Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2671

Search results for: Beam division multiple access

2671 Performance Analysis in 5th Generation Massive Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, Jean-Pierre Dubois, Georges El Soury

Abstract:

Fifth generation wireless networks guarantee significant capacity enhancement to suit more clients and services at higher information rates with better reliability while consuming less power. The deployment of massive multiple-input-multiple-output technology guarantees broadband wireless networks with the use of base station antenna arrays to serve a large number of users on the same frequency and time-slot channels. In this work, we evaluate the performance of massive multiple-input-multiple-output systems (MIMO) systems in 5th generation cellular networks in terms of capacity and bit error rate. Several cases were considered and analyzed to compare the performance of massive MIMO systems while varying the number of antennas at both transmitting and receiving ends. We found that, unlike classical MIMO systems, reducing the number of transmit antennas while increasing the number of antennas at the receiver end provides a better solution to performance enhancement. In addition, enhanced orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and beam division multiple access schemes further improve the performance of massive MIMO systems and make them more reliable.

Keywords: Beam division multiple access, D2D communication, enhanced OFDM, fifth generation broadband, massive MIMO.

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2670 An Investigation on Efficient Spreading Codes for Transmitter Based Techniques to Mitigate MAI and ISI in TDD/CDMA Downlink

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil

Abstract:

We investigate efficient spreading codes for transmitter based techniques of code division multiple access (CDMA) systems. The channel is considered to be known at the transmitter which is usual in a time division duplex (TDD) system where the channel is assumed to be the same on uplink and downlink. For such a TDD/CDMA system, both bitwise and blockwise multiuser transmission schemes are taken up where complexity is transferred to the transmitter side so that the receiver has minimum complexity. Different spreading codes are considered at the transmitter to spread the signal efficiently over the entire spectrum. The bit error rate (BER) curves portray the efficiency of the codes in presence of multiple access interference (MAI) as well as inter symbol interference (ISI).

Keywords: Code division multiple access, time division duplex, transmitter technique, precoding, pre-rake, rake, spreading code.

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2669 Design and Performance Analysis of One Dimensional Zero Cross-Correlation Coding Technique for a Fixed Wavelength Hopping SAC-OCDMA

Authors: Satyasen Panda, Urmila Bhanja

Abstract:

This paper presents a SAC-OCDMA code with zero cross correlation property to minimize the Multiple Access Interface (MAI) as New Zero Cross Correlation code (NZCC), which is found to be more scalable compared to the other existing SAC-OCDMA codes. This NZCC code is constructed using address segment and data segment. In this work, the proposed NZCC code is implemented in an optical system using the Opti-System software for the spectral amplitude coded optical code-division multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA) scheme. The main contribution of the proposed NZCC code is the zero cross correlation, which reduces both the MAI and PIIN noises. The proposed NZCC code reveals properties of minimum cross-correlation, flexibility in selecting the code parameters and supports a large number of users, combined with high data rate and longer fiber length. Simulation results reveal that the optical code division multiple access system based on the proposed NZCC code accommodates maximum number of simultaneous users with higher data rate transmission, lower Bit Error Rates (BER) and longer travelling distance without any signal quality degradation, as compared to the former existing SAC-OCDMA codes.

Keywords: Cross Correlation, Optical Code Division Multiple Access, Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access, Multiple Access Interference, Phase Induced Intensity Noise, New Zero Cross Correlation code.

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2668 Design and Performance Improvement of Three-Dimensional Optical Code Division Multiple Access Networks with NAND Detection Technique

Authors: Satyasen Panda, Urmila Bhanja

Abstract:

In this paper, we have presented and analyzed three-dimensional (3-D) matrices of wavelength/time/space code for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) networks with NAND subtraction detection technique. The 3-D codes are constructed by integrating a two-dimensional modified quadratic congruence (MQC) code with one-dimensional modified prime (MP) code. The respective encoders and decoders were designed using fiber Bragg gratings and optical delay lines to minimize the bit error rate (BER). The performance analysis of the 3D-OCDMA system is based on measurement of signal to noise ratio (SNR), BER and eye diagram for a different number of simultaneous users. Also, in the analysis, various types of noises and multiple access interference (MAI) effects were considered. The results obtained with NAND detection technique were compared with those obtained with OR and AND subtraction techniques. The comparison results proved that the NAND detection technique with 3-D MQC\MP code can accommodate more number of simultaneous users for longer distances of fiber with minimum BER as compared to OR and AND subtraction techniques. The received optical power is also measured at various levels of BER to analyze the effect of attenuation.

