Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 217

Search results for: Fighter Aircraft

217 Vague Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis Method for Fighter Aircraft Selection

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

Fighter aircraft selection is one of the most critical strategies for defense multiple criteria decision-making analysis to increase the decisive power of air defense and its superior power in the defense strategy. Vague set theory is an adequate approach for modeling vagueness, uncertainty, and imprecision in decision-making problems. This study integrates vague set theory and the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to support fighter aircraft selection. The proposed method is applied in the selection of fighter aircraft for the Air Force. In the proposed approach, the ratings of alternatives and the importance weights of criteria for fighter aircraft selection are represented by the vague set theory. Finally, an illustrative example for fighter aircraft selection is given to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach. The fighter aircraft candidates were selected under six criteria including costability, payloadability, maneuverability, speedability, stealthility, and survivability. Analysis results show that the best fighter aircraft is selected with the highest closeness coefficient value. The proposed method can also be applied to solve other multiple criteria decision analysis problems. 

Keywords: fighter aircraft selection, vague set theory, fuzzy set theory, neutrosophic set theory, multiple criteria decision making analysis, MCDMA, TOPSIS

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216 Fighter Aircraft Selection Using Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution with Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper presents a multiple criteria decision making analysis technique for selecting fighter aircraft for the national air force. The selection of military aircraft is a process consisting of contradictory goals and objectives. When a modern air force needs to choose fighter aircraft to upgrade existing fleets, a multiple criteria decision making analysis and scenario planning for defense acquisition has been put forward. The selection of fighter aircraft for the air defense force is a strategic decision making process, since the purchase or lease of fighter jets, maintenance and operating costs and having a fleet is the biggest cost for the air force. Multiple criteria decision making analysis methods are effectively applied to facilitate decision making from various available options. The selection criteria were determined using the literature on the problem of fighter aircraft selection. The selection of fighter aircraft to be purchased for the air defense forces is handled using a multiple criteria decision making analysis technique that also determines a suitable methodological approach for the defense procurement and fleet upgrade planning process. The aim of this study is to originate an approach to evaluate fighter aircraft alternatives, Su-35, F-35, and TF-X (MMU), based on technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS).

Keywords: Fighter Aircraft, Fighter Aircraft Selection, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, TOPSIS, Multiple Criteria Decision Making, Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis, MCDMA, Su-35, F-35, TF-X (MMU)

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215 Fighter Aircraft Selection Using Fuzzy Preference Optimization Programming (POP)

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

The Turkish Air Force needs to acquire a sixth- generation fighter aircraft in order to maintain its air superiority and dominance against its rivals under the risks posed by global geopolitical opportunities and threats. Accordingly, five evaluation criteria were determined to evaluate the sixth-generation fighter aircraft alternatives and to select the best one. Systematically, a new fuzzy preference optimization programming (POP) method is proposed to select the best sixth generation fighter aircraft in an uncertain environment. The POP technique considers both quantitative and qualitative evaluation criteria. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach, it is applied to a multiple criteria decision-making problem to evaluate and select sixth-generation fighter aircraft. The results of the fuzzy POP method are compared with the results of the fuzzy TOPSIS approach to validate it. According to the comparative analysis, fuzzy POP and fuzzy TOPSIS methods get the same results. This demonstrates the applicability of the fuzzy POP technique to address the sixth-generation fighter selection problem.

Keywords: Fighter aircraft selection, sixth-generation fighter aircraft, fuzzy decision process, multiple criteria decision making, preference optimization programming, POP, TOPSIS, Kizilelma, MIUS, fuzzy set theory

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214 Neutrosophic Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis Method for Selecting Stealth Fighter Aircraft

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

In this paper, a neutrosophic multiple criteria decision analysis method is proposed to select stealth fighter aircraft. Neutrosophic multiple criteria decision analysis methods are used to analyze the neutrosophic environment and give results under uncertainty and incompleteness. Neutrosophic numbers are used to evaluate alternatives over a set of evaluation criteria in decision making problems. Finally, the proposed model is applied to a practical decision problem for selecting stealth fighter aircraft.

