroom gives students access to online learning. Even if the teacher is not in the classroom, the teacher can provide learning. This is the supervision of the form of the teacher when the student is outside the school.

Keywords: Blended learning, learning app, Google classroom, schools.

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1797 The Future of Blended Learning

Authors: Reem A. Alebaikan

Abstract:

The emergence of blended learning has been influenced by the rapid changes in Higher Education within the last few years. However, there is a lack of studies that look into the future of blended learning in the Saudi context. The most likely explanation is that blended learning is relatively new and, with respect to learning in general, under-researched. This study addresses this gap and explores the views of lecturers and students towards the future of blended learning in Saudi Arabia. This study was informed by the interpretive paradigm that appears to be most appropriate to understand and interpret the perceptions of students and instructors towards a new learning environment. While globally there has been considerable research on the perceptions of e-learning and blended learning with its different models, there is plenty of space for further research specifically in the Arab region, and in Saudi Arabia where blended learning is now being introduced.

Keywords: blended learning, higher education.

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1796 The Design of the Blended Learning System via E-Media and Online Learning for the Asynchronous Learning: Case Study of Process Management Subject

Authors: Pimploi Tirastittam, Suppara Charoenpoom

Abstract:

Nowadays the asynchronous learning has granted the permission to the anywhere and anything learning via the technology and E-media which give the learner more convenient. This research is about the design of the blended and online learning for the asynchronous learning of the process management subject in order to create the prototype of this subject asynchronous learning which will create the easiness and increase capability in the learning. The pattern of learning is the integration between the in-class learning and online learning via the internet. This research is mainly focused on the online learning and the online learning can be divided into 5 parts which are virtual classroom, online content, collaboration, assessment and reference material. After the system design was finished, it was evaluated and tested by 5 experts in blended learning design and 10 students which the user’s satisfaction level is good. The result is as good as the assumption so the system can be used in the process management subject for a real usage.

Keywords: Blended Learning, Asynchronous Learning, Design, Process Management.

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1795 E-Learning Management Systems General Framework

Authors: Hamed Fawareh

Abstract:

The recent development in learning technologies leads to emerge many learning management systems (LMS). In this study, we concentrate on the specifications and characteristics of LMSs. Furthermore, this paper emphasizes on the feature of e-learning management systems. The features take on the account main indicators to assist and evaluate the quality of e-learning systems. The proposed indicators based of ten dimensions.

Keywords: E-Learning, System Requirement, Social Requirement, Learning Management System.

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1794 Development of Multimedia Learning Application for Mastery Learning Style: A Graduated Difficulty Strategy

Authors: Nur Azlina Mohamed Mokmin, Mona Masood

Abstract:

Guided by the theory of learning styles, this study is based on the development of a multimedia learning application for students with mastery learning style. The learning material was developed by applying a graduated difficulty learning strategy. Algebra was chosen as the learning topic for this application. The effectiveness of this application in helping students learn is measured by giving a pre- and post-test. The result shows that students who learn using the learning material that matches their preferred learning style perform better than the students with a non-personalized learning material.

Keywords: Algebraic Fractions, Graduated Difficulty, Mastery Learning Style, Multimedia.

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1793 Adaption Model for Building Agile Pronunciation Dictionaries Using Phonemic Distance Measurements

Authors: Akella Amarendra Babu, Rama Devi Yellasiri, Natukula Sainath

Abstract:

Where human beings can easily learn and adopt pronunciation variations, machines need training before put into use. Also humans keep minimum vocabulary and their pronunciation variations are stored in front-end of their memory for ready reference, while machines keep the entire pronunciation dictionary for ready reference. Supervised methods are used for preparation of pronunciation dictionaries which take large amounts of manual effort, cost, time and are not suitable for real time use. This paper presents an unsupervised adaptation model for building agile and dynamic pronunciation dictionaries online. These methods mimic human approach in learning the new pronunciations in real time. A new algorithm for measuring sound distances called Dynamic Phone Warping is presented and tested. Performance of the system is measured using an adaptation model and the precision metrics is found to be better than 86 percent.

Keywords: Pronunciation variations, dynamic programming, machine learning, natural language processing.

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1792 Signed Approach for Mining Web Content Outliers

Authors: G. Poonkuzhali, K.Thiagarajan, K.Sarukesi, G.V.Uma

Abstract:

The emergence of the Internet has brewed the revolution of information storage and retrieval. As most of the data in the web is unstructured, and contains a mix of text, video, audio etc, there is a need to mine information to cater to the specific needs of the users without loss of important hidden information. Thus developing user friendly and automated tools for providing relevant information quickly becomes a major challenge in web mining research. Most of the existing web mining algorithms have concentrated on finding frequent patterns while neglecting the less frequent ones that are likely to contain outlying data such as noise, irrelevant and redundant data. This paper mainly focuses on Signed approach and full word matching on the organized domain dictionary for mining web content outliers. This Signed approach gives the relevant web documents as well as outlying web documents. As the dictionary is organized based on the number of characters in a word, searching and retrieval of documents takes less time and less space.

Keywords: Outliers, Relevant document, , Signed Approach, Web content mining, Web documents..

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