Search results for: multiple imputation
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1514

Search results for: multiple imputation

1514 Neural Network Imputation in Complex Survey Design

Authors: Safaa R. Amer

Abstract:

Missing data yields many analysis challenges. In case of complex survey design, in addition to dealing with missing data, researchers need to account for the sampling design to achieve useful inferences. Methods for incorporating sampling weights in neural network imputation were investigated to account for complex survey designs. An estimate of variance to account for the imputation uncertainty as well as the sampling design using neural networks will be provided. A simulation study was conducted to compare estimation results based on complete case analysis, multiple imputation using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo, and neural network imputation. Furthermore, a public-use dataset was used as an example to illustrate neural networks imputation under a complex survey design

Keywords: Complex survey, estimate, imputation, neural networks, variance.

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1513 Categorical Missing Data Imputation Using Fuzzy Neural Networks with Numerical and Categorical Inputs

Authors: Pilar Rey-del-Castillo, Jesús Cardeñosa

Abstract:

There are many situations where input feature vectors are incomplete and methods to tackle the problem have been studied for a long time. A commonly used procedure is to replace each missing value with an imputation. This paper presents a method to perform categorical missing data imputation from numerical and categorical variables. The imputations are based on Simpson-s fuzzy min-max neural networks where the input variables for learning and classification are just numerical. The proposed method extends the input to categorical variables by introducing new fuzzy sets, a new operation and a new architecture. The procedure is tested and compared with others using opinion poll data.

Keywords: Classifier, imputation techniques, fuzzy systems, fuzzy min-max neural networks.

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1512 dynr.mi: An R Program for Multiple Imputation in Dynamic Modeling

Authors: Yanling Li, Linying Ji, Zita Oravecz, Timothy R. Brick, Michael D. Hunter, Sy-Miin Chow

Abstract:

Assessing several individuals intensively over time yields intensive longitudinal data (ILD). Even though ILD provide rich information, they also bring other data analytic challenges. One of these is the increased occurrence of missingness with increased study length, possibly under non-ignorable missingness scenarios. Multiple imputation (MI) handles missing data by creating several imputed data sets, and pooling the estimation results across imputed data sets to yield final estimates for inferential purposes. In this article, we introduce dynr.mi(), a function in the R package, Dynamic Modeling in R (dynr). The package dynr provides a suite of fast and accessible functions for estimating and visualizing the results from fitting linear and nonlinear dynamic systems models in discrete as well as continuous time. By integrating the estimation functions in dynr and the MI procedures available from the R package, Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations (MICE), the dynr.mi() routine is designed to handle possibly non-ignorable missingness in the dependent variables and/or covariates in a user-specified dynamic systems model via MI, with convergence diagnostic check. We utilized dynr.mi() to examine, in the context of a vector autoregressive model, the relationships among individuals’ ambulatory physiological measures, and self-report affect valence and arousal. The results from MI were compared to those from listwise deletion of entries with missingness in the covariates. When we determined the number of iterations based on the convergence diagnostics available from dynr.mi(), differences in the statistical significance of the covariate parameters were observed between the listwise deletion and MI approaches. These results underscore the importance of considering diagnostic information in the implementation of MI procedures.

Keywords: Dynamic modeling, missing data, multiple imputation, physiological measures.

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1511 Imputing Missing Data in Electronic Health Records: A Comparison of Linear and Non-Linear Imputation Models

Authors: Alireza Vafaei Sadr, Vida Abedi, Jiang Li, Ramin Zand

Abstract:

Missing data is a common challenge in medical research and can lead to biased or incomplete results. When the data bias leaks into models, it further exacerbates health disparities; biased algorithms can lead to misclassification and reduced resource allocation and monitoring as part of prevention strategies for certain minorities and vulnerable segments of patient populations, which in turn further reduce data footprint from the same population – thus, a vicious cycle. This study compares the performance of six imputation techniques grouped into Linear and Non-Linear models, on two different real-world electronic health records (EHRs) datasets, representing 17864 patient records. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) are used as performance metrics, and the results show that the Linear models outperformed the Non-Linear models in terms of both metrics. These results suggest that sometimes Linear models might be an optimal choice for imputation in laboratory variables in terms of imputation efficiency and uncertainty of predicted values.

