Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: Vipin Saini

37 Novel Process Formulation of Multiple Unit Tablet of Pantoprazole

Authors: Vipin Saini, Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, A. Pandurangan

Abstract:

The present invention relates to multiple-unit tablet dosage forms, which is composed of several subunits (multiparticulates/pellets). Each small multiparticulate further composed of many layers. Some layer contains drug substance; others are rate controlling polymer. The resulting multiple-unit tablet dosage forms of pantoprazole were satisfactory fabricated. Pelletization technique has some advantages over coated tablet formulation. In coated tablet the coating may be damaged and a pinhole possibly formed that would result in increased release of drug in stomach and may be deactivated in stomach juices. If the coat of some pellets may be damaged that would not affect the release properties of the multiple-unit tablet. Hence they are beneficial in this aspect. The results confirmed the successful preparation of stable and bioequivalent once daily controlled release multiple-unit tablets of pantoprazole.

Keywords: Controlled release, multiple unit tablets, pantoprazole, pelletization.

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36 Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomes Containing an Antihypertensive Drug

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, Vipin Saini

Abstract:

Niosomes were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of losartan potassium and formulated in different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found in range of 54.98 µm to 107.85 µm in size. Formulations with 1:1 ratio of surfactant and cholesterol have shown maximum entrapment efficiencies. Niosomes with sorbitan monostearate showed maximum drug release and zero order release kinetics, at the end of 24 hours. The in vivo study has shown the significant enhancement in oral bioavailability of losartan potassium in rats, after a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability in relation with pure drug solution was found 2.56, indicates more than two fold increase in oral bioavailability. A significant increment in MRT reflects the release retarding ability of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery of losartan potassium with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles.

Keywords: Non-ionic surfactant vesicles, losartan potassium, oral bioavailability, controlled release.

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35 Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Insilco Docking of Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives as Potential Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase Inhibitors

Authors: Suman Bala, Sunil Kamboj, Vipin Saini

Abstract:

Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis has been developed to relate antifungal activity of novel substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger using computer assisted multiple regression analysis. The study has shown the better relationship between antifungal activities with respect to various descriptors established by multiple regression analysis. The analysis has shown statistically significant correlation with R2 values 0.932 and 0.782 against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively. These derivatives were further subjected to molecular docking studies to investigate the interactions between the target compounds and amino acid residues present in the active site of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. All the synthesized compounds have better docking score as compared to standard fluconazole. Our results could be used for the further design as well as development of optimal and potential antifungal agents.

Keywords: 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole, QSAR, Multiple linear regression, Docking, Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase.

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34 Formulation and Characterization of Drug Loaded Niosomal Gel for Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Vipin Saini, Suman Bala, Gaurav Sharma

Abstract:

The main aim of the present research was to encapsulate mefenamic acid in niosomes andincorporate the prepared niosomes in the carbopol gel base for sustained therapeutic action. Mefenamic acid loaded niosomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique and evaluated for entrapment efficiency, vesicular size and zeta potential. The entrapment efficiency of the prepared niosomes was found to increase with decreasing the HLB values of surfactants and vesicle size was found to increase with increasing the cholesterol concentration. Niosomal vesicles with good entrapment efficiencies were incorporated in carbopol gel base to form the niosomal gel. The prepared niosomal gel was evaluated for pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability and skin permeation study across the rat skin. The results of permeation study revealed that the gel formulated with span 60 niosomes sustained the drug release for 12h. Further the in vivo study showed the good inhibition of inflammation by the gel prepared with span 60 niosomes.

Keywords: Mefenamic acid, niosomal gel, nonionic surfactants, sustained release.

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33 UML Modeling for Instruction Pipeline Design

Authors: Vipin Saxena, Deepa Raj

Abstract:

Unified Modeling language (UML) is one of the important modeling languages used for the visual representation of the research problem. In the present paper, UML model is designed for the Instruction pipeline which is used for the evaluation of the instructions of software programs. The class and sequence diagrams are designed & performance is evaluated for instructions of a sample program through a case study.