Keywords: neutrosophic sets, multiple criteria decision making analysis, stealth fighter aircraft, aircraft selection, MCDMA, SVNNs

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213 Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis for Selecting and Evaluating Fighter Aircraft

Authors: C. Ardil, A. M. Pashaev, R.A. Sadiqov, P. Abdullayev

Abstract:

In this paper, multiple criteria decision making analysis technique, is presented for ranking and selection of a set of determined alternatives - fighter aircraft - which are associated with a set of decision factors. In fighter aircraft design, conflicting decision criteria, disciplines, and technologies are always involved in the design process. Multiple criteria decision making analysis techniques can be helpful to effectively deal with such situations and make wise design decisions. Multiple criteria decision making analysis theory is a systematic mathematical approach for dealing with problems which contain uncertainties in decision making. The feasibility and contributions of applying the multiple criteria decision making analysis technique in fighter aircraft selection analysis is explored. In this study, an integrated framework incorporating multiple criteria decision making analysis technique in fighter aircraft analysis is established using entropy objective weighting method. An improved integrated multiple criteria decision making analysis method is utilized to aggregate the multiple decision criteria into one composite figure of merit, which serves as an objective function in the decision process. Therefore, it is demonstrated that the suitable multiple criteria decision making analysis method with decision solution provides an effective objective function for the decision making analysis. Considering that the inherent uncertainties and the weighting factors have crucial decision impacts on the fighter aircraft evaluation, seven fighter aircraft models for the multiple design criteria in terms of the weighting factors are constructed. The proposed multiple criteria decision making analysis model is based on integrated entropy index procedure, and additive multiple criteria decision making analysis theory. Hence, the applicability of proposed technique for fighter aircraft selection problem is considered. The constructed multiple criteria decision making analysis model can provide efficient decision analysis approach for uncertainty assessment of the decision problem. Consequently, the fighter aircraft alternatives are ranked based their final evaluation scores, and sensitivity analysis is conducted.

Keywords: Fighter Aircraft, Fighter Aircraft Selection, Multiple Criteria Decision Making, Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis, MCDMA

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212 Fighter Aircraft Selection Using Neutrosophic Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

Fuzzy set and intuitionistic fuzzy set are dealing with the imprecision and uncertainty inherent in a complex decision problem. However, sometimes these theories are not sufficient to model indeterminate and inconsistent information encountered in real-life problems. To overcome this insufficiency, the neutrosophic set, which is useful in practical applications, is proposed, triangular neutrosophic numbers and trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers are examined, their definitions and applications are discussed. In this study, a decision making algorithm is developed using neutrosophic set processes and an application is given in fighter aircraft selection as an example of a decision making problem. The estimation of the fighter aircraft selection with the neutrosophic multiple criteria decision analysis method is examined.  

Keywords: neutrosophic set, multiple criteria decision making analysis, fighter aircraft selection, MCDMA, neutrosophic numbers

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211 Analysis of the Benefits of Motion Simulators in 5th Generation Fighter Pilots' Training

Authors: Ali Mithad Emre

Abstract:

In military aviation, the use of flight simulators has proliferated recently in order to train fifth generation fighter pilots. With these simulators, pilots can carry out real-time flights resulting in seeing their faults and can perform emergency drills prior to real flights. Since we cannot risk losing the aircraft and the pilot himself/herself in the flight training process, flight simulators are of great importance to adapt the fighter pilots competently to real flights aboard the fifth generation aircraft. The real flights are impossible to simulate thoroughly on the ground. To some extent, the fixed-based simulators may assist the pilot to steer aircraft technically and visually but flight simulators can’t trick the pilot’s vestibular, sensory, and perceptual systems without motion platforms. This paper discusses the benefits of motion simulators for fifth generation fighter pilots’ training in preference to the fixed-based counterparts by analyzing their pros and cons.

Keywords: Centrifuge, g-loc, military, pilot, sickness, simulator, VMS.

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210 Fighter Aircraft Evaluation and Selection Process Based on Triangular Fuzzy Numbers in Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis Using the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

This article presents a multiple criteria evaluation approach to uncertainty, vagueness, and imprecision analysis for ranking alternatives with fuzzy data for decision making using the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The fighter aircraft evaluation and selection decision making problem is modeled in a fuzzy environment with triangular fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy decision information related to the fighter aircraft selection problem is taken into account in ordering the alternatives and selecting the best candidate. The basic fuzzy TOPSIS procedure steps transform fuzzy decision matrices into matrices of alternatives evaluated according to all decision criteria. A practical numerical example illustrates the proposed approach to the fighter aircraft selection problem.