Keywords: Cross correlation, three-dimensional optical code division multiple access, spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access, multiple access interference, phase induced intensity noise, three-dimensional modified quadratic congruence/modified prime code.

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2667 Analysis of MAC Protocols with Correlation Receiver for OCDMA Networks - Part II

Authors: Shivaleela E. S., Shrikant S. Tangade

Abstract:

In this paper optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) packet network is considered, which offers inherent security in the access networks. Two types of random access protocols are proposed for packet transmission. In protocol 1, all distinct codes and in protocol 2, distinct codes as well as shifted versions of all these codes are used. O-CDMA network performance using optical orthogonal codes (OOCs) 1-D and two-dimensional (2-D) wavelength/time single-pulse-per-row (W/T SPR) codes are analyzed. The main advantage of using 2-D codes instead of onedimensional (1-D) codes is to reduce the errors due to multiple access interference among different users. In this paper, correlation receiver is considered in the analysis. Using analytical model, we compute and compare packet-success probability for 1-D and 2-D codes in an O-CDMA network and the analysis shows improved performance with 2-D codes as compared to 1-D codes.

Keywords: Optical code-division multiple-access, optical CDMA correlation receiver, wavelength/time optical CDMA codes.

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2666 Performance of Subcarrier- OCDMA System with Complementary Subtraction Detection Technique

Authors: R. K. Z. Sahbudin, M. K. Abdullah, M. Mokhtar, S. B. A. Anas, S. Hitam

Abstract:

A subcarrier - spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access system using the Khazani-Syed code with Complementary subtraction detection technique is proposed. The proposed system has been analyzed by taking into account the effects of phase-induced intensity noise, shot noise, thermal noise and intermodulation distortion noise. The performance of the system has been compared with the spectral amplitude coding optical code division multiple access system using the Hadamard code and the Modified Quadratic Congruence code. The analysis shows that the proposed system can eliminate the multiple access interference using the Complementary subtraction detection technique, and hence improve the overall system performance.

Keywords: Complementary subtraction, Khazani-Syed code, multiple access interference, phase-induced intensity noise

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2665 Combined Beamforming and Channel Estimation in WCDMA Communication Systems

Authors: Nermin A. Mohamed, Mohamed F. Madkour

Abstract:

We address the problem of joint beamforming and multipath channel parameters estimation in Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) communication systems that employ Multiple-Access Interference (MAI) suppression techniques in the uplink (from mobile to base station). Most of the existing schemes rely on time multiplex a training sequence with the user data. In WCDMA, the channel parameters can also be estimated from a code multiplexed common pilot channel (CPICH) that could be corrupted by strong interference resulting in a bad estimate. In this paper, we present new methods to combine interference suppression together with channel estimation when using multiple receiving antennas by using adaptive signal processing techniques. Computer simulation is used to compare between the proposed methods and the existing conventional estimation techniques.

Keywords: Adaptive arrays, channel estimation, interferencecancellation, wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA).

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2664 Comparative Analysis of Various Multiuser Detection Techniques in SDMA-OFDM System Over the Correlated MIMO Channel Model for IEEE 802.16n

Authors: Susmita Das, Kala Praveen Bagadi

Abstract:

SDMA (Space-Division Multiple Access) is a MIMO (Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output) based wireless communication network architecture which has the potential to significantly increase the spectral efficiency and the system performance. The maximum likelihood (ML) detection provides the optimal performance, but its complexity increases exponentially with the constellation size of modulation and number of users. The QR decomposition (QRD) MUD can be a substitute to ML detection due its low complexity and near optimal performance. The minimum mean-squared-error (MMSE) multiuser detection (MUD) minimises the mean square error (MSE), which may not give guarantee that the BER of the system is also minimum. But the minimum bit error rate (MBER) MUD performs better than the classic MMSE MUD in term of minimum probability of error by directly minimising the BER cost function. Also the MBER MUD is able to support more users than the number of receiving antennas, whereas the rest of MUDs fail in this scenario. In this paper the performance of various MUD techniques is verified for the correlated MIMO channel models based on IEEE 802.16n standard.

