Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 232

Search results for: universal algebra.

232 Assessing the Relation between Theory of Multiple Algebras and Universal Algebras

Authors: Mona Taheri

Abstract:

In this study, we examine multiple algebras and algebraic structures derived from them and by stating a theory on multiple algebras; we will show that the theory of multiple algebras is a natural extension of the theory of universal algebras. Also, we will treat equivalence relations on multiple algebras, for which the quotient constructed modulo them is a universal algebra and will study the basic relation and the fundamental algebra in question. In this study, by stating the characteristic theorem of multiple algebras, we show that the theory of multiple algebras is a natural extension of the theory of universal algebras.

Keywords: multiple algebras , universal algebras

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231 How are Equalities Defined, Strong or Weak on a Multiple Algebra?

Authors: Mona Taheri

Abstract:

For the purpose of finding the quotient structure of multiple algebras such as groups, Abelian groups and rings, we will state concepts of ( strong or weak ) equalities on multiple algebras, which will lead us to research on how ( strong or weak) are equalities defined on a multiple algebra over the quotients obtained from it. In order to find a quotient structure of multiple algebras such as groups, Abelian groups and loops, a part of this article has been allocated to the concepts of equalities (strong and weak) of the defined multiple functions on multiple algebras. This leads us to do research on how defined equalities (strong and weak) are made in the multiple algebra on its resulted quotient.

Keywords: Multiple algebra, mathematics, universal algebra.

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230 Expressive Modes and Species of Language

Authors: Richard Elling Moe

Abstract:

Computer languages are usually lumped together into broad -paradigms-, leaving us in want of a finer classification of kinds of language. Theories distinguishing between -genuine differences- in language has been called for, and we propose that such differences can be observed through a notion of expressive mode. We outline this concept, propose how it could be operationalized and indicate a possible context for the development of a corresponding theory. Finally we consider a possible application in connection with evaluation of language revision. We illustrate this with a case, investigating possible revisions of the relational algebra in order to overcome weaknesses of the division operator in connection with universal queries.

Keywords: Expressive mode, Computer language species, Evaluation of revision, Relational algebra, Universal database queries

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229 On the Invariant Uniform Roe Algebra as Crossed Product

Authors: Kankeyanathan Kannan

Abstract:

The uniform Roe C*-algebra (also called uniform translation)C^*- algebra provides a link between coarse geometry and C^*- algebra theory. The uniform Roe algebra has a great importance in geometry, topology and analysis. We consider some of the elementary concepts associated with coarse spaces. 

Keywords: Invariant Approximation Property, Uniform Roe algebras.

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228 Explicit Chain Homotopic Function to Compute Hochschild Homology of the Polynomial Algebra

Authors: Z. Altawallbeh

Abstract:

In this paper, an explicit homotopic function is constructed to compute the Hochschild homology of a finite dimensional free k-module V. Because the polynomial algebra is of course fundamental in the computation of the Hochschild homology HH and the cyclic homology CH of commutative algebras, we concentrate our work to compute HH of the polynomial algebra, by providing certain homotopic function.

Keywords: Exterior algebra, free resolution, free and projective modules, Hochschild homology, homotopic function, symmetric algebra.

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227 Deduction of Fuzzy Autocatalytic Set to Omega Algebra and Transformation Semigroup

Authors: Liew Siaw Yee, Tahir Ahmad

Abstract:

In this paper, the Fuzzy Autocatalytic Set (FACS) is composed into Omega Algebra by embedding the membership value of fuzzy edge connectivity using the property of transitive affinity. Then, the Omega Algebra of FACS is a transformation semigroup which is a special class of semigroup is shown.

Keywords: Fuzzy autocatalytic set, omega algebra, semigroup, transformation semigroup.

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226 Equalities in a Variety of Multiple Algebras

Authors: Mona Taheri

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study the concepts of multiple Cartesian product, variety of multiple algebras and to present some examples. In the theory of multiple algebras, like other theories, deriving new things and concepts from the things and concepts available in the context is important. For example, the first were obtained from the quotient of a group modulo the equivalence relation defined by a subgroup of it. Gratzer showed that every multiple algebra can be obtained from the quotient of a universal algebra modulo a given equivalence relation. The purpose of this study is examination of multiple algebras and basic relations defined on them as well as introduction to some algebraic structures derived from multiple algebras. Among the structures obtained from multiple algebras, this article studies submultiple algebras, quotients of multiple algebras and the Cartesian product of multiple algebras.