Keywords: EHR, Machine Learning, imputation, laboratory variables, algorithmic bias.

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1510 A Large Dataset Imputation Approach Applied to Country Conflict Prediction Data

Authors: Benjamin D. Leiby, Darryl K. Ahner

Abstract:

This study demonstrates an alternative stochastic imputation approach for large datasets when preferred commercial packages struggle to iterate due to numerical problems. A large country conflict dataset motivates the search to impute missing values well over a common threshold of 20% missingness. The methodology capitalizes on correlation while using model residuals to provide the uncertainty in estimating unknown values. Examination of the methodology provides insight toward choosing linear or nonlinear modeling terms. Static tolerances common in most packages are replaced with tailorable tolerances that exploit residuals to fit each data element. The methodology evaluation includes observing computation time, model fit, and the comparison of known  values to replaced values created through imputation. Overall, the country conflict dataset illustrates promise with modeling first-order interactions, while presenting a need for further refinement that mimics predictive mean matching.

Keywords: Correlation, country conflict, imputation, stochastic regression.

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1509 Equal Sharing Solutions for Bicooperative Games

Authors: Fan-Yong Meng, Yan Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss the egalitarianism solution (ES) and center-of-gravity of the imputation-set value (CIV) for bicooperative games, which can be seen as the extensions of the solutions for traditional games given by Dutta and Ray [1] and Driessen and Funaki [2]. Furthermore, axiomatic systems for the given values are proposed. Finally, a numerical example is offered to illustrate the player ES and CTV.

Keywords: Bicooperative games, egalitarianism solution, center of- gravity of the imputation-set value.

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1508 Comparison of Imputation Techniques for Efficient Prediction of Software Fault Proneness in Classes

Authors: Geeta Sikka, Arvinder Kaur Takkar, Moin Uddin

Abstract:

Missing data is a persistent problem in almost all areas of empirical research. The missing data must be treated very carefully, as data plays a fundamental role in every analysis. Improper treatment can distort the analysis or generate biased results. In this paper, we compare and contrast various imputation techniques on missing data sets and make an empirical evaluation of these methods so as to construct quality software models. Our empirical study is based on NASA-s two public dataset. KC4 and KC1. The actual data sets of 125 cases and 2107 cases respectively, without any missing values were considered. The data set is used to create Missing at Random (MAR) data Listwise Deletion(LD), Mean Substitution(MS), Interpolation, Regression with an error term and Expectation-Maximization (EM) approaches were used to compare the effects of the various techniques.

Keywords: Missing data, Imputation, Missing Data Techniques.

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1507 Comparison of Machine Learning Techniques for Single Imputation on Audiograms

Authors: Sarah Beaver, Renee Bryce

Abstract:

Audiograms detect hearing impairment, but missing values pose problems. This work explores imputations in an attempt to improve accuracy. This work implements Linear Regression, Lasso, Linear Support Vector Regression, Bayesian Ridge, K Nearest Neighbors (KNN), and Random Forest machine learning techniques to impute audiogram frequencies ranging from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. The data contain patients who had or were candidates for cochlear implants. Accuracy is compared across two different Nested Cross-Validation k values. Over 4000 audiograms were used from 800 unique patients. Additionally, training on data combines and compares left and right ear audiograms versus single ear side audiograms. The accuracy achieved using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values for the best models for Random Forest ranges from 4.74 to 6.37. The R2 values for the best models for Random Forest ranges from .91 to .96. The accuracy achieved using RMSE values for the best models for KNN ranges from 5.00 to 7.72. The R2 values for the best models for KNN ranges from .89 to .95. The best imputation models received R2 between .89 to .96 and RMSE values less than 8dB. We also show that the accuracy of classification predictive models performed better with our imputation models versus constant imputations by a two percent increase.