Keywords: Multiple input multiple output, multiuser detection, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, space division multiple access, Bit error rate

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2663 WDM and OCDMA Systems under MAI Effects: A Comparison Analysis

Authors: Hilal A. Fadhil, Thanaa Hussein Abd, Hamza M. R. Al-Khafaji, S. A. Aljunid

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparison between Spectrum- Sliced Wavelength Division Multiplexing (SS-WDM) and Spectrum Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC Optical CDMA) systems for different light sources. The performance of the system is shown in the simulated results of the bit error rate (BER) and the eye diagram of both systems. The comparison results indicate that the Multiple Access Interference (MAI) effects have a significant impact on SS-WDM over SAC Optical CDMA systems. Finally, in terms of spectral efficiency at constant BER of 10-12, SSWDM offers higher spectral efficiency than optical CDMA since no bandwidth expansion in needed.

Keywords: WDM, OCDMA, BER, RD code

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2662 Reduction of Multiple User Interference for Optical CDMA Systems Using Successive Interference Cancellation Scheme

Authors: Tawfig Eltaif, Hesham A. Bakarman, N. Alsowaidi, M. R. Mokhtar, Malek Harbawi

Abstract:

Multiple User Interference (MUI) considers the primary problem in Optical Code-Division Multiple Access (OCDMA), which resulting from the overlapping among the users. In this article we aim to mitigate this problem by studying an interference cancellation scheme called successive interference cancellation (SIC) scheme. This scheme will be tested on two different detection schemes, spectral amplitude coding (SAC) and direct detection systems (DS), using partial modified prime (PMP) as the signature codes. It was found that SIC scheme based on both SAC and DS methods had a potential to suppress the intensity noise, that is to say it can mitigate MUI noise. Furthermore, SIC/DS scheme showed much lower bit error rate (BER) performance relative to SIC/SAC scheme for different magnitude of effective power. Hence, many more users can be supported by SIC/DS receiver system.

Keywords: Multiple User Interference (MUI), Optical Code-Division Multiple Access (OCDMA), Partial Modified Prime Code (PMP), Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC), Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC).

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2661 A Simplified Single Correlator Rake Receiver for CDMA Communications

Authors: K. Murali Krishna, Abhijit Mitra, C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper presents a single correlator RAKE receiver for direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) systems. In conventional RAKE receivers, multiple correlators are used to despread the multipath signals and then to align and combine those signals in a later stage before making a bit decision. The simplified receiver structure presented here uses a single correlator and single code sequence generator to recover the multipaths. Modified Walsh- Hadamard codes are used here for data spreading that provides better uncorrelation properties for the multipath signals. The main advantage of this receiver structure is that it requires only a single correlator and a code generator in contrary to the conventional RAKE receiver concept with multiple correlators. It is shown in results that the proposed receiver achieves better bit error rates in comparison with the conventional one for more than one multipaths.

Keywords: RAKE receiver, Code division multiple access, ModifiedWalsh-Hadamard codes, Single correlator.

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2660 On Pseudo-Random and Orthogonal Binary Spreading Sequences

Authors: Abhijit Mitra

Abstract:

Different pseudo-random or pseudo-noise (PN) as well as orthogonal sequences that can be used as spreading codes for code division multiple access (CDMA) cellular networks or can be used for encrypting speech signals to reduce the residual intelligence are investigated. We briefly review the theoretical background for direct sequence CDMA systems and describe the main characteristics of the maximal length, Gold, Barker, and Kasami sequences. We also discuss about variable- and fixed-length orthogonal codes like Walsh- Hadamard codes. The equivalence of PN and orthogonal codes are also derived. Finally, a new PN sequence is proposed which is shown to have certain better properties than the existing codes.

Keywords: Code division multiple access, pseudo-noise codes, maximal length, Gold, Barker, Kasami, Walsh-Hadamard, autocorrelation, crosscorrelation, figure of merit.