Keywords: hypergroup, multiple algebras

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225 Universal Metadata Definition

Authors: Mohib ur Rehman, Mohammad Haseeb Anwer, Nadeem Iftikhar

Abstract:

The need to have standards has always been a priority of all the disciplines in the world. Today, standards such as XML and USB are trying to create a universal interface for their respective areas. The information regarding every family in the discipline addressed, must have a lot in common, known as Metadata. A lot of work has been done in specific domains such as IEEE LOM and MPEG-7 but they do not appeal to the universality of creating Metadata for all entities, where we take an entity (object) as, not restricted to Software Terms. This paper tries to address this problem of universal Metadata Definition which may lead to increase in precision of search.

Keywords: Metadata, Standard, Universal, XML.

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224 1−Skeleton Resolution of Free Simplicial Algebras with Given CW−Basis

Authors: Ali Mutlu, Berrin Mutlu

Abstract:

In this paper we use the definition of CW basis of a free simplicial algebra. Using the free simplicial algebra, it is shown to construct free or totally free 2−crossed modules on suitable construction data with given a CW−basis of the free simplicial algebra. We give applications free crossed squares, free squared complexes and free 2−crossed complexes by using of 1(one) skeleton resolution of a step by step construction of the free simplicial algebra with a given CW−basis.

Keywords: Free crossed square, Free 2−crossed modules, Free simplicial algebra, Free square complexes, Free 2−crossed complexes CW−basis, 1−skeleton. A. M. S.Classification:[2000] 18D35, 18G30, 18G50, 18G55, 55Q05, 55Q20.

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223 Query Algebra for Semistuctured Data

Authors: Ei Ei Myat, Ni Lar Thein

Abstract:

With the tremendous growth of World Wide Web (WWW) data, there is an emerging need for effective information retrieval at the document level. Several query languages such as XML-QL, XPath, XQL, Quilt and XQuery are proposed in recent years to provide faster way of querying XML data, but they still lack of generality and efficiency. Our approach towards evolving a framework for querying semistructured documents is based on formal query algebra. Two elements are introduced in the proposed framework: first, a generic and flexible data model for logical representation of semistructured data and second, a set of operators for the manipulation of objects defined in the data model. In additional to accommodating several peculiarities of semistructured data, our model offers novel features such as bidirectional paths for navigational querying and partitions for data transformation that are not available in other proposals.

Keywords: Algebra, Semistructured data, Query Algebra.

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222 Multiplicative Functional on Upper Triangular Fuzzy Matrices

Authors: Liu Ping

Abstract:

In this paper, for an arbitrary multiplicative functional f from the set of all upper triangular fuzzy matrices to the fuzzy algebra, we prove that there exist a multiplicative functional F and a functional G from the fuzzy algebra to the fuzzy algebra such that the image of an upper triangular fuzzy matrix under f can be represented as the product of all the images of its main diagonal elements under F and other elements under G.

Keywords: Multiplicative functional, triangular fuzzy matrix, fuzzy addition operation, fuzzy multiplication operation.

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221 Algebraic Quantum Error Correction Codes

Authors: Ming-Chung Tsai, Kuan-Peng Chen, Zheng-Yao

Abstract:

A systematic and exhaustive method based on the group structure of a unitary Lie algebra is proposed to generate an enormous number of quantum codes. With respect to the algebraic structure, the orthogonality condition, which is the central rule of generating quantum codes, is proved to be fully equivalent to the distinguishability of the elements in this structure. In addition, four types of quantum codes are classified according to the relation of the codeword operators and some initial quantum state. By linking the unitary Lie algebra with the additive group, the classical correspondences of some of these quantum codes can be rendered.

Keywords: Quotient-Algebra Partition, Codeword Spinors, Basis Codewords, Syndrome Spinors

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220 An Algebra for Protein Structure Data

Authors: Yanchao Wang, Rajshekhar Sunderraman

Abstract:

This paper presents an algebraic approach to optimize queries in domain-specific database management system for protein structure data. The approach involves the introduction of several protein structure specific algebraic operators to query the complex data stored in an object-oriented database system. The Protein Algebra provides an extensible set of high-level Genomic Data Types and Protein Data Types along with a comprehensive collection of appropriate genomic and protein functions. The paper also presents a query translator that converts high-level query specifications in algebra into low-level query specifications in Protein-QL, a query language designed to query protein structure data. The query transformation process uses a Protein Ontology that serves the purpose of a dictionary.