Keywords: triangular fuzzy number (TFN), multiple criteria decision making analysis, decision making, aircraft selection, MCDMA, fuzzy TOPSIS

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209 A Comparative Analysis of Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis Methods for Strategic, Tactical, and Operational Decisions in Military Fighter Aircraft Selection

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper considers a comparative analysis of multiple criteria decision making analysis methods for strategic, tactical, and operational decisions in military fighter aircraft selection for the air force fleet planning. The evaluation criteria governing the decision analysis process are determined from the literature for the three existing military combat aircraft. Military fighter aircraft selection problem is structured using "preference analysis for reference ideal solution (PARIS)” approach in multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDMA). Systematic comparisons were made with existing MCDMA methods (PARIS, and TOPSIS) to verify the stability and accuracy of the results obtained. The proposed integrated MCDMA systematic approach is expected to address the issues encountered in the aircraft selection process. The comparative analysis results show that the proposed method is an effective and accurate tool that can help analysts make better strategic, tactical, and operational decisions.

Keywords: aircraft, military fighter aircraft selection, multiple criteria decision making, multiple criteria decision making analysis, mean weight, entropy weight, MCDMA, PARIS, TOPSIS, Saab Gripen, Dassault Rafale, Eurofighter Typhoon

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208 Military Fighter Aircraft Selection Using Multiplicative Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis Method

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

Multiplicative multiple criteria decision making analysis (MCDMA) method is a systematic decision support system to aid decision makers reach appropriate decisions. The application of multiplicative MCDMA in the military aircraft selection problem is significant for proper decision making process, which is the decisive factor in minimizing expenditures and increasing defense capability and capacity. Nine military fighter aircraft alternatives were evaluated by ten decision criteria to solve the decision making problem. In this study, multiplicative MCDMA model aims to evaluate and select an appropriate military fighter aircraft for the Air Force fleet planning. The ranking results of multiplicative MCDMA model were compared with the ranking results of additive MCDMA, logarithmic MCDMA, and regrettive MCDMA models under the L2 norm data normalization technique to substantiate the robustness of the proposed method. The final ranking results indicate the military fighter aircraft Su-57 as the best available solution.

Keywords: Aircraft Selection, Military Fighter Aircraft Selection, Air Force Fleet Planning, Multiplicative MCDMA, Additive MCDMA, Logarithmic MCDMA, Regrettive MCDMA, Mean Weight, Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis, Sensitivity Analysis

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207 Fuzzy Uncertainty Theory for Stealth Fighter Aircraft Selection in Entropic Fuzzy TOPSIS Decision Analysis Process

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to present fuzzy TOPSIS in an entropic fuzzy environment. Due to the ambiguous concepts often represented in decision data, exact values are insufficient to model real-life situations. In this paper, the rating of each alternative is defined in fuzzy linguistic terms, which can be expressed with triangular fuzzy numbers. The weight of each criterion is then derived from the decision matrix using the entropy weighting method. Next, a vertex method is proposed to calculate the distance between two triangular fuzzy numbers. According to the TOPSIS concept, a closeness coefficient is defined to determine the ranking order of all alternatives by simultaneously calculating the distances to both the fuzzy positive-ideal solution (FPIS) and the fuzzy negative-ideal solution (FNIS). Finally, an illustrative example of selecting stealth fighter aircraft is shown at the end of this article to highlight the procedure of the proposed method. Correlation analysis and validation analysis using TOPSIS, WSM, and WPM methods were performed to compare the ranking order of the alternatives.

Keywords: stealth fighter aircraft selection, fuzzy uncertainty theory (FUT), fuzzy entropic decision (FED), fuzzy linguistic variables, triangular fuzzy numbers, multiple criteria decision making analysis, MCDMA, TOPSIS, WSM, WPM

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206 Human Factors Considerations in New Generation Fighter Planes to Enhance Combat Effectiveness

Authors: Chitra Rajagopal, Indra Deo Kumar, Ruchi Joshi, Binoy Bhargavan

Abstract:

Role of fighter planes in modern network centric military warfare scenarios has changed significantly in the recent past. New generation fighter planes have multirole capability of engaging both air and ground targets with high precision. Multirole aircraft undertakes missions such as Air to Air combat, Air defense, Air to Surface role (including Air interdiction, Close air support, Maritime attack, Suppression and Destruction of enemy air defense), Reconnaissance, Electronic warfare missions, etc. Designers have primarily focused on development of technologies to enhance the combat performance of the fighter planes and very little attention is given to human factor aspects of technologies. Unique physical and psychological challenges are imposed on the pilots to meet operational requirements during these missions. Newly evolved technologies have enhanced aircraft performance in terms of its speed, firepower, stealth, electronic warfare, situational awareness, and vulnerability reduction capabilities. This paper highlights the impact of emerging technologies on human factors for various military operations and missions. Technologies such as ‘cooperative knowledge-based systems’ to aid pilot’s decision making in military conflict scenarios as well as simulation technologies to enhance human performance is also studied as a part of research work. Current and emerging pilot protection technologies and systems which form part of the integrated life support systems in new generation fighter planes is discussed. System safety analysis application to quantify the human reliability in military operations is also studied.

Keywords: Combat effectiveness, emerging technologies, human factors, systems safety analysis.

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205 Deterministic Method to Assess Kalman Filter Passive Ranging Solution Reliability

Authors: Ronald M. Yannone

Abstract:

For decades, the defense business has been plagued by not having a reliable, deterministic method to know when the Kalman filter solution for passive ranging application is reliable for use by the fighter pilot. This has made it hard to accurately assess when the ranging solution can be used for situation awareness and weapons use. To date, we have used ad hoc rules-of-thumb to assess when we think the estimate of the Kalman filter standard deviation on range is reliable. A reliable algorithm has been developed at BAE Systems Electronics & Integrated Solutions that monitors the Kalman gain matrix elements – and a patent is pending. The “settling" of the gain matrix elements relates directly to when we can assess the time when the passive ranging solution is within the 10 percent-of-truth value. The focus of the paper is on surface-based passive ranging – but the method is applicable to airborne targets as well.

Keywords: Electronic warfare, extended Kalman filter (EKF), fighter aircraft, passive ranging, track convergence.

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204 Effects of Inlet Distorted Flows on the Performance of an Axial Compressor

Authors: Asad Islam, Khalid Parvez

Abstract:

Compressor fans in modern aircraft engines are of considerate importance, as they provide majority of thrust required by the aircraft. Their challenging environment is frequently subjected to non-uniform inflow conditions. These conditions could be either due to the flight operating requirements such as take-off and landing, wake interference from aircraft fuselage or cross-flow wind conditions. So, in highly maneuverable flights regimes of fighter aircrafts affects the overall performance of an engine. Since the flow in compressor of an aircraft application is highly sensitive because of adverse pressure gradient due to different flow orientations of the aircraft. Therefore, it is prone to unstable operations. This paper presents the study that focuses on axial compressor response to inlet flow orientations for the range of angles as 0 to 15 degrees. For this purpose, NASA Rotor-37 was taken and CFD mesh was developed. The compressor characteristics map was generated for the design conditions of pressure ratio of 2.106 with the rotor operating at rotational velocity of 17188.7 rpm using CFD simulating environment of ANSYS-CFX®. The grid study was done to see the effects of mesh upon computational solution. Then, the mesh giving the best results, (when validated with the available experimental NASA’s results); was used for further distortion analysis. The flow in the inlet nozzle was given angle orientations ranging from 0 to 15 degrees. The CFD results are analyzed and discussed with respect to stall margin and flow separations due to induced distortions.

Keywords: Angle, ANSYS-CFX®, axial compressor, Bladegen®, CFD, distortions.

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203 Computational Analysis of Adaptable Winglets for Improved Morphing Aircraft Performance

Authors: E. Kaygan, A. Gatto

Abstract:

An investigation of adaptable winglets for enhancing morphing aircraft performance is described in this paper. The concepts investigated consist of various winglet configurations fundamentally centered on a baseline swept wing. The impetus for the work was to identify and optimize winglets to enhance the aerodynamic efficiency of a morphing aircraft. All computations were performed with Athena Vortex Lattice modelling with varying degrees of twist and cant angle considered. The results from this work indicate that if adaptable winglets were employed on aircraft’s improvements in aircraft performance could be achieved.

Keywords: Aircraft, drag, twist, winglet.