Keywords: Machine Learning, audiograms, data imputations, single imputations.

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1506 Overview of Adaptive Spline Interpolation

Authors: Rongli Gai, Zhiyuan Chang, Xiaohong Wang, Jingyu Liu

Abstract:

In view of various situations in the interpolation process, most researchers use self-adaptation to adjust the interpolation process, which is also one of the current and future research hotspots in the field of CNC (Computerized Numerical Control) machining. In the interpolation process, according to the overview of the spline curve interpolation algorithm, the adaptive analysis is carried out from the factors affecting the interpolation process. The adaptive operation is reflected in various aspects, such as speed, parameters, errors, nodes, feed rates, random period, sensitive point, step size, curvature, adaptive segmentation, adaptive optimization, etc. This paper will analyze and summarize the research of adaptive imputation in the direction of the above factors affecting imputation.

Keywords: Adaptive algorithm, CNC machining, interpolation constraints, spline curve interpolation.

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1505 Internal Migration and Poverty Dynamic Analysis Using a Bayesian Approach: The Tunisian Case

Authors: Amal Jmaii, Damien Rousseliere, Besma Belhadj

Abstract:

We explore the relationship between internal migration and poverty in Tunisia. We present a methodology combining potential outcomes approach with multiple imputation to highlight the effect of internal migration on poverty states. We find that probability of being poor decreases when leaving the poorest regions (the west areas) to the richer regions (greater Tunis and the east regions).

Keywords: Internal migration, Bayesian approach, poverty dynamics, Tunisia.

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1504 Equalities in a Variety of Multiple Algebras

Authors: Mona Taheri

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study the concepts of multiple Cartesian product, variety of multiple algebras and to present some examples. In the theory of multiple algebras, like other theories, deriving new things and concepts from the things and concepts available in the context is important. For example, the first were obtained from the quotient of a group modulo the equivalence relation defined by a subgroup of it. Gratzer showed that every multiple algebra can be obtained from the quotient of a universal algebra modulo a given equivalence relation. The purpose of this study is examination of multiple algebras and basic relations defined on them as well as introduction to some algebraic structures derived from multiple algebras. Among the structures obtained from multiple algebras, this article studies submultiple algebras, quotients of multiple algebras and the Cartesian product of multiple algebras.

Keywords: hypergroup, multiple algebras

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1503 Assessing the Relation between Theory of Multiple Algebras and Universal Algebras

Authors: Mona Taheri

Abstract:

In this study, we examine multiple algebras and algebraic structures derived from them and by stating a theory on multiple algebras; we will show that the theory of multiple algebras is a natural extension of the theory of universal algebras. Also, we will treat equivalence relations on multiple algebras, for which the quotient constructed modulo them is a universal algebra and will study the basic relation and the fundamental algebra in question. In this study, by stating the characteristic theorem of multiple algebras, we show that the theory of multiple algebras is a natural extension of the theory of universal algebras.

Keywords: multiple algebras , universal algebras

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1502 How are Equalities Defined, Strong or Weak on a Multiple Algebra?

Authors: Mona Taheri

Abstract:

For the purpose of finding the quotient structure of multiple algebras such as groups, Abelian groups and rings, we will state concepts of ( strong or weak ) equalities on multiple algebras, which will lead us to research on how ( strong or weak) are equalities defined on a multiple algebra over the quotients obtained from it. In order to find a quotient structure of multiple algebras such as groups, Abelian groups and loops, a part of this article has been allocated to the concepts of equalities (strong and weak) of the defined multiple functions on multiple algebras. This leads us to do research on how defined equalities (strong and weak) are made in the multiple algebra on its resulted quotient.

Keywords: Multiple algebra, mathematics, universal algebra.