Keywords: UML, Instruction Pipeline, Class Diagram &Sequence Diagram.

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32 Effect of a Multiple Stenosis on Blood Flow through a Tube

Authors: Vipin Kumar Verma, Praveen Saraswat

Abstract:

The development of double stenosis in an artery can have serious consequences and can disrupt the normal functioning of the circulatory system. It has been realized that various hydrodynamics effects (i.e. wall shear, pressure distribution etc.) play important role in the development of this disease. Generally in the literature, the cross-section of the artery is assumed to be uniform with a single stenosis. However, in real situation the multiple stenosis develops in series along the length of artery whose cross-section varies slowly. Therefore, the flow of blood is laminar through a small diameter artery with axisymmetric identical double stenosis in series.

Keywords: Wall shear, multiple stenosis, artery.

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31 Unsteady Transient Free Convective Flow of an Incompressible Viscous Fluid under Influence of Uniform Transverse Magnetic Field

Authors: Praveen Saraswat, Vipin Kumar Verma, Rudraman Singh

Abstract:

The unsteady transient free convection flow of an incompressible dissipative viscous fluid between parallel plates at different distances have been investigated under porous medium. Due to presence of heat flux under the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field the velocity distribution and the temperature distribution, is shown graphically. Since exact solution is not possible so we find parametrical solution by perturbation technique. The result is shown in graph for different parameters. We notice that heat generation effects fluid velocity keeping in which of free convection which cools.

Keywords: Transient, Convection, MHD, Viscous, Porous.

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30 CFD Predictions of Dense Slurry Flow in Centrifugal Pump Casings

Authors: Krishnan V. Pagalthivarthi, Pankaj K. Gupta, Vipin Tyagi, M. R. Ravi

Abstract:

Dense slurry flow through centrifugal pump casing has been modeled using the Eulerian-Eulerian approach with Eulerian multiphase model in FLUENT 6.1®. First order upwinding is considered for the discretization of momentum, k and ε terms. SIMPLE algorithm has been applied for dealing with pressurevelocity coupling. A mixture property based k-ε turbulence model has been used for modeling turbulence. Results are validated first against mesh independence and experiments for a particular set of operational and geometric conditions. Parametric analysis is then performed to determine the effect on important physical quantities viz. solid velocities, solid concentration and solid stresses near the wall with various operational geometric conditions of the pump.

Keywords: Centrifugal pump casing, Dense slurry, Solidsconcentration, Wall shear stress, Pump geometric parameters.

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29 Analysis of Modified Heap Sort Algorithm on Different Environment

Authors: Vandana Sharma, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Satwinder Singh, Baljit Saini

Abstract:

In field of Computer Science and Mathematics, sorting algorithm is an algorithm that puts elements of a list in a certain order i.e. ascending or descending. Sorting is perhaps the most widely studied problem in computer science and is frequently used as a benchmark of a system-s performance. This paper presented the comparative performance study of four sorting algorithms on different platform. For each machine, it is found that the algorithm depends upon the number of elements to be sorted. In addition, as expected, results show that the relative performance of the algorithms differed on the various machines. So, algorithm performance is dependent on data size and there exists impact of hardware also.

Keywords: Algorithm, Analysis, Complexity, Sorting.

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28 Spectral Analysis of Speech: A New Technique

Authors: Neeta Awasthy, J.P.Saini, D.S.Chauhan

Abstract:

ICA which is generally used for blind source separation problem has been tested for feature extraction in Speech recognition system to replace the phoneme based approach of MFCC. Applying the Cepstral coefficients generated to ICA as preprocessing has developed a new signal processing approach. This gives much better results against MFCC and ICA separately, both for word and speaker recognition. The mixing matrix A is different before and after MFCC as expected. As Mel is a nonlinear scale. However, cepstrals generated from Linear Predictive Coefficient being independent prove to be the right candidate for ICA. Matlab is the tool used for all comparisons. The database used is samples of ISOLET.