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202 Gas Generator Pyrotechnics Using Gun Propellant Technology Methods

Authors: B. A. Parate

Abstract:

This research article describes the gas generator pyro-cartridge using gun propellant technology methods for fighter aircraft application. The emphasis of this work is to design and develop a gas generating device with pyro-cartridge using double base (DB) propellant to generate a high temperature and pressure gas. This device is utilised for dropping empty fuel tank in an emergency from military aircraft. A data acquisition system (DAS) is used to record time to maximum pressure, maximum pressure and time to half maximum pressure generated in a vented vessel (VV) for gas generator. Pyro-cartridge as a part of the gas generator creates a maximum pressure and time in the closed vessel (CV). This article also covers the qualification testing of gas generator. The performance parameters of pyro-cartridge devices such as ignition delay and maximum pressure are experimentally presented through the CV tests.

Keywords: Closed vessel, data acquisition, double base propellant, gas generator, ignition system, ignition delay, propellant, pyro-cartridge, pyrotechnics, vented vessel.

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201 Multi-Disciplinary Optimisation Methodology for Aircraft Load Prediction

Authors: Sudhir Kumar Tiwari

Abstract:

The paper demonstrates a methodology that can be used at an early design stage of any conventional aircraft. This research activity assesses the feasibility derivation of methodology for aircraft loads estimation during the various phases of design for a transport category aircraft by utilizing potential of using commercial finite element analysis software, which may drive significant time saving. Early Design phase have limited data and quick changing configuration results in handling of large number of load cases. It is useful to idealize the aircraft as a connection of beams, which can be very accurately modelled using finite element analysis (beam elements). This research explores the correct approach towards idealizing an aircraft using beam elements. FEM Techniques like inertia relief were studied for implementation during course of work. The correct boundary condition technique envisaged for generation of shear force, bending moment and torque diagrams for the aircraft. The possible applications of this approach are the aircraft design process, which have been investigated.

Keywords: Multi-disciplinary optimization, aircraft load, finite element analysis, Stick Model.

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200 Optimal Digital Pitch Aircraft Control

Authors: N. Popovich, P. Yan

Abstract:

In this paper a controller for the pitch angle of an aircraft regarding to the elevator deflection angle is designed. The way how the elevator angle affects pitching motion of the aircraft is pointed out, as well as, how a pitch controller can be applied for the aircraft to reach certain pitch angle. In this digital optimal system, the elevator deflection angle and pitching angle of the plane are considered to be input and output respectively. A single input single output (SISO) system is presented. A digital pitch aircraft control is demonstrated. A simulation for the whole system has been performed. The optimal control weighting vectors, Q and R have been determined.

Keywords: Aircraft, control, digital, optimal, Q and Rmatrices.

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199 Regional Aircraft Selection Using Preference Analysis for Reference Ideal Solution (PARIS)

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

The paper presents a multiple criteria decision making analysis process to determine the most suitable regional aircraft type according to a set of evaluation criteria. The main purpose of this study is to use different decision making methods to determine the most suitable regional aircraft for aviation operators. In this context, the nine regional aircraft types were analyzed using multiple criteria decision making analysis methods. Preference analysis for reference ideal solution (PARIS) was used in regional aircraft selection process. The findings of the proposed model show that the ranking results of the multiple criteria decision making models are consistent with each other, and the proposed method is efficient, and the results are valid. Finally, the Embraer E195-E2 model regional aircraft is chosen as the most suitable aircraft type.

Keywords: aircraft, regional aircraft selection, multiple criteria decision making, multiple criteria decision making analysis, mean weight, entropy weight, MCDMA, PARIS

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198 Freighter Aircraft Selection Using Entropic Programming for Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper proposes entropic programming for the freighter aircraft selection problem using the multiple criteria decision analysis method. The study aims to propose a systematic and comprehensive framework by focusing on the perspective of freighter aircraft selection. In order to achieve this goal, an integrated entropic programming approach was proposed to evaluate and rank alternatives. The decision criteria and aircraft alternatives were identified from the research data analysis. The objective criteria weights were determined by the mean weight method and the standard deviation method. The proposed entropic programming model was applied to a practical decision problem for evaluating and selecting freighter aircraft. The proposed entropic programming technique gives robust, reliable, and efficient results in modeling decision making analysis problems. As a result of entropic programming analysis, Boeing B747-8F, a freighter aircraft alternative ( a3), was chosen as the most suitable freighter aircraft candidate.   