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2659 Performance Evaluation of One and Two Dimensional Prime Codes for Optical Code Division Multiple Access Systems

Authors: Gurjit Kaur, Neena Gupta

Abstract:

In this paper, we have analyzed and compared the performance of various coding schemes. The basic ID prime sequence codes are unique in only dimension, i.e. time slots, whereas 2D coding techniques are not unique by their time slots but with their wavelengths also. In this research, we have evaluated and compared the performance of 1D and 2D coding techniques constructed using prime sequence coding pattern for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system on a single platform. Analysis shows that 2D prime code supports lesser number of active users than 1D codes, but they are having large code family and are the most secure codes compared to other codes. The performance of all these codes is analyzed on basis of number of active users supported at a Bit Error Rate (BER) of 10-9.

Keywords: CDMA, OCDMA, BER, OOC, PC, EPC, MPC, 2-D PC/PC, λc, λa.

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2658 Performance Analysis of QS-CDMA Systems

Authors: Cuiran Li, Jianli Xie, Chengshu Li

Abstract:

In the paper, the performance of quasi-synchronous CDMA (QS-CDMA) system, which can allow an increased timing error in synchronized access, is discussed. Average BER performance of the system is analyzed in the condition of different access timing error and different asynchronous users by simulation in AWGN channel. The results show that QS-CDMA system is shown to have great performance gain over the asynchronous system when access timing error is within a few chips and asynchronous users is tolerable. However, with access timing error increasing and asynchronous users increasing, the performance of QS-CDMA will degrade. Also, we can determine the number of tolerable asynchronous users for different access timing error by simulation figures.

Keywords: Code-division multiple access, Quasi-SynchronousCDMA, Access timing error

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2657 Enhanced Performance of Fading Dispersive Channel Using Dynamic Frequency Hopping(DFH)

Authors: Walid M. Saad

Abstract:

techniques are examined to overcome the performance degradation caused by the channel dispersion using slow frequency hopping (SFH) with dynamic frequency hopping (DFH) pattern adaptation. In DFH systems, the frequency slots are selected by continuous quality monitoring of all frequencies available in a system and modification of hopping patterns for each individual link based on replacing slots which its signal to interference ratio (SIR) measurement is below a required threshold. Simulation results will show the improvements in BER obtained by DFH in comparison with matched frequency hopping (MFH), random frequency hopping (RFH) and multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) in multipath slowly fading dispersive channels using a generalized bandpass two-path transfer function model, and will show the improvement obtained according to the threshold selection.

Keywords: code division multiple access (CDMA), dynamic channel allocation (DCA), dynamic channel assignment, frequency hopping, matched frequency hopping (MFH).

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2656 Performance Analysis of 5G for Low Latency Transmission Based on Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier Technique and Interleave Division Multiple Access

Authors: A. Asgharzadeh, M. Maroufi

Abstract:

5G mobile communication system has drawn more and more attention. The 5G system needs to provide three different types of services, including enhanced Mobile BroadBand (eMBB), massive machine-type communication (mMTC), and ultra-reliable and low-latency communication (URLLC). Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC), Filter Bank Multicarrier (FBMC), and Filtered Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (f-OFDM) are suggested as a well-known candidate waveform for the coming 5G system. Themachine-to-machine (M2M) communications are one of the essential applications in 5G, and it involves exchanging of concise messages with a very short latency. However, in UFMC systems, the subcarriers are grouped into subbands but f-OFDM only one subband covers the entire band. Furthermore, in FBMC, a subband includes only one subcarrier, and the number of subbands is the same as the number of subcarriers. This paper mainly discusses the performance of UFMC with different parameters for the UFMC system. Also, paper shows that UFMC is the best choice outperforming OFDM in any case and FBMC in case of very short packets while performing similarly for long sequences with channel estimation techniques for Interleave Division Multiple Access (IDMA) systems.

Keywords: UFMC, IDMA, 5G, subband.

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2655 Analytical Mathematical Expression for the Channel Capacity of a Power and Rate Simultaneous Adaptive Cellular DS/FFH-CDMA Systemin a Rayleigh Fading Channel

Authors: P.Varzakas

Abstract:

In this paper, an accurate theoretical analysis for the achievable average channel capacity (in the Shannon sense) per user of a hybrid cellular direct-sequence/fast frequency hopping code-division multiple-access (DS/FFH-CDMA) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment is presented. The analysis covers the downlink operation and leads to the derivation of an exact mathematical expression between the normalized average channel capacity available to each system-s user, under simultaneous optimal power and rate adaptation and the system-s parameters, as the number of hops per bit, the processing gain applied, the number of users per cell and the received signal-tonoise power ratio over the signal bandwidth. Finally, numerical results are presented to illustrate the proposed mathematical analysis.