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1501 Outage Capacity Analysis for Next Generation Wireless Communication Using Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access

Authors: Md. Sohidul Islam, Ahmad Fartheen Khan

Abstract:

In recent times, Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) has received significant attention as an upcoming candidate in the world of 5G systems. The main reason for getting NOMA in 5G is because of its capacity to provide services to many users who have the same time and frequency resources. It is best used as "multiple-input, multiple-output" (MIMO) technology. In this paper, we are going to investigate outage probability as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and target rate user. These methods will be implemented using cooperative communication and fair power allocation, respectively.

Keywords: Non-orthogonal Multiple Access, Fair Power Allocation, Outage Probability, Target Rate User, Cooperative Communication, massive multiple input multiple output, MIMO, Successive Interference Cancellation.

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1500 Airline Quality Rating Using PARIS and TOPSIS in Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper presents a multiple criteria evaluation analysis for airline quality rating using the preference analysis for reference ideal solution (PARIS) and the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) approaches. The airline quality rating was developed as an objective method for assessing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria and the importance weights of criteria. The selected multiple performance criteria were determined as on-time arrivals, mishandled baggage, involuntary denied boardings, and consumer complaints. The multiple criteria decision making analysis results show that the alternative ( a2) airline is the best-rated airline.

Keywords: airline quality rating, multiple criteria decision making, multiple criteria decision making analysis, entropy weight, MCDMA, PARIS, TOPSIS

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1499 A Degraded Practical MIMOME Channel: Issues Insecret Data Communications

Authors: Mohammad Rakibul Islam

Abstract:

In this paper, a Gaussian multiple input multiple output multiple eavesdropper (MIMOME) channel is considered where a transmitter communicates to a receiver in the presence of an eavesdropper. We present a technique for determining the secrecy capacity of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) channel under Gaussian noise. We transform the degraded MIMOME channel into multiple single input multiple output (SIMO) Gaussian wire-tap channels and then use scalar approach to convert it into two equivalent multiple input single output (MISO) channels. The secrecy capacity model is then developed for the condition where the channel state information (CSI) for main channel only is known to the transmitter. The results show that the secret communication is possible when the eavesdropper channel noise is greater than a cutoff noise level. The outage probability is also analyzed of secrecy capacity is also analyzed. The effect of fading and outage probability is also analyzed.

Keywords: Secrecy capacity, MIMO, wiretap channel, covariance matrix, fading.

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1498 Multi-Linear Regression Based Prediction of Mass Transfer by Multiple Plunging Jets

Authors: S. Deswal, M. Pal

Abstract:

The paper aims to compare the performance of vertical and inclined multiple plunging jets and to model and predict their mass transfer capacity by multi-linear regression based approach. The multiple vertical plunging jets have jet impact angle of θ = 90O; whereas, multiple inclined plunging jets have jet impact angle of θ = 60O. The results of the study suggests that mass transfer is higher for multiple jets, and inclined multiple plunging jets have up to 1.6 times higher mass transfer than vertical multiple plunging jets under similar conditions. The derived relationship, based on multi-linear regression approach, has successfully predicted the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (KLa) from operational parameters of multiple plunging jets with a correlation coefficient of 0.973, root mean square error of 0.002 and coefficient of determination of 0.946. The results suggests that predicted overall mass transfer coefficient is in good agreement with actual experimental values; thereby, suggesting the utility of derived relationship based on multi-linear regression based approach and can be successfully employed in modeling mass transfer by multiple plunging jets.

Keywords: Mass transfer, multiple plunging jets, multi-linear regression.

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1497 Multiple Soliton Solutions of (2+1)-dimensional Potential Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation

Authors: Mohammad Najafi, Ali Jamshidi

Abstract:

We employ the idea of Hirota-s bilinear method, to obtain some new exact soliton solutions for high nonlinear form of (2+1)-dimensional potential Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation. Multiple singular soliton solutions were obtained by this method. Moreover, multiple singular soliton solutions were also derived.

Keywords: Hirota bilinear method, potential Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, multiple soliton solutions, multiple singular soliton solutions.