Keywords: Cepstral Coefficient, Distance measures, Independent Component Analysis, Linear Predictive Coefficients.

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27 A Review on Important Aspects of Information Retrieval

Authors: Yogesh Gupta, Ashish Saini, A.K. Saxena

Abstract:

Information retrieval has become an important field of study and research under computer science due to explosive growth of information available in the form of full text, hypertext, administrative text, directory, numeric or bibliographic text. The research work is going on various aspects of information retrieval systems so as to improve its efficiency and reliability. This paper presents a comprehensive study, which discusses not only emergence and evolution of information retrieval but also includes different information retrieval models and some important aspects such as document representation, similarity measure and query expansion.

Keywords: Information Retrieval, query expansion, similarity measure, query expansion, vector space model.

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26 EDULOGIC+ - Knowledge Management through Data Analysis in Education

Authors: Alok Sharma, Dr. Harvinder S. Saini, Raviteja Tiruvury

Abstract:

This paper outlines the application of Knowledge Management (KM) principles in the context of Educational institutions. The paper caters to the needs of the engineering institutions for imparting quality education by delineating the instruction delivery process in a highly structured, controlled and quantified manner. This is done using a software tool EDULOGIC+. The central idea has been based on the engineering education pattern in Indian Universities/ Institutions. The data, contents and results produced over contiguous years build the necessary ground for managing the related accumulated knowledge. Application of KM has been explained using certain examples of data analysis and knowledge extraction.

Keywords: Education software system, information system, knowledge management.

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25 Stress Variation around a Circular Hole in Functionally Graded Plate under Bending

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Mayank Kushwaha

Abstract:

The influence of material property variation on stress concentration factor (SCF) due to the presence of a circular hole in a functionally graded material (FGM) plate is studied in this paper. A numerical method based on complex variable theory of elasticity is used to investigate the problem. To achieve the material property, variation plate is decomposed into a number of rings. In this research work, Young’s modulus is assumed to be varying exponentially and it is found that stress concentration factor can be reduced by increasing Young’s modulus progressively away from the hole.

Keywords: Stress Concentration, Circular Hole, FGM Plate, Bending.

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24 Preparation of Nanostructure ZnO-SnO2 Thin Films for Optoelectronic Properties and Post Annealing Influence

Authors: Vipin Kumar Jain, Praveen Kumar, Y.K. Vijay

Abstract:

ZnO-SnO2 i.e. Zinc-Tin-Oxide (ZTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate with varying concentrations (ZnO:SnO2 - 100:0, 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 wt.%) at room temperature by flash evaporation technique. These deposited ZTO film were annealed at 450 0C in vacuum. These films were characterized to study the effect of annealing on the structural, electrical, and optical properties. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images manifest the surface morphology of these ZTO thin films. The apparent growth of surface features revealed the formation of nanostructure ZTO thin films. The small value of surface roughness (root mean square RRMS) ensures the usefulness in optical coatings. The sheet resistance was also found to be decreased for both types of films with increasing concentration of SnO2. The optical transmittance found to be decreased however blue shift has been observed after annealing.

Keywords: ZTO thin film, AFM, SEM, Optical transmittance, Sheet resistance.

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23 Transverse Vibration of Non-Homogeneous Rectangular Plates of Variable Thickness Using GDQ

Authors: R. Saini, R. Lal

Abstract:

The effect of non-homogeneity on the free transverse vibration of thin rectangular plates of bilinearly varying thickness has been analyzed using generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. The non-homogeneity of the plate material is assumed to arise due to linear variations in Young’s modulus and density of the plate material with the in-plane coordinates x and y. Numerical results have been computed for fully clamped and fully simply supported boundary conditions. The solution procedure by means of GDQ method has been implemented in a MATLAB code. The effect of various plate parameters has been investigated for the first three modes of vibration. A comparison of results with those available in literature has been presented.