Keywords: Shannon capacity, adaptive systems, code-division multiple access, fading channels.

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2654 A Fast Code Acquisition Scheme for O-CDMA Systems

Authors: Youngpo Lee, Jaewoo Lee, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

This paper proposes a fast code acquisition scheme for optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) systems. Unlike the conventional scheme, the proposed scheme employs multiple thresholds providing a shorter mean acquisition time (MAT) performance. The simulation results show that the MAT of the proposed scheme is shorter than that of the conventional scheme.

Keywords: Optical CDMA, acquisition, MAT, multiple-shift

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2653 Adaptive Subchannel Allocation for MC-CDMA System

Authors: Cuiran Li, Jianli Xie, Chengshu Li

Abstract:

Multicarrier code-division multiple-access is one of the effective techniques to gain its multiple access capability, robustness against fading, and to mitigate the ISI. In this paper, we propose an improved mulcarrier CDMA system with adaptive subchannel allocation. We analyzed the performance of our proposed system in frequency selective fading environment with narrowband interference existing and compared it with that of parallel transmission over many subchannels (namely, conventional MC-CDMA scheme) and DS-CDMA system. Simulation results show that adaptive subchannel allocation scheme, when used in conventional multicarrier CDMA system, the performance will be greatly improved.

Keywords: MC-CDMA, Rayleigh fading, Narrowbandinterference, Channel estimation.

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2652 A PWM Controller with Multiple-Access Table Look-up for DC-DC Buck Conversion

Authors: Steve Hung-Lung Tu, Chu-Tse Lee

Abstract:

A new power regulator controller with multiple-access PID compensator is proposed, which can achieve a minimum memory requirement for fully table look-up. The proposed regulator controller employs hysteresis comparators, an error process unit (EPU) for voltage regulation, a multiple-access PID compensator and a lowpower- consumption digital PWM (DPWM). Based on the multipleaccess mechanism, the proposed controller can alleviate the penalty of large amount of memory employed for fully table look-up based PID compensator in the applications of power regulation. The proposed controller has been validated with simulation results.

Keywords: Multiple access, PID compensator, PWM, Buck conversion.

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2651 Performance Analysis of Selective Adaptive Multiple Access Interference Cancellation for Multicarrier DS-CDMA Systems

Authors: Maged Ahmed, Ahmed El-Mahdy

Abstract:

In this paper, Selective Adaptive Parallel Interference Cancellation (SA-PIC) technique is presented for Multicarrier Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (MC DS-CDMA) scheme. The motivation of using SA-PIC is that it gives high performance and at the same time, reduces the computational complexity required to perform interference cancellation. An upper bound expression of the bit error rate (BER) for the SA-PIC under Rayleigh fading channel condition is derived. Moreover, the implementation complexities for SA-PIC and Adaptive Parallel Interference Cancellation (APIC) are discussed and compared. The performance of SA-PIC is investigated analytically and validated via computer simulations.

Keywords: Adaptive interference cancellation, communicationsystems, multicarrier signal processing, spread spectrum

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2650 A Mobile Multihop Relay Dynamic TDD Scheme for Cellular Networks

Authors: Jong-Moon Chung, Hyung-Weon Cho, Ki-Yong Jin, Min-Hee Cho

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an analytical framework for the evaluation of the uplink performance of multihop cellular networks based on dynamic time division duplex (TDD). New wireless broadband protocols, such as WiMAX, WiBro, and 3G-LTE apply TDD, and mobile communication protocols under standardization (e.g., IEEE802.16j) are investigating mobile multihop relay (MMR) as a future technology. In this paper a novel MMR TDD scheme is presented, where the dynamic range of the frame is shared to traffic resources of asymmetric nature and multihop relaying. The mobile communication channel interference model comprises of inner and co-channel interference (CCI). The performance analysis focuses on the uplink due to the fact that the effects of dynamic resource allocation show significant performance degradation only in the uplink compared to time division multiple access (TDMA) schemes due to CCI [1-3], where the downlink results to be the same or better.The analysis was based on the signal to interference power ratio (SIR) outage probability of dynamic TDD (D-TDD) and TDMA systems,which are the most widespread mobile communication multi-user control techniques. This paper presents the uplink SIR outage probability with multihop results and shows that the dynamic TDD scheme applying MMR can provide a performance improvement compared to single hop applications if executed properly.