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1496 Novel Process Formulation of Multiple Unit Tablet of Pantoprazole

Authors: Vipin Saini, Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, A. Pandurangan

Abstract:

The present invention relates to multiple-unit tablet dosage forms, which is composed of several subunits (multiparticulates/pellets). Each small multiparticulate further composed of many layers. Some layer contains drug substance; others are rate controlling polymer. The resulting multiple-unit tablet dosage forms of pantoprazole were satisfactory fabricated. Pelletization technique has some advantages over coated tablet formulation. In coated tablet the coating may be damaged and a pinhole possibly formed that would result in increased release of drug in stomach and may be deactivated in stomach juices. If the coat of some pellets may be damaged that would not affect the release properties of the multiple-unit tablet. Hence they are beneficial in this aspect. The results confirmed the successful preparation of stable and bioequivalent once daily controlled release multiple-unit tablets of pantoprazole.

Keywords: Controlled release, multiple unit tablets, pantoprazole, pelletization.

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1495 Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis for Selecting and Evaluating Fighter Aircraft

Authors: C. Ardil, A. M. Pashaev, R.A. Sadiqov, P. Abdullayev

Abstract:

In this paper, multiple criteria decision making analysis technique, is presented for ranking and selection of a set of determined alternatives - fighter aircraft - which are associated with a set of decision factors. In fighter aircraft design, conflicting decision criteria, disciplines, and technologies are always involved in the design process. Multiple criteria decision making analysis techniques can be helpful to effectively deal with such situations and make wise design decisions. Multiple criteria decision making analysis theory is a systematic mathematical approach for dealing with problems which contain uncertainties in decision making. The feasibility and contributions of applying the multiple criteria decision making analysis technique in fighter aircraft selection analysis is explored. In this study, an integrated framework incorporating multiple criteria decision making analysis technique in fighter aircraft analysis is established using entropy objective weighting method. An improved integrated multiple criteria decision making analysis method is utilized to aggregate the multiple decision criteria into one composite figure of merit, which serves as an objective function in the decision process. Therefore, it is demonstrated that the suitable multiple criteria decision making analysis method with decision solution provides an effective objective function for the decision making analysis. Considering that the inherent uncertainties and the weighting factors have crucial decision impacts on the fighter aircraft evaluation, seven fighter aircraft models for the multiple design criteria in terms of the weighting factors are constructed. The proposed multiple criteria decision making analysis model is based on integrated entropy index procedure, and additive multiple criteria decision making analysis theory. Hence, the applicability of proposed technique for fighter aircraft selection problem is considered. The constructed multiple criteria decision making analysis model can provide efficient decision analysis approach for uncertainty assessment of the decision problem. Consequently, the fighter aircraft alternatives are ranked based their final evaluation scores, and sensitivity analysis is conducted.

Keywords: Fighter Aircraft, Fighter Aircraft Selection, Multiple Criteria Decision Making, Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis, MCDMA

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1494 Improved FP-growth Algorithm with Multiple Minimum Supports Using Maximum Constraints

Authors: Elsayeda M. Elgaml, Dina M. Ibrahim, Elsayed A. Sallam

Abstract:

Association rule mining is one of the most important fields of data mining and knowledge discovery. In this paper, we propose an efficient multiple support frequent pattern growth algorithm which we called “MSFP-growth” that enhancing the FPgrowth algorithm by making infrequent child node pruning step with multiple minimum support using maximum constrains. The algorithm is implemented, and it is compared with other common algorithms: Apriori-multiple minimum supports using maximum constraints and FP-growth. The experimental results show that the rule mining from the proposed algorithm are interesting and our algorithm achieved better performance than other algorithms without scarifying the accuracy. 