Keywords: Bilinear thickness, generalized differential quadrature (GDQ), non-homogeneous, Rectangular.

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22 Analysis of Classifications of Unsolicited Bulk Emails

Authors: Jatinderkumar R. Saini, Apurva A. Desai

Abstract:

In recent times, the problem of Unsolicited Bulk Email (UBE) or commonly known as Spam Email, has increased at a tremendous growth rate. We present an analysis of survey based on classifications of UBE in various research works. There are many research instances for classification between spam and non-spam emails but very few research instances are available for classification of spam emails, per se. This paper does not intend to assert some UBE classification to be better than the others nor does it propose any new classification but it bemoans the lack of harmony on number and definition of categories proposed by different researchers. The paper also elaborates on factors like intent of spammer, content of UBE and ambiguity in different categories as proposed in related research works of classifications of UBE.

Keywords: E-mail, Scams, Spam Email, Unsolicited Bulk Email(UBE)

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21 Improved Power Spectrum Estimation for RR-Interval Time Series

Authors: B. S. Saini, Dilbag Singh, Moin Uddin, Vinod Kumar

Abstract:

The RR interval series is non-stationary and unevenly spaced in time. For estimating its power spectral density (PSD) using traditional techniques like FFT, require resampling at uniform intervals. The researchers have used different interpolation techniques as resampling methods. All these resampling methods introduce the low pass filtering effect in the power spectrum. The lomb transform is a means of obtaining PSD estimates directly from irregularly sampled RR interval series, thus avoiding resampling. In this work, the superiority of Lomb transform method has been established over FFT based approach, after applying linear and cubicspline interpolation as resampling methods, in terms of reproduction of exact frequency locations as well as the relative magnitudes of each spectral component.

Keywords: HRV, Lomb Transform, Resampling, RR-intervals.

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20 Modeling of Coagulation Process for the Removal of Carbofuran in Aqueous Solution

Authors: Roli Saini, Pradeep Kumar

Abstract:

A coagulation/flocculation process was adopted for the reduction of carbamate insecticide (carbofuran) from aqueous solution. Ferric chloride (FeCl3) was used as a coagulant to treat the carbofuran. To exploit the reduction efficiency of pesticide concentration and COD, the jar-test experiments were carried out and process was optimized through response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of two independent factors; i.e., FeCl3 dosage and pH on the reduction efficiency were estimated by using central composite design (CCD). The initial COD of the 30 mg/L concentrated solution was found to be 510 mg/L. Results exposed that the maximum reduction occurred at an optimal condition of FeCl3 = 80 mg/L, and pH = 5.0, from which the reduction of concentration and COD 75.13% and 65.34%, respectively. The present study also predicted that the obtained regression equations could be helpful as the theoretical basis for the coagulation process of pesticide wastewater.

Keywords: Carbofuran, coagulation, optimization, response surface methodology.

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19 Stress Concentration around Countersunk Hole in Isotropic Plate under Transverse Loading

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Tarun Agarwal

Abstract:

An investigation into the effect of countersunk depth, plate thickness, countersunk angle and plate width on the stress concentration around countersunk hole is carried out with the help of finite element analysis. The variation of stress concentration with respect to these parameters is studied for three types of loading viz. uniformly distributed load, uniformly varying load and functionally distributed load. The results of the finite element analysis are interpreted and some conclusions are drawn. The distribution of stress concentration around countersunk hole in isotropic plates simply supported at all the edges is found similar and is independent of loading. The maximum stress concentration also occurs at a particular point irrespective of the loading conditions.

Keywords: Stress Concentration Factor, Countersunk hole, Finite element, ANSYS.