Keywords: Co-Channel Interference, Dynamic TDD, MobileMultihop Reply, Cellular Network, Time Division Multiple Access.

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2649 Performance Evaluation of the OCDM/WDM Technique for Optical Packet Switches

Authors: V. Eramo, L. Piazzo, M. Listanti, A. Germoni, A Cianfrani

Abstract:

The performance of the Optical Code Division Multiplexing/ Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM/OCDM) technique for Optical Packet Switch is investigated. The impact on the performance of the impairment due to both Multiple Access Interference and Beat noise is studied. The Packet Loss Probability due to output packet contentions is evaluated as a function of the main switch and traffic parameters when Gold coherent optical codes are adopted. The Packet Loss Probability of the OCDM/WDM switch can reach 10-9 when M=16 wavelengths, Gold code of length L=511 and only 24 wavelength converters are used in the switch.

Keywords: Optical code division multiplexing, bufferless optical packet switch, performance evaluation.

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2648 A novel Iterative Approach for Phase Noise Cancellation in Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) Systems

Authors: Joumana Farah, François Marx, Clovis Francis

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to emphasize and alleviate the effect of phase noise due to imperfect local oscillators on the performances of a Multi-Carrier CDMA system. After the cancellation of Common Phase Error (CPE), an iterative approach is introduced which iteratively estimates Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) components in the frequency domain and cancels their contribution in the time domain. Simulation are conducted in order to investigate the achievable performances for several parameters, such as the spreading factor, the modulation order, the phase noise power and the transmission Signal-to-Noise Ratio.

Keywords: Inter-carrier Interference, Multi-Carrier Code DivisionMultiple Access, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, Phase noise.

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2647 System Performance Comparison of Turbo and Trellis Coded Optical CDMA Systems

Authors: M. Kulkarni, R. K. Sinha, D. R. Bhaskar

Abstract:

In this paper, we have compared the performance of a Turbo and Trellis coded optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system. The comparison of the two codes has been accomplished by employing optical orthogonal codes (OOCs). The Bit Error Rate (BER) performances have been compared by varying the code weights of address codes employed by the system. We have considered the effects of optical multiple access interference (OMAI), thermal noise and avalanche photodiode (APD) detector noise. Analysis has been carried out for the system with and without double optical hard limiter (DHL). From the simulation results it is observed that a better and distinct comparison can be drawn between the performance of Trellis and Turbo coded systems, at lower code weights of optical orthogonal codes for a fixed number of users. The BER performance of the Turbo coded system is found to be better than the Trellis coded system for all code weights that have been considered for the simulation. Nevertheless, the Trellis coded OCDMA system is found to be better than the uncoded OCDMA system. Trellis coded OCDMA can be used in systems where decoding time has to be kept low, bandwidth is limited and high reliability is not a crucial factor as in local area networks. Also the system hardware is less complex in comparison to the Turbo coded system. Trellis coded OCDMA system can be used without significant modification of the existing chipsets. Turbo-coded OCDMA can however be employed in systems where high reliability is needed and bandwidth is not a limiting factor.

Keywords: avalanche photodiode, optical code division multipleaccess, optical multiple access interference, Trellis codedmodulation, Turbo code

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2646 Design and Performance of Adaptive Polarized MIMO MC-SS-CDMA System for Downlink Mobile Communications

Authors: Joseph V. M. Halim, Hesham El-Badawy, Hadia M. El-Hennawy

Abstract:

In this paper, an adaptive polarized Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Multicarrier Spread Spectrum Code Division Multiple Access (MC-SS-CDMA) system is designed for downlink mobile communications. The proposed system will be examined in Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) mode for both macro urban and suburban environments. For the same transmission bandwidth, a performance comparison between both nonoverlapped and orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) schemes will be presented. Also, the proposed system will be compared with both the closed loop vertical MIMO MC-SS-CDMA system and the synchronous vertical STBC-MIMO MC-SS-CDMA system. As will be shown, the proposed system introduces a significant performance gain as well as reducing the spatial dimensions of the MIMO system and simplifying the receiver implementation. The effect of the polarization diversity characteristics on the BER performance will be discussed. Also, the impact of excluding the cross-polarization MCSS- CDMA blocks in the base station will be investigated. In addition, the system performance will be evaluated under different Feedback Information (FBI) rates for slowly-varying channels. Finally, a performance comparison for vehicular and pedestrian environments will be presented

Keywords: Closed loop technique, MC-SS-CDMA, Polarized MIMO systems, Transmit diversity.