Keywords: Domain-Specific Data Management, Protein Algebra, Protein Ontology, Protein Structure Data.

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219 Fixed Point Equations Related to Motion Integrals in Renormalization Hopf Algebra

Authors: Ali Shojaei-Fard

Abstract:

In this paper we consider quantum motion integrals depended on the algebraic reconstruction of BPHZ method for perturbative renormalization in two different procedures. Then based on Bogoliubov character and Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff (BCH) formula, we show that how motion integral condition on components of Birkhoff factorization of a Feynman rules character on Connes- Kreimer Hopf algebra of rooted trees can determine a family of fixed point equations.

Keywords: Birkhoff Factorization, Connes-Kreimer Hopf Algebra of Rooted Trees, Integral Renormalization, Lax Pair Equation, Rota- Baxter Algebras.

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218 Computational Algorithm for Obtaining Abelian Subalgebras in Lie Algebras

Authors: Manuel Ceballos, Juan Nunez, Angel F. Tenorio

Abstract:

The set of all abelian subalgebras is computationally obtained for any given finite-dimensional Lie algebra, starting from the nonzero brackets in its law. More concretely, an algorithm is described and implemented to compute a basis for each nontrivial abelian subalgebra with the help of the symbolic computation package MAPLE. Finally, it is also shown a brief computational study for this implementation, considering both the computing time and the used memory.

Keywords: Solvable Lie algebra, maximal abelian dimension, algorithm.

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217 Formex Algebra Adaptation into Parametric Design Tools: Dome Structures

Authors: Réka Sárközi, Péter Iványi, Attila B. Széll

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation of the dome construction tool for formex algebra to the parametric design software Grasshopper. Formex algebra is a mathematical system, primarily used for planning structural systems such like truss-grid domes and vaults, together with the programming language Formian. The goal of the research is to allow architects to plan truss-grid structures easily with parametric design tools based on the versatile formex algebra mathematical system. To produce regular structures, coordinate system transformations are used and the dome structures are defined in spherical coordinate system. Owing to the abilities of the parametric design software, it is possible to apply further modifications on the structures and gain special forms. The paper covers the basic dome types, and also additional dome-based structures using special coordinate-system solutions based on spherical coordinate systems. It also contains additional structural possibilities like making double layer grids in all geometry forms. The adaptation of formex algebra and the parametric workflow of Grasshopper together give the possibility of quick and easy design and optimization of special truss-grid domes.

Keywords: Parametric design, structural morphology, space structures, spherical coordinate system.

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216 Non Approximately Inner Tensor Product of C*—Algebras

Authors: Rasoul Abazari

Abstract:

In this paper, we show that C*-tensor product of an arbitrary C*-algebra A, (not unital necessary) and C*-algebra B without ground state, have no approximately inner strongly continuous one-parameter group of *-automorphisms.

Keywords: One–parameter group, C*– tensor product, Approximately inner, Ground state.

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215 Some Algebraic Properties of Universal and Regular Covering Spaces

Authors: Ahmet Tekcan

Abstract:

Let X be a connected space, X be a space, let p : X -→ X be a continuous map and let (X, p) be a covering space of X. In the first section we give some preliminaries from covering spaces and their automorphism groups. In the second section we derive some algebraic properties of both universal and regular covering spaces (X, p) of X and also their automorphism groups A(X, p).

Keywords: covering space, universal covering, regular covering, fundamental group, automorphism group.

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214 A Generalised Relational Data Model

Authors: Georgia Garani

Abstract:

A generalised relational data model is formalised for the representation of data with nested structure of arbitrary depth. A recursive algebra for the proposed model is presented. All the operations are formally defined. The proposed model is proved to be a superset of the conventional relational model (CRM). The functionality and validity of the model is shown by a prototype implementation that has been undertaken in the functional programming language Miranda.

Keywords: nested relations, recursive algebra, recursive nested operations, relational data model.

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213 Theory of Fractions in College Algebra Course

Authors: Alexander Y. Vaninsky

Abstract:

The paper compares the treatment of fractions in a typical undergraduate college curriculum and in abstract algebra textbooks. It stresses that the main difference is that the undergraduate curriculum treats equivalent fractions as equal, and this treatment eventually leads to paradoxes and impairs the students- ability to perceive ratios, proportions, radicals and rational exponents adequately. The paper suggests a simplified version of rigorous theory of fractions suitable for regular college curriculum.