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18 Analytical Study of Component Based Software Engineering

Authors: Iqbaldeep Kaur, Parvinder S. Sandhu, Hardeep Singh, Vandana Saini

Abstract:

This paper is a survey of current component-based software technologies and the description of promotion and inhibition factors in CBSE. The features that software components inherit are also discussed. Quality Assurance issues in componentbased software are also catered to. The feat research on the quality model of component based system starts with the study of what the components are, CBSE, its development life cycle and the pro & cons of CBSE. Various attributes are studied and compared keeping in view the study of various existing models for general systems and CBS. When illustrating the quality of a software component an apt set of quality attributes for the description of the system (or components) should be selected. Finally, the research issues that can be extended are tabularized.

Keywords: Component, COTS, Component based development, Component-based Software Engineering.

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17 Genetic Algorithm Approach for Solving the Falkner–Skan Equation

Authors: Indu Saini, Phool Singh, Vikas Malik

Abstract:

A novel method based on Genetic Algorithm to solve the boundary value problems (BVPs) of the Falkner–Skan equation over a semi-infinite interval has been presented. In our approach, we use the free boundary formulation to truncate the semi-infinite interval into a finite one. Then we use the shooting method based on Genetic Algorithm to transform the BVP into initial value problems (IVPs). Genetic Algorithm is used to calculate shooting angle. The initial value problems arisen during shooting are computed by Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method. The numerical solutions obtained by the present method are in agreement with those obtained by previous authors.

Keywords: Boundary Layer Flow, Falkner–Skan equation, Genetic Algorithm, Shooting method.

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16 Clustering based Voltage Control Areas for Localized Reactive Power Management in Deregulated Power System

Authors: Saran Satsangi, Ashish Saini, Amit Saraswat

Abstract:

In this paper, a new K-means clustering based approach for identification of voltage control areas is developed. Voltage control areas are important for efficient reactive power management in power systems operating under deregulated environment. Although, voltage control areas are formed using conventional hierarchical clustering based method, but the present paper investigate the capability of K-means clustering for the purpose of forming voltage control areas. The proposed method is tested and compared for IEEE 14 bus and IEEE 30 bus systems. The results show that this K-means based method is competing with conventional hierarchical approach

Keywords: Voltage control areas, reactive power management, K-means clustering algorithm

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15 Design of PI and Fuzzy Controller for High-Efficiency and Tightly Regulated Full Bridge DC-DC Converter

Authors: Sudha Bansal, Lalit Mohan Saini, Dheeraj Joshi

Abstract:

The controller is used to improve the dynamic performance of DC-DC converter by achieving a robust output voltage against load disturbances. This paper presents the performance of PI and Fuzzy controller for a phase- shifted zero-voltage switched full-bridge PWM (ZVS FB- PWM) converters with a closed loop control. The proposed converter is regulated with minimum overshoot and good stability. In this paper phase-shift control method is used as an effective tool to reduce switching losses and duty cycle losses. A 1kW/100KHz dc/dc converter is simulated and analyzed using MATLAB. The circuit is simulated for static and dynamic load (DC motor). It has been observed that performance of converter with fuzzy controller is better than that of PI controller. An efficiency comparison of the converter with a reported topology has also been carried out.

Keywords: Full-bridge converter, phase-shifted, synchronous rectifier (SR), zero-voltage switching (ZVS).

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14 Structural Analysis of Username Segment in E-Mail Addresses of Engineering Institutes of Gujarat State of India

Authors: Jatinderkumar R. Saini

Abstract:

E-mail has become a key mechanism of electronic communication. This is true for professional organizations that like to communicate with their subjects online and are slowly shifting to paper-less office. The current paper focuses specifically on academic institutions offering Engineering course in Gujarat state and attempts for textual analysis of the usernames of the institutional e-mail addresses. We found that the institutions tend to design the username segment of their e-mail addresses by choosing words or combination of words from specific categories. The paper also highlights the use of special characters, digits and random words in designing the usernames. On the sidelines, the paper lists the style of employing department names and designations for the design process. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first formal attempt to analyze the selection of words employed for designing username segment of e-mail addresses of engineering institutions.