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2645 Performance Analysis of IDMA Scheme Using Quasi-Cyclic Low Density Parity Check Codes

Authors: Anurag Saxena, Alkesh Agrawal, Dinesh Kumar

Abstract:

The next generation mobile communication systems i.e. fourth generation (4G) was developed to accommodate the quality of service and required data rate. This project focuses on multiple access technique proposed in 4G communication systems. It is attempted to demonstrate the IDMA (Interleave Division Multiple Access) technology. The basic principle of IDMA is that interleaver is different for each user whereas CDMA employs different signatures. IDMA inherits many advantages of CDMA such as robust against fading, easy cell planning; dynamic channel sharing and IDMA increase the spectral efficiency and reduce the receiver complexity. In this, performance of IDMA is analyzed using QC-LDPC coding scheme further it is compared with LDPC coding and at last BER is calculated and plotted in MATLAB.

Keywords: 4G, QC-LDPC, CDMA, IDMA.

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2644 Channels Splitting Strategy for Optical Local Area Networks of Passive Star Topology

Authors: Peristera Baziana

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a network configuration for a WDM LANs of passive star topology that assume that the set of data WDM channels is split into two separate sets of channels, with different access rights over them. Especially, a synchronous transmission WDMA access algorithm is adopted in order to increase the probability of successful transmission over the data channels and consequently to reduce the probability of data packets transmission cancellation in order to avoid the data channels collisions. Thus, a control pre-transmission access scheme is followed over a separate control channel. An analytical Markovian model is studied and the average throughput is mathematically derived. The performance is studied for several numbers of data channels and various values of control phase duration.

Keywords: Access algorithm, channels division, collisions avoidance, wavelength division multiplexing.

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2643 An Analytical Study on Rotational Capacity of Beam-Column Joints in Unit Modular Frames

Authors: Kyung-Suk Choi, Hyung-Joon Kim

Abstract:

Modular structural systems are constructed using a method that they are assembled with prefabricated unit modular frames on-site. This provides a benefit that can significantly reduce building construction time. The structural design is usually carried out under the assumption that their load-carrying mechanism is similar to that of traditional steel moment-resisting systems. However, both systems are different in terms of beam-column connection details which may strongly influence the lateral structural behavior. Specially, the presence of access holes in a beam-column joint of a unit modular frame could cause undesirable failure during strong earthquakes. Therefore, this study carried out finite element analyses (FEMs) of unit modular frames to investigate the cyclic behavior of beam-column joints with the access holes. Analysis results show that the unit modular frames present stable cyclic response with large deformation capacities and their joints are classified into semi-rigid connections even if there are access holes.

Keywords: Unit modular frame, steel moment connection, nonlinear analytical model, moment-rotation relation, access holes.

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2642 Non-Linear Vibration and Stability Analysis of an Axially Moving Beam with Rotating-Prismatic Joint

Authors: M. Najafi, F. Rahimi Dehgolan

Abstract:

In this paper, the dynamic modeling of a single-link flexible beam with a tip mass is given by using Hamilton's principle. The link has been rotational and translational motion and it was assumed that the beam is moving with a harmonic velocity about a constant mean velocity. Non-linearity has been introduced by including the non-linear strain to the analysis. Dynamic model is obtained by Euler-Bernoulli beam assumption and modal expansion method. Also, the effects of rotary inertia, axial force, and associated boundary conditions of the dynamic model were analyzed. Since the complex boundary value problem cannot be solved analytically, the multiple scale method is utilized to obtain an approximate solution. Finally, the effects of several conditions on the differences among the behavior of the non-linear term, mean velocity on natural frequencies and the system stability are discussed.

Keywords: Non-linear vibration, stability, axially moving beam, bifurcation, multiple scales method.

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