Keywords: Association Rules, FP-growth, Multiple minimum supports, Weka Tool

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1493 Multiple Shoot Formation of Paphiopedilum 'Delrosi'

Authors: Aree Thongpukdee, Ekasit Nisayan, Chockpisit Thepsithar

Abstract:

Shoots, with three leaves, of Paphiopedilum 'Delrosi' were used as explants for multiple shoot induction. Modified Hyponex medium was supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ), N6- benzyladenine (BA) or kinetin (Kn) alone and in combinations with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). All explants were cultured for 15 weeks. It was found that TDZ alone at the concentration of 0.45μM or in combination with 4.52μM 2,4-D and 8.88μM BA in combination with 13.56μM 2,4-D promoted multiple shoots. The highest shoot sprouting efficiencies (80.0, 90.0 and 80.0%) and new shoot numbers (1.5, 1.3 and 1.1) were obtained, respectively. Fresh weight, height, numbers of leaf and root of new shoots and initial explants were discussed.

Keywords: Paphiopedilum, terrestrial orchids, in vitro culture, micropropagation, multiple shoot induction

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1492 The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners' Multiple Intelligences and Their Performance on Grammar Tests

Authors: Rose Shayeghi, Pejman Hosseinioun

Abstract:

The Multiple Intelligences theory characterizes human intelligence as a multifaceted entity that exists in all human beings with varying degrees. The most important contribution of this theory to the field of English Language Teaching (ELT) is its role in identifying individual differences and designing more learnercentered programs. The present study aims at investigating the relationship between different elements of multiple intelligence and grammar scores. To this end, 63 female Iranian EFL learner selected from among intermediate students participated in the study. The instruments employed were a Nelson English language test, Michigan Grammar Test, and Teele Inventory for Multiple Intelligences (TIMI). The results of Pearson Product-Moment Correlation revealed a significant positive correlation between grammatical accuracy and linguistic as well as interpersonal intelligence. The results of Stepwise Multiple Regression indicated that linguistic intelligence contributed to the prediction of grammatical accuracy.

Keywords: Multiple intelligence, grammar, ELT, EFL, TIMI.

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1491 A Testbed for the Experiments Performed in Missing Value Treatments

Authors: Dias de J. C. Lilian, Lobato M. F. Fábio, de Santana L. Ádamo

Abstract:

The occurrence of missing values in database is a serious problem for Data Mining tasks, responsible for degrading data quality and accuracy of analyses. In this context, the area has shown a lack of standardization for experiments to treat missing values, introducing difficulties to the evaluation process among different researches due to the absence in the use of common parameters. This paper proposes a testbed intended to facilitate the experiments implementation and provide unbiased parameters using available datasets and suited performance metrics in order to optimize the evaluation and comparison between the state of art missing values treatments.

Keywords: Data imputation, data mining, missing values treatment, testbed.

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1490 Imputation Technique for Feature Selection in Microarray Data Set

Authors: Younies Mahmoud, Mai Mabrouk, Elsayed Sallam

Abstract:

Analyzing DNA microarray data sets is a great challenge, which faces the bioinformaticians due to the complication of using statistical and machine learning techniques. The challenge will be doubled if the microarray data sets contain missing data, which happens regularly because these techniques cannot deal with missing data. One of the most important data analysis process on the microarray data set is feature selection. This process finds the most important genes that affect certain disease. In this paper, we introduce a technique for imputing the missing data in microarray data sets while performing feature selection.

Keywords: DNA microarray, feature selection, missing data, bioinformatics.

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1489 Fuzzy Decision Making via Multiple Attribute

Authors: Behnaz Zohouri, Mahdi Zowghiand, Mohsen haghighi

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for decision making in fuzzy environment is presented.A new subjective and objective integrated approach is introduced that used to assign weight attributes in fuzzy multiple attribute decision making (FMADM) problems and alternatives and fmally ranked by proposed method.

Keywords: Multiple Attribute Decision Making, Triangular fuzzy numbers, ranking index, Fuzzy Entropy.