Keywords: E-mail address, Institute, Engineering, Username.

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13 Analyzing The Effect of Variable Round Time for Clustering Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Vipin Pal, Girdhari Singh, R P Yadav

Abstract:

As wireless sensor networks are energy constraint networks so energy efficiency of sensor nodes is the main design issue. Clustering of nodes is an energy efficient approach. It prolongs the lifetime of wireless sensor networks by avoiding long distance communication. Clustering algorithms operate in rounds. Performance of clustering algorithm depends upon the round time. A large round time consumes more energy of cluster heads while a small round time causes frequent re-clustering. So existing clustering algorithms apply a trade off to round time and calculate it from the initial parameters of networks. But it is not appropriate to use initial parameters based round time value throughout the network lifetime because wireless sensor networks are dynamic in nature (nodes can be added to the network or some nodes go out of energy). In this paper a variable round time approach is proposed that calculates round time depending upon the number of active nodes remaining in the field. The proposed approach makes the clustering algorithm adaptive to network dynamics. For simulation the approach is implemented with LEACH in NS-2 and the results show that there is 6% increase in network lifetime, 7% increase in 50% node death time and 5% improvement over the data units gathered at the base station.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Clustering, Energy Efficiency, Round Time.

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12 Identification of Non-Lexicon Non-Slang Unigrams in Body-enhancement Medicinal UBE

Authors: Jatinderkumar R. Saini, Apurva A. Desai

Abstract:

Email has become a fast and cheap means of online communication. The main threat to email is Unsolicited Bulk Email (UBE), commonly called spam email. The current work aims at identification of unigrams in more than 2700 UBE that advertise body-enhancement drugs. The identification is based on the requirement that the unigram is neither present in dictionary, nor is a slang term. The motives of the paper are many fold. This is an attempt to analyze spamming behaviour and employment of wordmutation technique. On the side-lines of the paper, we have attempted to better understand the spam, the slang and their interplay. The problem has been addressed by employing Tokenization technique and Unigram BOW model. We found that the non-lexicon words constitute nearly 66% of total number of lexis of corpus whereas non-slang words constitute nearly 2.4% of non-lexicon words. Further, non-lexicon non-slang unigrams composed of 2 lexicon words, form more than 71% of the total number of such unigrams. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to analyze usage of non-lexicon non-slang unigrams in any kind of UBE.

Keywords: Body Enhancement, Lexicon, Medicinal, Slang, Unigram, Unsolicited Bulk e-mail (UBE)

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11 Identification of Author and Reviewer from Single and Double Blind Paper

Authors: Jatinderkumar R. Saini, Nikita R. Sonthalia, Khushbu A. Dodiya

Abstract:

Research leads to the development of science and technology and hence it leads to the betterment of humankind also. Journals and Conferences provide a platform to receive large number of research papers for publications and presentations before the expert and peer-level scientific community. In order to assure quality of such papers, they are also sent to reviewers for their comments. In order to maintain good ethical standards, the research papers are sent to reviewers in such a way authors and reviewers do not know each other’s identity. This technique is called Double-blind Review Process. It is called Single-blind Review Process, if identity of any one party, generally authors’, is disclosed to the other. This paper presents the techniques by which identity of author as well as reviewer could be found even through Double-blind Review process. It is proposed that the characteristics and techniques presented here will help journals and conferences in assuring intentional or un-intentional disclosure of identity revealing information by the either party. 

Keywords: Author, Conference, Double Blind Paper, Journal, Reviewer, Single Blind Paper.