Keywords: entropic programming, additive weighted model, multiple criteria decision making analysis, MCDMA, TOPSIS, aircraft selection, freighter aircraft, Boeing B747-8F, Boeing B777F, Airbus A350F

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197 Advanced Jet Trainer and Light Attack Aircraft Selection Using Composite Programming in Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis Method

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

In this paper, composite programming is discussed for aircraft evaluation and selection problem using the multiple criteria decision analysis method. The decision criteria and aircraft alternatives were identified from the literature review. The importance of criteria weights was determined by the standard deviation method. The proposed model is applied to a practical decision problem for evaluating and selecting advanced jet trainer and light attack aircraft. The proposed technique gives robust and efficient results in modeling multiple criteria decisions. As a result of composite programming analysis, Hürjet, an advanced jet trainer and light attack aircraft alternative (a3), was chosen as the most suitable aircraft candidate.  

Keywords: composite programming, additive weighted model, multiplicative weighted model, multiple criteria decision making analysis, MCDMA, aircraft selection, advanced jet trainer and light attack aircraft, M-346, FA-50, Hürjet

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196 Advantages of Composite Materials in Aircraft Structures

Authors: Muniyasamy Kalanchiam, Moorthy Chinnasamy

Abstract:

In the competitive environment of aircraft industries it becomes absolutely necessary to improve the efficiency, performance of the aircrafts to reduce the development and operating costs considerably, in order to capitalize the market. An important contribution to improve the efficiency and performance can be achieved by decreasing the aircraft weight through considerable usage of composite materials in primary aircraft structures. In this study, a type of composite material called Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) is explored for the usage is aircraft skin panels. Even though there were plenty of studies and research has been already carried out, here a practical example of an aircraft skin panel is taken and substantiated the benefits of composites material usage over the metallic skin panel. A crown skin panel of a commercial aircraft is designed using both metal and composite materials. Stress analysis has been carried out for both and margin of safety is estimated for the critical load cases. The skin panels are compared for manufacturing, tooling, assembly and cost parameters. Detail step by step comparison between metal and composite constructions are studied and results are tabulated for better understanding.

Keywords: Composites, CFRP, Aircraft Structure, Skin panel.

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195 Analysis of Different Designed Landing Gears for a Light Aircraft

Authors: Essam A. Al-Bahkali

Abstract:

The design of a landing gear is one of the fundamental aspects of aircraft design. The need for a light weight, high strength, and stiffness characteristics coupled with techno economic feasibility are a key to the acceptability of any landing gear construction. In this paper, an approach for analyzing two different designed landing gears for an unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAV) using advanced CAE techniques will be applied. Different landing conditions have been considered for both models. The maximum principle stresses for each model along with the factor of safety are calculated for every loading condition. A conclusion is drawing about better geometry.

Keywords: Landing Gear, Model, Finite Element Analysis, Aircraft.

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194 Review, Analysis and Simulation of Advanced Technology Solutions of Selected Components in Power Electronics Systems (PES) of More Electric Aircraft

Authors: Lucjan Setlak, Emil Ruda

Abstract:

The subject of this paper is to review, comparative analysis and simulation of selected components of power electronic systems (PES), consistent with the concept of a more electric aircraft (MEA). Comparative analysis and simulation in software environment MATLAB / Simulink were carried out on the base of a group of representatives of civil aircraft (B-787, A-380) and military (F-22 Raptor, F-35) in the context of multi-pulse converters used in them (6- and 12-pulse, and 18- and 24-pulse), which are key components of high-tech electronics on-board power systems of autonomous power systems (ASE) of modern aircraft (airplanes of the future).

Keywords: Converters, electrical machinery, more electric aircraft, MEA, power electronics systems, PES.

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193 Aerodynamic Analysis of Dimple Effect on Aircraft Wing

Authors: E. Livya, G. Anitha, P. Valli

Abstract:

The main objective of aircraft aerodynamics is to enhance the aerodynamic characteristics and maneuverability of the aircraft. This enhancement includes the reduction in drag and stall phenomenon. The airfoil which contains dimples will have comparatively less drag than the plain airfoil. Introducing dimples on the aircraft wing will create turbulence by creating vortices which delays the boundary layer separation resulting in decrease of pressure drag and also increase in the angle of stall. In addition, wake reduction leads to reduction in acoustic emission. The overall objective of this paper is to improve the aircraft maneuverability by delaying the flow separation point at stall and thereby reducing the drag by applying the dimple effect over the aircraft wing. This project includes both computational and experimental analysis of dimple effect on aircraft wing, using NACA 0018 airfoil. Dimple shapes of Semi-sphere, hexagon, cylinder, square are selected for the analysis; airfoil is tested under the inlet velocity of 30m/s and 60m/s at different angle of attack (5˚, 10˚, 15˚, 20˚, and 25˚). This analysis favors the dimple effect by increasing L/D ratio and thereby providing the maximum aerodynamic efficiency, which provides the enhanced performance for the aircraft.