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1488 Performance Analysis in 5th Generation Massive Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, Jean-Pierre Dubois, Georges El Soury

Abstract:

Fifth generation wireless networks guarantee significant capacity enhancement to suit more clients and services at higher information rates with better reliability while consuming less power. The deployment of massive multiple-input-multiple-output technology guarantees broadband wireless networks with the use of base station antenna arrays to serve a large number of users on the same frequency and time-slot channels. In this work, we evaluate the performance of massive multiple-input-multiple-output systems (MIMO) systems in 5th generation cellular networks in terms of capacity and bit error rate. Several cases were considered and analyzed to compare the performance of massive MIMO systems while varying the number of antennas at both transmitting and receiving ends. We found that, unlike classical MIMO systems, reducing the number of transmit antennas while increasing the number of antennas at the receiver end provides a better solution to performance enhancement. In addition, enhanced orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and beam division multiple access schemes further improve the performance of massive MIMO systems and make them more reliable.

Keywords: Beam division multiple access, D2D communication, enhanced OFDM, fifth generation broadband, massive MIMO.

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1487 Oxygen Transfer by Multiple Inclined Plunging Water Jets

Authors: Surinder Deswal

Abstract:

There has been a growing interest in the oxygenation by plunging water jets in the last few years due to their inherent advantages, like energy-efficient, low operation cost, etc. Though a lot of work has been reported on the oxygen-transfer by single plunging water jets but very few studies have been carried out using multiple plunging jets. In this paper, volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient and oxygen-transfer efficiency has been studied experimentally for multiple inclined plunging jets (having jet plunge angle of 60 0 ) in a pool of water for different configurations, in terms of varying number of jets and jet diameters. This research suggests that the volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient and oxygentransfer efficiency of the multiple inclined plunging jets for air-water system are significantly higher than those of a single vertical as well as inclined plunging jet for same flow area and other similar conditions. The study also reveals that the oxygen-transfer increase with increase in number of multiple jets under similar conditions, which will be most advantageous and energy-efficient in practical situations when large volumes of wastewaters are to be treated. A relationship between volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient and jet parameters is also proposed. The suggested relationship predicts the volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient for multiple inclined plunging jet(s) within a scatter of ±15 percent. The relationship will be quite useful in scale-up and in deciding optimum configuration of multiple inclined plunging jet aeration system.

Keywords: Multiple inclined plunging jets, jet plunge angle, volumetric oxygen-transfer coefficient, oxygen-transfer efficiency.

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1486 A Novel Transmission Scheme for Reliable Cooperative Communication

Authors: Won-Jun Choi, Seung-Jun Yu, Jung-In Baik, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

Cooperative communication scheme can be substituted for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique when it may not be able to support multiple antennas due to size, cost or hardware limitations. In other words, cooperative communication scheme is an efficient method to achieve spatial diversity without multiple antennas. For satisfaction of rising QoS, we propose a reliable cooperative communication scheme with M-QAM based Dual Carrier Modulation (M-DCM), which can increase diversity gain. Although our proposed scheme is very simple method, it gives us frequency and spatial diversity. Simulation result shows our proposed scheme obtains diversity gain more than the conventional cooperative communication scheme.

Keywords: cooperation, diversity, M-DCM, OFDM.

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1485 Aircraft Selection Using Preference Optimization Programming (POP)

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

A multiple-criteria decision support system is proposed for the best aircraft selection decision. Various strategic, economic, environmental, and risk-related factors can directly or indirectly influence this choice, and they should be taken into account in the decision-making process. The paper suggests a multiple-criteria analysis to aid in the airline management's decision-making process when choosing an appropriate aircraft. In terms of the suggested approach, an integrated entropic preference optimization programming (POP) for fleet modeling risk analysis is applied. The findings of the study of multiple criteria analysis indicate that the A321(neo) aircraft type is the best alternative in this particular optimization instance. The proposed methodology can be applied to other complex engineering problems involving multiple criteria analysis.

Keywords: Aircraft selection, decision making, multiple criteria decision making, preference optimization programming, POP, entropic weight method, TOPSIS, WSM, WPM

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