Keywords: Fractions, mathematics curriculum, mathematics education, teacher preparation

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212 Universal Kinetic Modeling of RAFT Polymerization using Moment Equations

Authors: Mehdi Salami-Kalajahi, Pejman Ganjeh-Anzabi, Vahid Haddadi-Asl, Mohammad Najafi

Abstract:

In the following text, we show that by introducing universal kinetic scheme, the origin of rate retardation and inhibition period which observed in dithiobenzoate-mediated RAFT polymerization can be described properly. We develop our model by utilizing the method of moments, then we apply our model to different monomer/RAFT agent systems, both homo- and copolymerization. The modeling results are in an excellent agreement with experiments and imply the validity of universal kinetic scheme, not only for dithiobenzoate-mediated systems, but also for different types of monomer/RAFT agent ones.

Keywords: RAFT Polymerization, Mechanism, Kinetics, Moment Equations, Modeling.

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211 Fractal Shapes Description with Parametric L-systems and Turtle Algebra

Authors: Ikbal Zammouri, Béchir Ayeb

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new method to describe fractal shapes using parametric l-systems. First we introduce scaling factors in the production rules of the parametric l-systems grammars. Then we decorticate these grammars with scaling factors using turtle algebra to show the mathematical relation between l-systems and iterated function systems (IFS). We demonstrate that with specific values of the scaling factors, we find the exact relationship established by Prusinkiewicz and Hammel between l-systems and IFS.

Keywords: Fractal shapes, IFS, parametric l-systems, turtlealgebra.

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210 Generalized π-Armendariz Authentication Cryptosystem

Authors: Areej M. Abduldaim, Nadia M. G. Al-Saidi

Abstract:

Algebra is one of the important fields of mathematics. It concerns with the study and manipulation of mathematical symbols. It also concerns with the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. Due to the development of these abstractions, it is extended to consider other structures, such as vectors, matrices, and polynomials, which are non-numerical objects. Computer algebra is the implementation of algebraic methods as algorithms and computer programs. Recently, many algebraic cryptosystem protocols are based on non-commutative algebraic structures, such as authentication, key exchange, and encryption-decryption processes are adopted. Cryptography is the science that aimed at sending the information through public channels in such a way that only an authorized recipient can read it. Ring theory is the most attractive category of algebra in the area of cryptography. In this paper, we employ the algebraic structure called skew -Armendariz rings to design a neoteric algorithm for zero knowledge proof. The proposed protocol is established and illustrated through numerical example, and its soundness and completeness are proved.

Keywords: Cryptosystem, identification, skew π-Armendariz rings, skew polynomial rings, zero knowledge protocol.

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209 Universal Current-Mode OTA-C KHN Biquad

Authors: Dalibor Biolek, Viera Biolková, Zden─øk Kolka

Abstract:

A universal current-mode biquad is described which represents an economical variant of well-known KHN (Kerwin, Huelsman, Newcomb) voltage-mode filter. The circuit consists of two multiple-output OTAs and of two grounded capacitors. Utilizing simple splitter of the input current and a pair of jumpers, all the basic 2nd-order transfer functions can be implemented. The principle is verified by Spice simulation on the level of a CMOS structure of OTAs.

Keywords: Biquad, current mode, OTA.

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208 Current-Mode Resistorless SIMO Universal Filter and Four-Phase Quadrature Oscillator

Authors: Jie Jin

Abstract:

In this paper, a new CMOS current-mode single input and multi-outputs (SIMO) universal filter and quadrature oscillator with a similar circuit are proposed. The circuits only consist of three Current differencing transconductance amplifiers (CDTA) and two grounded capacitors, which are resistorless, and they are suitable for monolithic integration. The universal filter uses minimum CDTAs and passive elements to realize SIMO type low-pass (LP), high-pass (HP), band-pass (BP) band-stop (BS) and all-pass (AP) filter functions simultaneously without any component matching conditions. The angular frequency (ω0) and the quality factor (Q) of the proposed filter can be electronically controlled and tuned orthogonal. By some modifications of the filter, a new current-mode four-phase quadrature oscillator (QO) can be obtained easily. The condition of oscillation (CO) and frequency of oscillation (FO) of the QO can be controlled electronically and independently through the bias current of the CDTAs, and it is suitable for variable frequency oscillator. Moreover, all the passive and active sensitivities of the circuits are low. SPICE simulation results are included to confirm the theory.