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10 Response Surface Modeling of Lactic Acid Extraction by Emulsion Liquid Membrane: Box-Behnken Experimental Design

Authors: A. Thakur, P. S. Panesar, M. S. Saini

Abstract:

Extraction of lactic acid by emulsion liquid membrane technology (ELM) using n-trioctyl amine (TOA) in n-heptane as carrier within the organic membrane along with sodium carbonate as acceptor phase was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). A three level Box-Behnken design was employed for experimental design, analysis of the results and to depict the combined effect of five independent variables, vizlactic acid concentration in aqueous phase (cl), sodium carbonate concentration in stripping phase (cs), carrier concentration in membrane phase (ψ), treat ratio, and batch extraction time (τ)  with equal volume of organic and external aqueous phase on lactic acid extraction efficiency. The maximum lactic acid extraction efficiency (ηext) of 98.21%from aqueous phase in a batch reactor using ELM was found at the optimized values for test variables, cl, cs, ψ, and τ as 0.06 [M], 0.18 [M], 4.72 (%,v/v), 1.98 (v/v) and 13.36 min respectively. 

Keywords: Emulsion liquid membrane, extraction, lactic acid, n-trioctylamine, response surface methodology.

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9 Identification of Most Frequently Occurring Lexis in Winnings-announcing Unsolicited Bulke-mails

Authors: Jatinderkumar R. Saini, Apurva A. Desai

Abstract:

e-mail has become an important means of electronic communication but the viability of its usage is marred by Unsolicited Bulk e-mail (UBE) messages. UBE consists of many types like pornographic, virus infected and 'cry-for-help' messages as well as fake and fraudulent offers for jobs, winnings and medicines. UBE poses technical and socio-economic challenges to usage of e-mails. To meet this challenge and combat this menace, we need to understand UBE. Towards this end, the current paper presents a content-based textual analysis of nearly 3000 winnings-announcing UBE. Technically, this is an application of Text Parsing and Tokenization for an un-structured textual document and we approach it using Bag Of Words (BOW) and Vector Space Document Model techniques. We have attempted to identify the most frequently occurring lexis in the winnings-announcing UBE documents. The analysis of such top 100 lexis is also presented. We exhibit the relationship between occurrence of a word from the identified lexisset in the given UBE and the probability that the given UBE will be the one announcing fake winnings. To the best of our knowledge and survey of related literature, this is the first formal attempt for identification of most frequently occurring lexis in winningsannouncing UBE by its textual analysis. Finally, this is a sincere attempt to bring about alertness against and mitigate the threat of such luring but fake UBE.

Keywords: Lexis, Unsolicited Bulk e-mail (UBE), Vector SpaceDocument Model, Winnings, Lottery

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8 In Cognitive Radio the Analysis of Bit-Error- Rate (BER) by using PSO Algorithm

Authors: Shrikrishan Yadav, Akhilesh Saini, Krishna Chandra Roy

Abstract:

The electromagnetic spectrum is a natural resource and hence well-organized usage of the limited natural resources is the necessities for better communication. The present static frequency allocation schemes cannot accommodate demands of the rapidly increasing number of higher data rate services. Therefore, dynamic usage of the spectrum must be distinguished from the static usage to increase the availability of frequency spectrum. Cognitive radio is not a single piece of apparatus but it is a technology that can incorporate components spread across a network. It offers great promise for improving system efficiency, spectrum utilization, more effective applications, reduction in interference and reduced complexity of usage for users. Cognitive radio is aware of its environmental, internal state, and location, and autonomously adjusts its operations to achieve designed objectives. It first senses its spectral environment over a wide frequency band, and then adapts the parameters to maximize spectrum efficiency with high performance. This paper only focuses on the analysis of Bit-Error-Rate in cognitive radio by using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm. It is theoretically as well as practically analyzed and interpreted in the sense of advantages and drawbacks and how BER affects the efficiency and performance of the communication system.

Keywords: BER, Cognitive Radio, Environmental Parameters, PSO, Radio spectrum, Transmission Parameters

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