Keywords: Airfoil, Boundary layer, Dimple effect, Flow separation, Stall reduction.

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192 Understanding Student Pilot Mental Workload in Recreational Aircraft Training

Authors: Ron Bishop, Jim Mitchell, Talitha Best

Abstract:

The increase in air travel worldwide has resulted in a pilot shortage. To increase student pilot capacity and lower costs, flight schools have increased the use of recreational aircraft (RA) with technological advanced cockpits in flight schools. The impact of RA based training compared to general aviation (GA) aircraft training on student mental workload is not well understood. This research investigated student pilot (N = 17) awareness of mental workload between technologically advanced cockpit equipped RA training with analogue gauge equipped GA training. The results showed a significantly higher rating of mental workload across subscales of mental and physical demand on the NASA-TLX in recreational aviation aircraft training compared to GA aircraft. Similarly, thematic content analysis of follow-up questions identified that mental workload of the student pilots flying the RA was perceived to be more than the GA aircraft.

Keywords: Glass cockpit, flight training, mental workload, student pilot.

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191 Determination of Q and R Matrices for Optimal Pitch Aircraft Control

Authors: N. Popovich, P. Yan

Abstract:

In this paper, the process of obtaining Q and R matrices for optimal pitch aircraft control system has been described. Since the innovation of optimal control method, the determination of Q and R matrices for such system has not been fully specified. The value of Q and R for optimal pitch aircraft control application, have been simulated and calculated. The suitable results for Q and R have been observed through the performance index (PI). If the PI is small “enough", we would say the Q & R values are suitable for that certain type of optimal control system. Moreover, for the same value of PI, we could have different Q and R sets. Due to the rule-free determination of Q and R matrices, a specific method is brought to find out the rough value of Q and R referring to rather small value of PI.

Keywords: Aircraft, control, digital, optimal, Q and R matrices

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190 On using PEMFC for Electrical Power Generation on More Electric Aircraft

Authors: Jenica Ileana Corcau, Liviu Dinca

Abstract:

The electrical power systems of aircrafts have made serious progress in recent years because the aircrafts depend more and more on the electricity. There is a trend in the aircraft industry to replace hydraulic and pneumatic systems with electrical systems, achieving more comfort and monitoring features and enlarging the energetic efficiency. Thus, was born the concept More Electric Aircraft. In this paper is analyzed the integration of a fuel cell into the existing electrical generation and distribution systems of an aircraft. The dynamic characteristics of fuel cell systems necessitate an adaptation of the electrical power system. The architecture studied in this paper consists of a 50kW fuel cell, a dc to dc converter and several loads. The dc to dc converter is used to step down the fuel cell voltage from about 625Vdc to 28Vdc.

Keywords: Electrical power system, More Electric Aircraft, Fuel Cell, dc to dc converter

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189 Study of Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Unmanned Aircraft in the Wake

Authors: O. Solovyov, S. Eryomenko, V. Kobrin, V. Chmovzh

Abstract:

The methodology of numerical simulation and calculation of aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft taking into account impact of wake on it has been developed. The results of numerical experiment in comparison with the data obtained in the wind tunnel are presented. Efficiency of methodology of calculation and the reliability of the results is shown.

Keywords: Unmanned aircraft, vortex wake, aerodynamic characteristics.

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188 The Influence of Water Ingress to Aircraft Cabin Components

Authors: Nils Ischdonat

Abstract:

The accomplished study is based on the appointment and identification of ageing effects and according to this absorption of moisture of aircraft cabin components over the life-cycle. In the first step of the study ceiling panels from same age and from the same aircraft cabin have been examined according to weight changes depending on the position in the aircraft cabin. In the second step of the study different aged ceiling panels have been examined concerning deflection, weight changes and the acoustic sound transmission loss. To prove the assumption of water absorption within the study and with the theoretical background from literature and scientific papers, an older test panel was exposed extreme thermal conditions (humidity and temperature) within a climate chamber to show that there is a general ingress of water to cabin components and that this ingress of water leads to the change of different mechanical properties.

Keywords: Aircraft Cabin, water ingress, ageing effects, sound transmission loss

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