Keywords: Universal Filter, Quadrature Oscillator, Current mode, Current differencing transconductance amplifiers.

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207 Personalization and the Universal Communications Identifier Concept

Authors: Françoise Petersen, Mike Pluke, Tatiana Kovacikova, Giovanni Bartolomeo

Abstract:

As communications systems and technology become more advanced and complex, it will be increasingly important to focus on users- individual needs. Personalization and effective user profile management will be necessary to ensure the uptake and success of new services and devices and it is therefore important to focus on the users- requirements in this area and define solutions that meet these requirements. The work on personalization and user profiles emerged from earlier ETSI work on a Universal Communications Identifier (UCI) which is a unique identifier of the user rather than a range of identifiers of the many of communication devices or services (e.g. numbers of fixed phone at home/work, mobile phones, fax and email addresses). This paper describes work on personalization including standardized information and preferences and an architectural framework providing a description of how personalization can be integrated in Next Generation Networks, together with the UCI concept.

Keywords: Interoperability, Next Generation Network (NGN), Personalization, Universal Communications Identifier (UCI), User Profile Management (UPM)

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206 Delay-independent Stabilization of Linear Systems with Multiple Time-delays

Authors: Ping He, Heng-You Lan, Gong-Quan Tan

Abstract:

The multidelays linear control systems described by difference differential equations are often studied in modern control theory. In this paper, the delay-independent stabilization algebraic criteria and the theorem of delay-independent stabilization for linear systems with multiple time-delays are established by using the Lyapunov functional and the Riccati algebra matrix equation in the matrix theory. An illustrative example and the simulation result, show that the approach to linear systems with multiple time-delays is effective.

Keywords: Linear system, Delay-independent stabilization, Lyapunovfunctional, Riccati algebra matrix equation.

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205 Design and Analysis of Universal Multifunctional Leaf Spring Main Landing Gear for Light Aircraft

Authors: Meiyuan Zheng, Jingwu He, Yuexi Xiong

Abstract:

A universal multi-function leaf spring main landing gear was designed for light aircraft. The main landing gear combined with the leaf spring, skidding, and wheels enables it to have a good takeoff and landing performance on various grounds such as the hard, snow, grass and sand grounds. Firstly, the characteristics of different landing sites were studied in this paper in order to analyze the load of the main landing gear on different types of grounds. Based on this analysis, the structural design optimization along with the strength and stiffness characteristics of the main landing gear has been done, which enables it to have good takeoff and landing performance on different types of grounds given the relevant regulations and standards. Additionally, the impact of the skidding on the aircraft during the flight was also taken into consideration. Finally, a universal multi-function leaf spring type of the main landing gear suitable for light aircraft has been developed.

Keywords: Landing gear, multi-function, leaf spring, skidding.

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204 Analyzing Periurban Fringe with Rough Set

Authors: Benedetto Manganelli, Beniamino Murgante

Abstract:

The distinction among urban, periurban and rural areas represents a classical example of uncertainty in land classification. Satellite images, geostatistical analysis and all kinds of spatial data are very useful in urban sprawl studies, but it is important to define precise rules in combining great amounts of data to build complex knowledge about territory. Rough Set theory may be a useful method to employ in this field. It represents a different mathematical approach to uncertainty by capturing the indiscernibility. Two different phenomena can be indiscernible in some contexts and classified in the same way when combining available information about them. This approach has been applied in a case of study, comparing the results achieved with both Map Algebra technique and Spatial Rough Set. The study case area, Potenza Province, is particularly suitable for the application of this theory, because it includes 100 municipalities with different number of inhabitants and morphologic features.

Keywords: Land Classification, Map Algebra, Periurban Fringe, Rough Set, Urban Planning, Urban Sprawl.

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203 Universal Method for Timetable Construction based on Evolutionary Approach

Authors: Maciej Norberciak

Abstract:

Timetabling problems are often hard and timeconsuming to solve. Most of the methods of solving them concern only one problem instance or class. This paper describes a universal method for solving large, highly constrained timetabling problems from different domains. The solution is based on evolutionary algorithm-s framework and operates on two levels – first-level evolutionary algorithm tries to find a solution basing on given set of operating parameters, second-level algorithm is used to establish those parameters. Tabu search is employed to speed up the solution finding process on first level. The method has been used to solve three different timetabling problems with promising results.

Keywords: Evolutionary algorithms, tabu search, timetabling.

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